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THE 



PRIVILEGES 



OF TBB 



UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRlfiGE; 



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TOGBTBBIl WITH 



OMitional etiktvhtitiow 



ON ITB 



HISTORY, ANTIQUITIES, LITERATURE, AND 

BIOGRAPHY. 



BY GEORGE PYER, 

AUTHOR OF THE HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITY AND COUE0E8 OF CAMBRIDOFw 

IN TWO VOLUMES. 



4 IN TWO VOLUMES. 



VOL. II. 






V 



Hoitlion: 

FRnrrsD for Longman and cc, PATBRNosTfia row; paynb and 

F0S8, PALL MALL; HUNTER, ST. PAUL'S CHURCH YARD; 
DRIGHTON, CAMBRIDGB; AND PARKER, OXFORD. 



1824. 



\ 



m • 

m • 






J. a. Barnard, Sklaner Street, London. 



I 







a. 






TABLE OF CONTENTS. 






V 



VOL. II. 

DxsssRTATio Generalis, sive Spistola Literaria Viris Aca- 
demjcis, precipue Cantabrigiae commorantibas, humil- 
lime oblata...... ••• «••••••••••••••• Hi 

Suppiement to the History of the University and CoHegea of 
. Cambridge, containing — 

Additions and Corrections to Vol. I. (after Dissertatio 
Generalis) ..•••••••• 1 — 15 

Additions and Corrections to VoL II. 

Peter House ♦. .••.•.•..16—22 

Clare Hall 2«— M 

) Jesus College •••.....••.. •#•••. .25 — 36 

^ Pembroke Hall 37—46 

^, Bene't College 46—48 

r TrinityHall 48 

^^ Queen's College .49—60 

V Catharine Hall 61 — 62 

King's College 62—68 

Christ's College 68— 6Q 

St. John's College •• 61—74 

MagdalenCollege. ••••••• .••... •••••74 — ^76 

Trinity College 76—91 

Emmanuel College • •••••91 — lOl' 

Gonville and Caius College 101—106 

Sidney Sussex College • ••••lOd — 111. 

Downing College .••.•••••••••••••....••• Ill — 116 



v.. 



t 



ii CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Appendix • ••••.••••••• 115 — 117 

Mr. Ashby's Plan for Cambridge Improyements. • • • • • 117 — 130 
Supplement the second to the History of the University 
and Colleges of Cambridge, Vol. 1, containing, amidst 
other miscellaneous Articles, many additional Observa- 
tions on the Literature of Cambridge, ancient and mo- 
dem 181—232 

Additions to the History of the University and 
Colleges of Cambridge, Vol. 2. 

Peter-House • • 233—240 

Clare Hall 240—254 

Jesus College 254—260 

History of the University-Press (after Jesus College) . . 1—36 

Cambridge Fragments, consisting of Historical Observa- 
tions, Biographical Sketches, Remarks on the Cambridge 
Libraries, on curious Books, and Manuscripts in them, 
Literary Anecdotes, Poetical Pieces, and other miscella- 
neous Articles connected with the History and Antiqui- 
ties of Cambridge (after History of the University-Prees) 1 — ^200 

List of my Publications and Writings, at the conclusion of 
the Volume. 

Address to the Subscribers to the Privileges, &c., now 
subjoined, but printed and circulated before its publica- 
tion. 



« 



V . V ^-^ '" 






DISSERTATIO GENERALIS, 



8I¥B 



EPISTOLA LITERARIA, 

VIRIS ACAJDEMXCIS, 

PR^SERTIM AD CANTABRIGIAM COMMORANTIBUS, 

HUMILLXME OBI«ATA« 



XvES ab antiquis petitse qaasdam propiieUtes sibi 
Tindicant; nee earain graTitati convenit, hodier* 
nis cootaniinari discipUais; neoipe DedieationiboHi 
at vocantar, qaee simal adulationibus Kolent tumeflh 
cere, lucriqne spe septus insolescunt. Praeterea, nee 
pnesens argamentum laiia patitur, nee ipsa oecasio 
reqairit. Compeliat vos non clams cnjusdam operis 
Conditor, vel unos e Cyclicoram numero, sed Edi* 
tor tantuni : nee vos estis taletiy qui verbornm i>lan- 
ditiis irretiri veliti«^ vel, quasi viftco, capi possitis. 
Bint Rbetoricae sua privilegia; — verbis aures alii- 
cere, figurarum fulgore percellere, sioHiIque prinei«> 
peset magnates duieisonis orationibus morari. Sua 
habeat etiam Dialectica; — subtiliorum usu distinc- 
tionuni se circoiovaUare, artificiosos syllogismos e 
longinquo petere; victoriaeque potius quam veri- 
tatis aviUav sophistarum apud Platonem more, 
^o» iiTTM x#y«» Tov /^«^y TToiH¥* Siot etiaoD sua Poesi ; 
— deliciis abuodare, fabolis luxariari, et^dmiratio* 

▲ i 



: ' v. 



IT DISSERT ATIO GENERALIS. 

nem ab omnibus reportare : qnippe Mame ^9 Dioris 
est antiqui, quicquid sibi Telint, possoDt. 

Sint denique Historis sine partai» at magis 
clane, luagm sobriae, mag^sqae auctoritatis p1en«. 
Sit ilia 4iiateri& uon levis, seDteiiti& gravis, verbis 
Doo nimis abundans, aot prodiga, sed, ut quae 
cursum viatori, digito quasi, monstraret, exein[>li8 
potius, oiemoriAqiie dignis referta, quam falsis 
aut frivolis ornamentis. Illius sit, preeterita revo- 
care, ac ante ocalos poDere ; nee ei denegandam 
sit, si modo cum modestid, delectare, sed inpri- 
mis, ex sua ipsios professiooe narrandi, prodesse ; 
immo, cum miscet bumaoa divinis'f, (quippe 
anas etiam fabulas in rerum primordiis habet aati* 
qaitas) illius sit, verborum vim et quasi meduUam 
eruere; varum quaerere, quautumqoe fas sit, in- 
venire ; susteolando simul expHcare ; publicoque po- 
tins, quam privato, com modo, sapientum fidei, 
quam vttlgi credulitati, et posterorum fructui, quam 
patronorum vaiiitati, consulere. Haec pne se ferat, 
hsc perficiat Historia : bee sint leges ejus supremae ; 
ne dnm rerum gestamm, moram priscorum, phi- 
losophise, virtutis, et religionis indagatricem se 
▼el it ostendere, fucosa, vel nimis ventosa, et tan- 
turn non profana esse videatur. 

Quod ad nostros spectat conatns, illi sunt, fate^ 

If[Ai¥ }pivfix v*AA« kiynp fTu^«»«*iv ifAOiMf 

Ufa» ^, fvr' c9fXa)jbbiy, aXnita fa,v9fi^»^m. 

HssiOD. Tbbock 

f Idvii Hist sab init 



.-'••':, 



DISSERTATIO OENERALIS. 

mar, satis leve^ vix, et ne vix, Historiolanim Frag^ 
menta. Quod vero ad vos Academici, qnaoipla- 
rimnm gaudenms, qiiicqnid sint, ea vobis homiliter 
oblaturi: vos, oramus, ne teinere, vel pro nihilo acci* 
piatis ; sed^ qua benevoientia et liberalitate vestro* 
run confratram labores fovere soliti entis, et quas 
olim vestrum Donnulli erga nos gesserunt, iiMdem 
none eoH protegatis : et quo magis eos deprimat ant 
diminuat nostra obscaritas, eo magis vestri nominis 
splendor suntentare vel ampiificare possit. 

Yisam est, ut iraffn^-iomK^c nostram seoientiam vo- 
bis offeramofiy plurima non deesse argumenta^ quibua 
indacti baec Privilegia ventre fidei conimendare- 
iBU8; non, nt qui Cantabrigifle gremio quondam 
enutriti, et nunc tandem redeuntes, nimis confiden- 
ter aut arroganter matrem iUam antiqnam exquire- 
ramus, arriperemniiy amaremus; nee ut qui ipsam 
nos nostraque pro suis dulcissimis invicem* amplex* 
uram esse expectaremus ; — ut olim anres suis lacta- 
▼it bianditiis Graecarum Literarum ille quondam 
Professor Oraecus, Barnesius* : — nos melius ipsi no- 
▼imns; et in memoriam revocantes opinioues nostras, 
nee novas nee faustas, moresque vix academieos, ut 
qui ab adolescentiA usque ad senectutem a Centro 
Universitatis in circuitu quasi per regiones ober- 
ravimus; bsec quidem recog^oscentes, vix propius 



Tixec h fAi vtTHtf T(a¥m 



OfAjMfto-iy iiAtr$fc$€% roll 0(if tf iiv sr^ oCftAX^r. 

HoHBRi Opbb, Epil. 



Vi DISSERTATIO GENERALI8. 

aadeamos accedere, quam Poeta noster Cantabri- 
giensis, Conleius*. 

Sed qaid dicenias? Cam Genius (ne«Ho quis) do* 
bis in aurem misorravit, hsec vobis esse subniitt^'n- 
da, jam nobiscam dabitavimo!!, et repulavimus^ 
qaam lon^issime nos prohibere a talibus vitfs 
nostiee rariones; etquidem, nil nisi perfectiiiD inge- 
nio et doctrina vobis dari oportere. Tamen is ideoii 
qnisquis fait, (adeo huic rei obsistebamus) suasit, ora* 
vit, imino quasi fx r^isro^s respondere vistis est ; ^* in 
promptu esse argumeata, et nihil prohibere^ videli- 
cet, nihil haec sapere nostra; nihil ^nostrarum de 
nobismet querelarum promere ; nihil vos ad theolo- 
gicas vel literarias altercationes provocare; nihil 
denique apud vos honorum aucupart vel ex|>e(*tare; 
ad vos omnia referre ; ad vos vestra redire ; et, qnee 
peterent ad vos eo, quo par est, cuitu appropin* 
quarei eadem vos illiberaliter aut inhumauiter non 
dimi^suros fore." 

Et quidem esse hoc opuscnlum nee vestris nomi* 
nibas iudignum, nee veslrisofficiisoiin idoiieum,nec 
▼estris studiin aiienum, res i|isM docet ; lancem sa» 
ttiram, (nil clarius) at simul non levia, aot inatilia 
(^i\e land caprind^ at atunt) exbibentem, sed varii 
nomtnis fructibus ifefertam. Antiquitatem ilia mxvh 
redolet, nunc primnm oainibus patefacta : majorum 
nostrorum disciplinas orulis sul>jirit, Cantcibrii^isi 
nobtrse arcana depromit, doctis viris penitus expio- 

* Hei mihi, quid fato* Geni(rix« acoisdis iaiquo I 
Sit Sors, sed ne sia Ipsa, Noverca mi hi. 

Elegia DtUicaloria ad lllusirissimavi 
Aoadewiam Cantabfigunuem. 



^ DISSERTATIO 6ENERALIS. Tii 

rata, graviter castigata, in cujusque usum dispositi^^ 
et, denique, quicqnid ipsa sit, et quicquid de quibus«> 
dam Universitatiii legibus, et institatis, ibi promnl- 
gatisy Tobis ipiiis jadicantibus, dicendum sit, omnia 
eorundeoi testimonio confiroianda et cognotM^enda. 

Viris Cantabrigiensibus hoc opus utile fore, pree* 
sertim ad Cantabriglam commoraniibus, et etiam 
non comniorantibus, ut quod animum refricet, quis 
dubitabit? Quidni enim? Frseterita in inemoriam 
revocat; praesentia sub oculis ponit; tniniis nota 
inventigaturis opem feret; iis presertim Historic 
am Cantabrigiensem cnriosius aut attentios aliquo 
tempore ezploraturis voluptatem et fructum adeo 
rappeditabit, ut nihil supra: ex hoc enim fonte 
Historia Cantabrigiensis tota deflnit ; quern si pr«- 
tereatis, ubi meliora vel certiora invenietis ? Immo, 
eo pneterito, Veritas abierit, siqqe cisternas exquire« 
retis, et in eas incideretis, erunt vacuae, vel ruptm^ 
qutB lu/uaris nil poterunt relinere^ fraudes nimiruin 
monasticfe, fabulseque historiolarum. 

Hoe volumen titulo designatum est, Privilegin 
UnwereitatiB Cantah. quippe ad jura ejus et leges 
pertineas: at qnidem non male audiret. Annates, 
Chronica^ Fasti, vel si quid magis historic^ sonet. 
Hoc eaim idem recta sumendum est pro Historico 
{ndtee vel Directorio, vel Temporum CantAp 
brigiensium Ratiooario ; et per Chronica, sat scitis^ 
reci4 vi4 teoditur ad Historiam. 

Uikde fit, hifltoriam antiquum, tam apud Septen- 
IriottAles, et £urop(8eos» quam apud Asiaticos, fal- 
laciis adeo crassis, fabularum prodigiis, ubique sea- 
tere? IfonQ9 bine? quod niaurUm futilibas 



yiii DI6SERTATI0 GBNERALTS. 

Genealogficis^ et Mytholo^icis, et Astronomicis se- 
ducta, sine Chronic-is fidis omnino ceca ' ruit^ et, 
sub Traditionis impetu, voriicibns qnasi inconsitan- 
tibus et sine legibas excnrrens, circum uiidique se 
egit ? Hinc Druidibiw Superstitiones, et infttiinta 
pravisftima: ita saltern Csesnr: Neque fas esse exis' 
timant ea Uteris mandare; quum in reliquis fere 
rebus publicis, privatlufue ratianibust Grmcis litnis 
(qQocunque mode accipietidum), tttoM/trr^. Idem 
de Gailis: Gralli se amnes ab DUe patre protfnO' 
tos prmdieant : idque ab DmidUms prooitum di^ 
cunt'f. Similiter de aliis eornm priedicandnin sit: 
e Druidicis tradilionibasyoon fidismonumentis rerum 
gestarumypendebant. Eadem primoapudBritannos, 
quae postea apud Gallos: magntis lis versuuni na- 
meras, quos memorise deder^nt, et quos annalium 
loco servarant. Hinc Islandici, etsi Runicasquas- 
dam litems noverint, et Chronicoram fragmeiita 
forsan retinuerint, Chronicis tanieii ipsis, quic* 
qaid furriot, fabalis, quae antecesserint, intermis* 
tis, structoram omnino Gio^anticam et portento- 
sam pro Historic cnmulaveriint. Hinc ilia pro- 
digia^ non natarae, vel natiirse Crea oris, qui solus 
facil magna prodigia^ sed ea qiise ignorantia gene- 
ravit, credulitas aluit, et dementia sus|>exit; qun 
quo minas cumprebendenda, eo magis credita; 
quo magis mira, eo magis pro veris acoepfa; 
portentosa nimirum ilia de Odino, et de renim stia* 
rum miraculis, commentitia, caeterseque oiultipLcea 
narrationes, quas, pueticis artificiia cireamlitai, 

» De B«1L OalL L. ti. 1 J. f Ibid e. It. 



DISSERTATIO GENERALIS. ix 

Edda Seemundi^ propagavit. Hand aliter de 
Cfletem populis septentrionalibm jiidicandum sit. 
Quod ad nostnMi, ex iis qui de stata veterum Britan- 
noram scripsere, sunt quiclam, Bummft doctrind et 
judicio prsediti, qui existimarunt, a primordiiK hujus 
iusulee usque ad Julii Caesaris adventum, nihil certi 
vel ex traditiune, vel ex historift, vel ex antiquS. 
famft, colligendum essef; pene omnia quae priora 
pro fabulis renpuenda ; adeo ot vix aliquid ausint, 
nini quod scriptores Grseci et Latiui suppeditave- 
rintt. Hinc apod nostros Saxonas, etsi qusBdam 
in Chronico Saxonico fide digna sint, et, ut quae 
frostra alibi qu8erenda,pretiosa§, tamen alia quaedam 
nuliius sunt roomenti, veritali aliena, et pro saeculi 
cuju'iqne auperstitionibas et ignoranti4 aestimanda. 

* DiTerfttt sunt opinionea^ ut doctis bene ootum est, de Sa- 
mandi Edda: alii ezistimantv ab ipso SaBmuDdo conditam esse 
IB mi lingui IslandictL ^ alii» venam esse tantum ab eodem ex ' 
characteribat Runicia. Uteuoque sit, eruditi omnes consentiunt, 
Edmmidi Carmina, Eddam, mythologiam Islandicorum antiquam 
lecte oontioere« et nonnaUa saltern ex ipsis ejus carmiQibus magnam 
■apere vetustatenu 

f HiU. Brii. a Primordiis ad Nonnan. Conquisit. a Johaune 
Miltcm. Sab initio, sentmitiani supra memoratam prssbet, quam, 
ul loqaitor, maxim* gravitatis viri amplexi sunt. 

^ Ita aaltem Ricaidos Mod. VVestm. de SUu Briton, si Vir 
doctua Berlramus qui ut Editor ad Hitftoris Lib. L & II. notes 
addidit, noQ idem est, ut quidam putant, totius opens Auctor. Ut* 
canque sit, um Histoha quam Nots e Grscis et Latiuis Scriptori- 
but totm pene pendent. De cateris Ricardi, qus ia Bibliothecis 
latent^ ail monunuf. Factus eat Ricardus (ut confitentur eruditi) 
aaagia credalos, quo minus claseicus. Qusb Ricardus de Druida- 
nun discipbna in Britannia narrat, (L. L c. 4.) pene tota eat Ciesa- 
lity ai mode excipias versus Lucani. 
S Saxon. Chfon* Edit. Qibaoni, Prmf. 



DIS6ERTATI0 GENERALI8. 

Hinc item apud Graecos, jqnibas tamen omnM 
artes et scientioe taota debent, vastum illud et tor* 
tuosum fabularom pondas, quo veritates qasBdam 
severioreg 8Unt obrutse; videlicet figmentorum ilia 
quasi conglobatio, ab Urano usque ad Ulyssem 
discurrens, Cyclicts et Ciprianis (sic audiiint) 
poetis contexta, nunc vero, fra^nientis quibusdam 
a Procio* exceptisy oninino perdita.-*-Nin)irutu 
nollis his populiserant annales^ vel quicquid talium 
liaberentftraditione fueatuai, oculorom aciem efTugit. 
Historia quasi sylvd latet, sique veritateni per-* 
sequi cuperemus, necesse ent (ut proverbialiter 

dictum est) ck d'n^a; haiAXfravfOfAtP. 

Quod ad Gffiecos qnideiu attinet^ Athenienfiea 
' gloriati sunt* se ceeteris in vetustate lunge prierel- 
lere; et qnidem recte : quippe illi, propter regionis 
tenuitatem^ agri sterilitatem, et seditionuo) atqua 
migrationum iufrequentiam, rf}v x"f«y etu cl »vr9% 
tdKOiittf: sic saltern de.se prsedicavit popnius ille 
disertus, et inventionibus plenus, immo, si cre- 
dere liceat, »vToxJ^<av. Ideoque antiqui Atbeni* 
enses capitum comas aureis cicadis religare soliti 
sunt|— nimirum quo magis vetusti, eo magitr fa* 
bnlosi ; quo magis rernm suarum investigatore^f, eo 
magis faliaciarum inventores, et niigis anilibus cre- 
duii. Yerum enimveroy nee Herodotus^ Pater (ut 
aiunt) Historise^ nee Homerus, Poesea)^? ha^c GrB^co«> 

* Prodi Cluwtomathia in Photii Kblioth. Cod. «39.— De Cy- 
dicis, Fabricii Biblioth. Or. L. II. c. 2. 15. 

f Thueyd. de Bdl. Pthpmi. L. IL c. 36. 

:{: Id. L. I. e. 6. 



DISSERTATIO 6BNERALIS. ^i 

rum commeiititia con6nxerant et condiderimt, etoi 
Herodotus talia Homero et Hesiodo ineptissime 
tribuat*: sed necea Hotnerus correxit, nec^ex Fred, 
Aug. Wolfii 8ententi&, si voluisset, potnisset ; quippe 
fiub Homero, vel legendoi vel scribendo, expeditum 
literarum usum et promptani facoltatem Greci nou 
jam perspexerant : et talia praedicans Josephi foa- 
tibus suos hortos Wolfius irrigayit f. Utinam vir 
ciarissinius sDque lucidos esset in Latinitate ac in 
doctrinft et ingenii acumine; acveremur, utnonnul- 
l8e ejus opiniones de Homero, et sero artis Scripto* 
riie progressu et usu apud Greecos, ad irtf^io^^au 
quibu$idam inclinare videantur, nobis, fors^n, ad 
veritatem appropinquare : si vero in iis qnse vir 

Sec. Hist. L. II. c. 53. 

+ De titulis et Epigrammatis Orphei, qum Orphei tempori* 
bus olira ablegare noa auderet, ut postea ausus est, sic ait : *' Solli* 
citabant me praeter alias cansas literarum moDumeota, quae atitiqui* 
ora Homero vel olim constitisae dicaAtur, Tel hodieab eruditiscu- 
pide perhibentar. Verum ab ek yik plane me aTertenint plura 
▼e9ti£^a Historica^earumquereram, qaibas isduaatatia cultus ooii« 
tine bat or, et ipnorum iilorum monumentonim curiosa et subUlit 
exist! matio. Itaque maoeo in ek sententii, at, eiiam si omnia MrtA 
tempore pnacedant Homeram, tamen inde nihil oonatape de Tul- 
gato usu artis patero/* — Immo nihil Wolfium rooratur «!»• 
berrima inscriptio ex Amyciaafis a Foarmontio repertii ; nee ilU 
Thesei stele lapidea ap. Demosth* c. Neer. p. 873. D. nee ipsiut 
Cadmi donarium apud Diod. ▼. 58. nee ttnea Tabula apod 
Plio. vii. 58, etc Prolegomeoa ad Homerum, p. Iriii. una cum 
Doti. Eadem pene aentit, quoad Homerum, Vir cL R« P* 
Knight, in Proieg. ta Camana Hiymerioa^ pp. IT, 18, 19. 



xii DISSERTATIO GENERALIS. 

doctus disseruit de vulgato usu arlis* scriptaruB 
non penitus erraverit, de caeteris quui concliidenduin, 
planum est. 

Primo, marmoribus et lignis pancula insoripse- 
runt Oreeci, at etiam serins lisc, qiiain vnl^o ere* 
ditur. Inscriptiones omnium antiquishiiitse, (de 
Greecis tantum dicimas) ab Herodoto, An.Ntutele, 
Pausani4 mt^moratce, si sequi iibeat jam memoratmn 
Woifium, Homeri estate sunt positeriorcs ; adeo 
nihil habuerunt annalium Graeci. 

In AugliA, qnnaO Maruiora, duo, inter aliaf, 
babemus venerandoa vetustatis monuments , qiio« 
rum onum, Marmor JSandvicense, Cantabrijgfien- 
siumjj alterumi Parinm § Cbronicun, apud Arun- 

* Recte distinguit Wolfius (et docti omneft distingaeDt) inter 
timplicem et nieram Uteraram Aiphaboticaruin cogaitiooerfi, et 
▼ulgatuim earum usum la Arte Srriptorii. Ouocunque tempore 
litera primom elacerent, Farias diffirultates, et moraB occatfiooei 
inttltas, cogoitioai earum primitiya ac facili earundem ia scriptit 
asui iBteroedere neoesse fuit. 

f Liceat, forsao, si modo obeerTaatis gratii, memorare Marmor 
GraBcum orbiculare, quod seplssime, adbuc in adolescentii, ia 
adibas hospitalibus docti nobisque amicissimiy Aotonii Askew^ vi- 
dimus. Hoc idem inter Muiiei Britannici Marmora et monu- 
menta nunc manet yidendum. 

X Marmor Sandvic. cum Comment, et Notts ed. Job. Taylor, 
LL.D. Cantob. 1743. 

% In Parium Cbron. yaris, ad Votationes et Commentaria a yiris 
doetis, n. Seldeno^ Palmerio, Marshamo, Chisbullo, juris publid 
facta sunt; et, inter quamplurimas alias Inscriptiones, bujusce 
Parii Cbronici exemplar accuratissimum yulgavit Kicardus Chan- 
dler in Opere splendidissimo, Marmora Qxoniensia, quod Ozon. 
prodiit a. 1763. 



DISSERTATIO 6ENERALIS. xiii 

deliana Marmora Ovonien^iDin ; ambo, secun- 
dum Inscriptiones, Sigeft longe posteriora: illud 
centenario plus hoc forsan vetustum, et quod 
eidem inscribitur, inscriptionibus jam menioratis 
setate longe inferins : iHud vero (Marmor uempe 
Sandvicense) tbinus ad nostruin proposituoi perti- 
net, Computuin Atheniensem pro Deli Festo com* 
plectens. Arnndelianum autem est ex professo 
Chronicon» a Cecrope nimiram incipieus mcclii, 
sed non descriptuBEi donee aiccli post Cadmum^et, 
ut dictum estyXi^iii post Homerum. Sunt, non nesci- 
mo9, qui Parium Cbronicon non magni estimant^ 
immo qui pro adulterino et conficto habent : nee, 
sive genuinom, sive Bctitium, uostr^tm multum inte* 
rest: ejus fidelitatem certe nullo modo vindicamus. 
Egregie fabulatur; et simul Chronologo isti, et 
Mystograpborom Corypbaeo, ApoUodoro, contradi- 
cit. Quod ad ipsam ApoUodorom, ut Cyclici in 
TersQ fabulati sunt, sic ille, ab Urano usque ad The- 
sea, in pedestri * sermone. 

Unde igitnr derivatum hoc ipsum, quicquid sit, 
Cbronicon? Abaliis superioris aevi, Iterum quseritis, 
vnde etiam ilia? Respondemus, non ex Uteris, 
qnaa minus noverint; sed, quse Chronicis omni- 
bus long^ antecesserunt, ex traoitionibus antiquita* 
tis, et somniis Poetarum: adeo ut Grfficia* sase 
ipsius Historice et communis originis ignara, ingenio 
tamen subtiliori preetlita, tandem et iEgyptiacornm 
ac orientalium artibus et scientiis imbuta, nihil non 
effingere posset, nihil non anderet. Hinc illud 
Plinii de Grsecis dictum, ** nullum tam impudens 

* ApoUodori Biblioth. Gr. inter Hist* Poet. Scriptoret. 



n 



kW bissertatio generalis. 

I 

iMndaciam, quod teste careat;'' quod etiam prover- 
bialiter dictum, ut Juvenalis 



Et quicquid Gnscia m^ndax 
Amdet in Historil. Sat. z. 174. 

Grsci codices autiquissiroi, doctis saltern visi, 
cogtiiti, et peropecti, ex jndicio sagacissimorum ha- 
niin rerum investigatorum, tertititn saecultim ^ for* 
tasse (pro certis enim probabtlia proferre non 
licet) hand superant; neque cootroversia heec 
affictt setatem linguae Graecae. De Graecamm 
literarum drigine curiosa est qnaestio, lotiga 
historia, quam non nostrum esse possit hie in* 
▼estigare: modo hoc conjicere liceat, quod, 
si admittatur, ex Cadraeio vel Phoenicio ibnte tractas 
fuisse, (et rem ita se habere, ex clarissimft illd et 
antiquissimd. Sige^ Inscriptione satis patet f) non 
exinde sequitur, Graecos annales etiam simtli modo 
fore dedncendos: inimofierinon potest. Si enimGrae- 

4 

corom mythologia fuerit ex parte peregrina, anna- 
les, si modo habuisse possent, ex necessitate proprii 
vocari debuint. Interea nos non effugit, esse, prae- 
cipue viros Platonicos, qui fabulis ipsis moralem, et 
tfaeologicam, ceque ac naturalem et animalem in- 
terpretationem, pbilosophorum more, dare yelint^, 

* Montfaucoo. Palaeogr. Or. .L. III. c. 1. — Es hoc numero sa&t 
Codd. Colbert.: et Caesar. Jul. Angustae: apud nos Bezas Cod. 
Cantab.: Bibl. Alex. Brit. Mus.: et Acta Apost. Bodl. Oxon. : 
omnei (d. nostri) ejasdem fere statis; at aliis duobus in yetustata 
paulutn prlBcedere ^ideatur Cod Bezs. Ex iis, qaie ei. Marali 
bene ditderuit, probtbib yidalur, hone cod« eiae 80C. quiiiti* 
Micbaelis's Introd. to the N. T. vol. 3. p. 708. 

f Chishulli Antiq. Asiat. p. 19. de Alphabeto Gr. 

X Inter alios, Sallustitia Philosophus Platonicus, de GradSi 
IIi^A QiWf xai Kor/Aou. Cap. 3. Jlf^i Mu(«y, juu ir$ 



DISSERTATIO GENERALIS. xr 

immo easdem prodivinisaccipere ^estiant. Nee cum 
Philosophis litem niovemns, nee eos toto coelo errare 
ex cathedrd pronunciabimus: hoc solum nobis con* 
eeffto, nempe, iibi Mytboiogiee maxime abtitidant, ibi 
annates non extitisse : et ita se rem habere, ratio 
Historica certo certias demonstrat. Quidni enim? 
(Non dice de8cnptoribusMythologicis)etiam Hts« 
toriographi, cno^ de rebus anliquis Iractant, cum 
ipsas narrattones illustrare prse se ferant, immo 
cum res suorum temporum indicare cupinnt, quic- 
qutd aganty vix aliquid ni^ ex Iradittone antiqua, vel 
sua ipsornm obserFatione, lectori praebent : at nihil 
,ad fida monumenta provocant, nihil ex serie 
temporum, ;^«if«AoyiHa»; dispositi, fidem sibi concili- 
ant ; nihil ex librorumt suis scriptis antecedentiumt 
anctoritate eonfirmant. Hsbc via Historicis est*; 
adeo ut, cum de snis scribnnt, et qxut sub oculo 
posita, tamen, (sic quidem ex annalium penurift, 
immo ignorantift soliti procedere) nihil secun- 
dum temporum aliquod I^ationarium, sed omnia, 
ai COD confus^, tanifen sine p^i^oAoyMiK wvi^maltm^tf 
denaffsnt* 

ttroi, x*t Aa ri. Et Cap. 4. V>ri vtprt r» mhi r«v 
fAvitf¥* xai ix»<rrpv r» vwofetyfAara. .^gyptios etiam de 
labalis et Hieroglyphicis multum philosophari testatur lamblichus 
de Myst .^ypt Haud multo aliter i£gyptii de TheoIogi& 

sqA Symbolic^; tiiv fwny rov vairf^j xcu mv jftifjuovgyioty 

»oU<ft« Taroblichus de Myftt. Mgjpt Ed. Oxoa. 1678. Sect. 7. c. 1. 
^ Qaa Bupra diximtts, tarn ex Thucydidia quam ex Herodoti 
fiistoriit patent. Qai pflmaa Epocbis (b. Olympiadibas) adtur. 
MPotybiut. 



xyi JDISSERTATIO 6ENERALIS. 

Hactemis de Graecis : eadem pene de RoiDants 
dicenda. Qaidni ? Norine populis iitrisque fnit idem 
alpbabetum, forma, numeruii, doetiisque literarum 
ideo) ? Quae fere omnia, linguae Grascae communia^ 
pro exempio sunt, ejusdem etute familiaB, parentetn 
eandem habui^se*. H<ic cuiqne lilerato patebit,com- 
paratione interCo^ciii Bezaef Cantab, cbaracteras 
et Latinosejus e Ja^re po6itobfact4,v el inter Codiciim 
celeberrimorum Virgiliil exemplaria(Fac Similia) 

» 

* Ut ostendit Sigea Inscription omniuiD Grfecarum antiquissimay 
PhoeDiciischaractcribusjuxta positis, apud CI. Chishull, p. 33, 24. 
'* Tot olim figuraa Greca gens lonica a Phoeaicibus acc^pit ; in- 
Tereoque omaium situ, in melioree paulo transmutavit. Senravit 
. enim, at Tidetur, rationem pure Mathematicam, quoad recti-H- 
nearum, circularium, et angulariuro liter jurum formas. .^lOles 
vero, Taga gensy et solum mutare sueta, ad easdem quaquaver« 
turn dissoninandas non hifeliciter contuleniDt : tandem enim, op- 
tatissimo eventu, per diversas Graeearam gentium ad diversa Ita- 
liae migrationea. Ionics quidem in Latiifas et iEolicaB in Etruscas 
liters, vix ullam passaa nmtationem, transiere. Genuinam ha- 
rum omnium cognationeiri oculo hie placuit subjicere : sic quidem, 
ut omiaais Becundafiis, et superfluis^quinque Uteris, priroariarum 
prascipue instituatur comparatio, quales e Phoenicia in Qneciam, e 
Grscia in Italiuro, utrumque ante Trojana tempora, sunt deducts." 

+ Dr. Kipling hujus Codicis edidit Fac-Siroile, (ut yocant) 
Cantab. A. 1793. 

I Virgilii Codex antiquissimus in Biblioth. Mediceo-Lauren- 
tiana, a Rufio Turcio Aproniano distinctus et emendatus, Typis 
mandabatur Florentis moccxli: Antiquisaimi Virgilii Codicil 
Fragmenta eiS^Figurs ex Bibliothec^ Vatican^, et ad priscas Imagi- 
num Formas a Petro Sancte Bartholi incite, Boms. 1741.— De 
hoc, et illo, (Yaticano, ac Mediceo) et aliis siniiiibu8> nobis pens 
dicendum velimus quod vir cl. M. V. Giovenazzius de Frag" 
menlo TUi Livii intra Vaticanum reperto: (n. Lib. 91. Hist.) 
V Antouinorum caa temporibus, aut, quam seriasimum id fuerit, iis, 
qus CoQstantini M. principatum proximo anteceaseruaty acriptaa 



DISSERTATIO 6ENERALIS. xvu 

et Medicei-Laur«ntiani cam Graecis ManoKcrip- 
tis : quippe omnes antiqui Codicen, Greeci n. 
et Latini, liteiis majoribus saltern exarati, 
miram inter se cogoationem arguunt, et clarias 
luce, ipsa amborum elementa ex eodem fonte 
oriental! esse haosta, indicant, Accedit, quod ambo* 
bus populis eadem fait Mythologia, ut apparebit 
HistoruB PoetioB Scriptores* €hr€Bcos antiquoSf et 
Hesiodi Oidyoviay, cum Latino Met amor phoseft>n Fa- 
bulatore Ovidio cursorie tantum comparanti. Nonne 
Artes et Scientiee (hoc testantur Romanarum ele- 
gantiarum arbitri) serins apud Latinos^ quam 
apud Graecos, florueruntf? Immo, quod prius 
Grsecum, nonne idem factum est postea Lati- 
num ? Et literarnm elementa nonne tardins Roma- 
nis innotuerunt? Quid mirum igitun, si quod de 
illis jam dictum, de his repetendum sit, nempe, 
ubi ars scriptoria languit, et Mytholog^ee abun- 
darunt, ibi annales necessario silere, vel potius 
tempore jam longo extitisse non posse ? 
At videamus, ne, dum navem ascendimus, in portu 

opinor, fuiase ; quam opintoneni cur sequar, mulls causes sunt ; 
cur abjiciam, adhuc nulla.*' Scholia in Frag, otvixforov 
T. Livii, descriptum et ed. Neapoli mdcclxxiii. 

* HisL Poet, Scriplores ArUiqui, Paridis^ mdclxxy. 

f ** Res vetastate nimi^ obscune, veluti quaa ex mag- 
no interrallo, vix cernuntur; turn quod et rarss per eadem 
tempora liiere fuere, una custodia fidelis memoriss rerum ges- 
tamm; et quod etiam, si quas in commentariia pontificum, 
•liiaque publicis et privatis erant monumentis, incensft urbe (n. a 
Qallis) pleraBque interiere/* Livius, de Rebus Romanis. 

b 



36v*u DISSERTATIO GENERALIS. 

impegerimus. Has res melius fortasse tractaverunt 
Mgypi'ii; melius Asiatici. De Chaldaeis nimis 
est incertij quod ex Beroso, nimis fictitii: de Phoe- 
nicibus et aliis Asiaticis longa esset historia. At 
quidem .sunt viri, iidemque rebus antiquis multum 
versati, qui Greeeos et Latinos secuti *, prima cog- 
nitionts principiaysim^il etliterarnm artisque scripto- 
ria primordia, BKeroglyphicarum utpote fructas, 
majori nisu retuleruut ad ^Egyptios : quasi populus 
ipse (quod Horapollo tribuit Mgypthcee regioni) 
omnia procrearet et animaretf. Affirmant, istos, 
ob soli peculiaritates, et tempestivas Nili recur- 

* Herodotus, Tacitus, Macrobius, cum aliis antiquis scriptori- 
bus. 

" Taautus literas invenit, et scribendi auctor fuit, ad memorise 
subsiditim; hunciEgyptii Thoth vocant. Ex Manethone quoque 
prodit Georgius Syncellus, eum multa Uteris arcanis et Hierogly-* 
phicis consign asse, quie interpretatus sit Mercurius secundus, et iu 
templorum adytis reposuerit." Philo Biblius, ut cU, in Notis ad 
Jamblichum de Myst. MgijfpU Edit. Gale, p. 182. 

TTuurog ^(aoyovii rcc iv avrij, n Tsraj* avrvi VTrag^oirrM. 

HorapoUinis Hieroglyph. L. i. S. 22. Edit de Pauw. 1727. 

NfiXou ^£ avoc^atnv cniMxiyovrtg^ iv x»Xs<ri AiyuTrrtn 

po\i¥f Movra y^oc(f>oviri — Xbouto, St^ twuin o »iA*of «k a«- 

oKTa yivofAEvogf irXtiov» rnv avaCaeriv rou NftXov T^oieirur 

OHQ'Tif i[AfAiVOVTQg TOU IjXiOU TW ^wJ'lW TOUTW, TO il/AOifiOy TOU 

ifiov x>i»rof iffXnifAfJivpetv t3-oAA«xi;» 

Horap. L. i. S. 21. De b&c ra fusios apud Macrobii SatHP* 
lUtlia. L. I. 21. 



DISSERTATIO OENERALIS. xix 

sionesy sednlo se Astronomlse dedisse, et otD- 
niutn 'liominum pritnos annum competisse, di- 
videntes eum in duodecim menses, ex obser- 
vatione stellarum Zodiacarum*, et in tricenos 
dies, quos aux^erunt, adjectis quotannis quinqiie 
diebus intercalaribus. Addunt preeterea, ut ex his 
causis accui'atissimi temporum observatores facti 
sunt, ita etiam fieri (idissimos, \ongk calculorum serie, 
annatium servatores; et, quoad res sacras aut mysti- 
cas, non tantum Graecosf mutuatos fuisse ab 
^gyptiis Deos, sed etiam Judaeos ritus sues et 
multiplices ceerimonias f ; adeo nihil apud banc gen- 
tem per Mythologise abundantiam defecisse Cbi'o- 
Dologiam. 

Et quidem talia de i^gyptiis memoriae tradita : 
ast 8 doqtis non pauci, et Theologorum^ qi fallimur, 
plures, taui Jud8ei§ quam Christian!, sententias 
ab bis longe diversas professi sunt ; nempe, ut qui 
omnia ex Judaicis fontibus hauriunt, affirmantes, 
sicut lingua Phoenicum vetusta fuit eadem ac He- 
brseorum, ita et literas Hebreeorum vetustas 
easdem esse ac Phcenicias ||, et qua^mplurima ex 

* Herodoti Hist. L. ii. S. 4. p. 91. Ed. Gale. 

+ AuwJ'fxa r« ^im tfruivvfAict^ sXsyov Ttpurovf AiyvTrriovq 
youKTocif xat 'EAXtii^a; wot^^cc (rfi(riv ocva^Xocietv, Ibid. 

i Haec sententia, a doctissiinis Marshamo in Canone Chronicoj et 
Spencero in Dissertalione de Urim et Thummim habita, oppugn a- 
tur, qaalicunquefortun^ Uerm&nnoWiiBiOy in ^HgifptiacOy Lib. iii. 
Amstelodami, 1683. 

% Abrabamus Arias etiam Hetraicos ttfpos Jobo ac fere mundi 
ipsius creationi cooevos putavit. De Rossi de Hebraic^ Typo- 
graphic.. ParmaB, 1785. Quanto magis literarum cognitio ! 

II GtoUm di VeriU Rel, Christ. Lib, i. c. 15. 

b 2 



DISSERTATIO 6ENERALIS. 

Hebrceis ^gyptios matoari, etsi res Hebrseorum *, 
ut pueri virorum, imitati sunt ;— de literaram pri« 
mordiis Mosem apud inquirendum esse, quippe quai 
de Monte Sin& fuerunt promulgatee f , digitoqne 
Jehovse Hebraeorum in conspectu descriptae, sx 
furog nimirum ao^nrov procedentes; Fiat Lux; etfuit 
Lux; ^' divinum plane opus et inventum, (ChisbuUi 
sunt verba) sapientissimoque illo animi, oris, atque 
oculorum nostroruni formatore, Deo omnipotente, 
non indignuni|/^ 

* Hermanni Witsii sunt vertNi, in p. W JSgypiiac. Libr. in. 
ubi abunde agit de Mgypiiacis aacris cum Hehraicia coUaiis. 

f Waltonus in Prolegom. ad Polyglot, et Montfaucon Pa* 
IfBOgr. Gr. Lib. ii, C. 1, % 3, et sub finem, in Dissert, de Priscis 
Gnecorum et Latinoram litens, contendunt, Phcenicias esse vel 
Samaritanas (Hebraicas veteres) ; idem agit etiam Chisull in 
Sigei Inscriptione.— In Libro, cui titulus, Voor-Bereidselen Tot 
de Bybelscbe Wysheid, Amstelodami, 1690, inter varias, in sere 
incisas, tabulas, una Orientales literas, cum Ezras Hebraeo- 
Assyriis comitatas, exhibet. Alia, ab Ezne Uteris incipiens, et 
sinistrorsum procedens, dat Alphabeta Mosis, Samaritanonira, 
AzariaB, Abraami, &c. usque ad coele8te,mysticum Alphabetum, An- 
gelis traditum ; qusB, una cum sonorum ezplicationibus, luoe cobIo 
apparente, depingit Tertia Osirim, Isim, et Honim, muUasque 
^gyptiorum Hieroglyphicas literas et figuras, repraesentat, juxta 
positll Numinis Divini effigie, digito monstrante, Ego mm Alpha et 
Omega. Quarta tria ^aticorum Alphabeta, luce simul, quae ex 
tabulsB parte superiore procedit, repraesentat. Totus hie typo- 
graphious et sculptorius apparatus docte satius, at accurate roen- 
tem auctoris indicat, literarum originem a divina ilia Luce deri- 
Vandam esse ; nimirum quasi a Luoe divin& Fiat emanftrit divi- 
num, *nH ^n^i i>h ^n>, simili modo ac cum Spiritns Eloheim 
quoad terram, in ordinem reduzit onn) »yfiry% 

% Big. Inscript. p. 26. 



DISSERTATIO 6ENERALIS. 

Adde, quod fuerant Uebraeis, opinionem secun-* 
dam multoram eruditorutn, ex alter& illft statim 
pendentem. Chronica certissimai fidelissimseque me- 
morise testes, Historiae. Pedem igitur, ut isti arbi- 
trantur, firmum in annalibus figere possunt Hebraic 
Gis ; et festorum, et wxitoironag Patriarcbarumi vctg- 
oiKictt Israelitarum in ^gypto, annorum etiam Ju- 
dicam^ Regum J udae et Israelis, immo mundi cre- 
ationist efsroiiij^^if parantes, Sacram Chronologiam 
dant, (sic Usherus Armachanus, et Petavius Aureli- 
ensis) etiam ab initio, pro duce fidissimiL, pro Tem- 
porum Regain vel Rationario, et, mythologiis amo- 
tis, pro veteris Historiae unica et fidelissimsL luce : 



Veritatem 



Dumos inter et aspera 
Scopulosis secuti vadiB. 

Hiactenus isti: alii aliter: quippesunt, nee iidem 
homunciones ex triviis, garruli, vaniloqui, in rebus 
antiquariis tirones inepti, sed homines magni no- 
minis*, ab academicis culti, et plurimum colen- 

* De Marahamo, et ejus Canane Chronioo^ iu narrat Her- 
mannus Witsius : " la omnium nunc fere eruditonim manibus 
reraatur Nobilissimi Viri JohannU Manhamh Angli, Equitis Au- 
rati, Guum Ckrwdcus, Mgyptiaauy Ebraicus, Gracua: opus 
quantivis pretii ; quod, uti auctori suo multA lectione, accurate 
mediutione, plurimisque lucubrationibus stetit, ita lectori per sa- 
lebrosos obacurissims antiquitatis receasus viam non paulo fa- 
ciliorem expeditioremque efifedt * 

*^ Sed, ut in humanis rebus nihil omni ex parte beatum esse so- 
let, ita nee pulcherrimo huic corpori suos deesse niBTOs yideas. Id 
sibi Nobilissimus auctor suo quodam jure sumsit, ut, relict4 ali- 



•.. '■ '' 



xxii PISSBRTATIO GENERAUS. 

di» qui reclamapt, plorima Hebraica ex ^gyptiaco 
fonte clertvari ; immo affirmant^, miram inter 
Hebraeos et iSgyptios extitisse harmoniam, vi- 
delicet, m Doffmatibus rerum credendarum; in 
PraeceptU rerum facie^idarum ; et^ in Ritihus 

quoties frequenli regi^ue viiV, per devios tramites, veluti animi 
causi, exspatietur." ^Egypt. L. i. C. 1. 

* " Caetera silentio hoc tempore transmittere liceat : hoc unam 
nunc DOtare lubet, quod HebrsBorum ritus sacrasque caerimoDiaSy 
eas etiam quae Mose aDtiquiores sunt,'^ quas^a Deo non sine typic^ 
Cbristi adumbratioQe institutas esse uni versus credit Christianise 
. mus, ex profanis i^gyptionim moribus^ saeculique usu derivet 
-^gyptii, inquit, ut " IloXirci^, ita et Religioncy genies caleras pne- 
cesseiiint. Eorum ritiis ad alios populos translaii: etiam ah 
Ebrais (non sine emendaiione forsan) usurpati sunl.^* De viro 
cl. Marshamo dicit Witsius. iEoYPTiACA. Lib. i. C. 1, 

De Spencero noslro, (n. olim St. Benedict. Coll. Cantab. Ma- 
gistro) docto libri de Legibus Hebraicis auclore, sic idem Wit- 
sius narrat. 

'' Eandem sententiam magno nuper animo atque apparatu tuitus 
est Johannes Spencerus, Theologus itidem Anglus, in Disitrtaiimu 
de Urim ei Thummim. Ubi ita Vir Doctissimus instituit : Israel- 
itiBy inquity qui in iEgypto primum hauserunt spiritum, omnes 
Dei remmque divinaruoi noiitias, per sacram tantum Cabbdam 
acceptas, oblirioni sensim tradiderunt : et vix ultra lateres et alli- 
um iEgypti jam sapientes, in Dominorum suorum mores et inge- 
nium toti ti^nsierunt, ritibus eonim ac superatitionibus facile sus- 
ceptis. Ab istis iBgypti seculique ritibus qui Hebrseorum in- 
fantiam e vestigio ablactare studeret, deb ille difficile et pene des- 
peratum opus mowret. Non eo solum nomine, quod consae- 
tudo religiosa tarn potente fascino animos incantare solet» sed et 
quia natura populum ilium, prs aliis terras inooJiSy iogeoio mo- 
roso, diffioili, et propositi tonacissimo finzisse videtur." Ibid. L. i, 
C. 1/ 



< ■ 



DISSERTATIO 6ENERAL1S. ««» 

quibusdam et ctBrimoniu ; et, quod magis hie loci 
est, quippe ad Chronologiam spectans, in anni^ 
mensium, et dierum, divisione, tarn Hebraeis qaam 
^gyptiis annual babentibus dnplicem, civilem et 
sacrum, siniiliaqne bis alia* bine moltum penden«> 
tia*, Immo hoc adeo certuiUi ut nihil certias; 

* Non multum diaseiUire yideantar eliam quoad Nomen Nu- 
minis Dirini, mn% nomen ineffubile TetragramTnaton. Etsi enim 
JEgypiu, aeque ac Chaldaei, Daemonas tandem, Heroas, acCoelestia 
et Terrestria, 8yrabolii:a>c forsan, quondam adorarent, tarpen, secun- 
dura Jamblichamy haec fuerant antiquitua iElgyptiorum dogmata : 
W(o rtay ovru; oyruUf xui rwf oXw> ^(XJ^^f ^'^ ^^^ Gfo;-**^ 
[Aoyat^ ex rw Ivof^ v^qomvvo^ xat ^fX" '^^^ oucria;* iio xosi 

Qfiiv TO'foroirreif x»i r<ay trsrov^aviuyv. De Myst. ^gypt. 
Sect viii. Cap. % Haec veria eorum Symbola indicant; nempe^ 
Deum Unicum, ctysv^nTOp koh oi^a^varov^ et in silentio colen^i 
dum esse, ut, inter alia, Symbolum Sigalionis Harpocratis, quern 
designarunt ut puerum nudum digito labris in^presso, meram 
simplicltatem et unitatem, et silentium indicantem. Et Jehova 
esse ipsisaimam unitatem affirmant Judxorum eruditissimi Mai- 
monidea (More Nev. P. ii. C. 1. et alibi) et Abbrav^nele de Co* 
pile Fidd, p. 3, 4. Edit. Vorstii i pr^pue vero Jpseph. coBtra 

Appioa. L. II, et Pbilonero 'srff » M^i^tut Koir/xoir : et quoad 
nomen THragrammatoii ineffkhiley mim quaedam tri^dit Job. Bux« 
torf. in Lex. Heb. Cbald. sub Verbo nin\ Plutarcbus tov 9eo» 
oty$¥¥nT9it TLpki tb^»¥dirOi\f Kvi^ vocari testificatur apud ^gyptios, 
De liUU ei Qsiride^ Bri^ant jVostor existimayit, (in Mytbol. Vol. i.) 
omnes antiquoa Idololatras prius unum Deum, Solem, adorare ; et 

forsan recte* 

Docti sunt quidam, (et etiam multi,) qui tow mfv et mrtV^ 
Pcrwnamm Trinilaiem attribuunt,- (etsi sint, qui hoe ttrenuo per- 



xxiv DISSERT ATIO GENERALIS. 

adeo Qt res tandem hue redeat, vel ^gyptios ip^fti- 
^«y, vel Hebreeos a^y^irr^a^siv * . Ita ipse Kir- 
cherus: et Theologi fidei Ortbodoxee Christiatii 
haec ita esse confitentur ; nee Jadeeomm doptissimi ^ 
possent denegare^ nee vellent. 

Sed quomodocunqae ab eruditis de bis rebus 
crederetur, non ex instanti, ex necesse, et ex 
argumentorum quasi serie, ^e Hebr^rum Chroni- 
cis concludendum est. Quod modo dictum fuit 
de Grsecis, simili fere ratione de Hebreeis sit dicen- 
dum; n. si quosdam ritus et cserimonias ab i^Elgyp* 
tiis deriv&riDty Chronica ipsa ex necesse ftiisse sibi 
propria : et si ^gyptiaca Chronologia fuerit fal- 
lax et mendosa^ non exinde secuturum, Hebrseo- 
rum Annates a vei^itate esse quam remotissimos. 
Non recte hoc affirmaremus. Yaleat principium, 
et tamen non recte conclusum esset. De his rebus 
videant docti* 
^ Sed agite. Si Hebrseis habenda esset fides, quid 

de coeteris Asiaticis, et de ipsis w^gyptiis, dicen* 
dum manet? Illoram Chronica si inter genuina 
et fide digna admiseritis, horum pro fictitiis et adul- 
terinis ex necesse rejicienda sunt. Ex illfit parte si 
res quasi ex rect& line& pendeat, ex h&c, in obli- 
quum ruatur, et a veritate penitus declinetur ; ambo- 

negent; 8ed de his rebas hie loci non agitar) sunt etiam et multi, 
nee minus doctiy qui, pro parte iEgyptiorumy Trinitatem* rfi/AOffoif 
0iQyf illis yindicant. Alsted, EncycL part PneumaUc c. 5. 
r. 9. Ktrcherusy in Frodrom, i. CopU sive ^gyptiac, cap. 6. 
Cudworth's Intellect. Syst. L. i. C, 4. 
• PropyL Agonis. Kircheri, c. 11. 



-r^C^ - »'' 



DIS5ERTATI0 GENERALIS. 

bus adeo in contrariam currentibas non fas est in 
unum coire. Quanta discrimina ab initio in tempo- 
rum rationariis ! Quantee in progredsu discordise cal- 
culorum ! Quanta tam rerum, quam regum^ Histori- 
arum amplitudo et long^tudo, immensae et tantnm 
non infinitee, ultra Mosaic® supputationis terminos 
quam longissime transgredientes! Quid dicemus? 
Si per annos remotissimos literas cognoverint *, (et 
cognovisse, testantur omnes antiqui,) si Zodiacum 
intellexerinty si astrorum motus perspexerint, si 
Chronologiee materiem quasi et omnem apparatum 
tenuerinty et si a's-oOnx^c* sacrorumque librorum 
custodeSy sacerdotesy appellafrint f, (et talia tam 
Chaldeei et Persae, quam Indi ac iSgyptii sibi vin- 
dicarunt,) quid dicemus? 

" Omne ignotum/* dicetis, ** pro magnifico/' Et 
magnam de rebus supra dictis opinionum inconstan- 
tiam et contrarietatem ex linguarum vetustissima- 
rum ignorantik exortam esse, quis academicus non 
intelligit ? De^ veteri i£gyptiac& % (non de Gop» 

* Herod. L. ii. 

ItfMf PftCxoK* Died. Sic Lib. 1. Hoc de R^bos dictum^ 
de rebus aliis, Mgyptiacis^ dicendum mU 

% De lAc re yidendus est CI. Montfauconus Palieog. Ore, 
L. IT. C. 7. " Character igitar ille piscua -^yptiacus ita obso- 
levit, iuignotus mansit, ut, si qaa.illius vestigia reperiantur, id 
unum notiti© adferant, quod videlicet -ffigyptii prater Hicrog^y- 
phkam scrvpUiram aJiam vuigaria uaus habuerirUy jam vetustate pe- 
nitus obliteratam." 



'>•». 



wvi DISSERT AT 10 GENERALIS. 

tick ^ dicinias) et Babylonic4 f ne vel ygv notum 
est, de Hieroglyphioi fortasse non multam. Et 
proculdubio AcademicoH non efFugit, resi^gyptiacas 
et Cbaldaicas ab bominibus de iis disserentibus in 
contrarias partes distrahi; literas i^gyptiacas, Py- 
ramidibus incisas (ut Herodotus saltern tradit |) 

* Haec constitit ex Grscis viginti quatuor, et octo aliis, quas 
Grsecis non faerant. In h^ lingu^ superioris iEgypti, quam Sahi- 
dicam seu Thebaidicam vocant, est liber, qui olim Ant. Aslcew 
erat proprius, apud Mus. Brit. Lond. Tomus Secundua Fidelh 
Sophia. In lingui igitur KopticA triginta duo sunt literse, Mont- 
ftucono dais, a Kirchero concinnatae. Palaeogr. Gr. p. 312. 

+ Linguae Chaldaeas tres extiterant formae {rwoi) : prima Chal- 
dsMB, Metropoli B^byloni propria: secunda, (quse et Dialeetus 
est Chaldaeas) Cdmmogenae, Antiochiae, ac aliis Syriai pardbus, 
et Syriaca vocatur: tenia, Judaeis usitata post eorum ex Baby- 
lone reditum, et in Targis suis, quae vocantur, expreasa, de qui 
Prideaux Connect. Vet. et Nov. Test. Part, ii, B. 8. Quae nos 

in textu notavimus ad earum Primam Dialectum referenda sunt. 

» 

% De pyramidum altissimS. sic affirmat 5 2f yti/xayra* fe Aa 
ypaixfAOcrm AiyvTS'Titcy tv m Ts-vpo^fjuii, oo-a, &c. L. ii. 
p. 138. Ed. Gale. At quidem cum (r»/Aa, tuwo^, ypa^i> 
et yf»[Ji>iJi'» sunt synonyma, nihil probibet, quo minus baec 
ypxfAfAocra fuissent nf^x y^x/MfAuraf upoy\\)fof,, A(^t«(noiri 
^1 ypoLf^iAaa-i ^tcovray* xa» ra jx£i/ aurwv if «, ra fs Sri^jLO^ 

riTta xaXfira*. lb. p. 38. Et ypui^fAoc inter alias significationes 
picturam et signum indicat ; ideroque fere sonat, quod Hebraice 
n>*ri)» niH, Signum, Signa,JLitera^ Liter a, externum et visibile sig^ 
nam quodcunque vocis prolatae vel proferendae. ^ipossibile est, cum 

Pyramides sacra erant aedificia, ypoc[M[Mar» Aiyi/smuy fuisse 
ifp« yf»iA[Aar»y etsi cl. Greaves sentit, vetustioris linguae (civilis) 
Babylonicae fuisse literas. Horapollo Hieroglyphica iSgyptiaca 






DISSERTATIO GENERALIS. wvii 

vel illic Qunquam extitisse, Tel penitus evaoqisse 
seecalis posterioribus ^ ; Astronomiam Chaldaicam 
plus forsan sapuisse Astrologiamy quae vocatur, et 
Imposturain ft quain Scientiam : et, si admittatur, 
CosmogoniasiDter veteres, n. Cbaldaicana^uf^gyptia* 
cam, Persicam, Indicam, Greecam, et Hebraicatn^ 
esse quandacn convenientiam et harmoniam, tamen 
Chronologias esse inter se diversas, Hebraic& quam 
remotissimas, NonnuIIis, qui nuper res histori- 
cas orientales magn& iudustri^, qualicunque suc- 
cessu, explorabant, tandem aliquando probabile 
visum esty magnas Indicorum et aliorum Periodos 
lomporum et Historiarum amplitudines, vix ali- 

describens, perpetuo utitur verbo ypoc^ooj unde ypotfAfAXf 

«t observat, AiyuzTTta ft y^ocfAixotro^ iriXovuTtg^ TTPoyoa-fAana, 

n wtpa^j fJt^tXocVf xat y.Q(rxiyov ^coypoC'^ovo'iv. Aiyuzmx fj.sv 

yfccfMfActroif ii» ro rovroig wocvra roe. AryvTrrioig ypc^pofMEva 

£xr{A{t(r9a(. L. I. 38. pp. 51, 5% Ed. de Pauw. 

Adde, quod Herodotus non dicit, ut saepe de aliis dixerat, se 
has litems vidisse^ sed earum sensum ab interprete quodam acce- 
pisse. Viris igitur doctis ex verbis supra prolatis litem agere de 
literia JEgyptiacis agere liceat, sed nihil probant. 

* Pyramidograplda, a Johanae Greaves, A.M. Astron. Pro- 
fess, apud Ozon. p. 114. 

-f- Ita propemodum doctissimus Brucker Hist« Crit Philosopb. 
L. I. C. 1. Cui tamen, Herodoto, Aristotele, et Josepho reniteoti- 
bus, non omnino assentiraur : quippe inter Chaldaicorura Astro^ 
nomiam et Astrologiam distinguendum est, ut recte clarus noster 
Stardems in Hist, Oriental. Philosopk, L. i. S. 2. sed clarius, 
et magis in ordine, Latine posito, una cum notis, Chaldaicis 
Oraculis sobjunctis, erudito editore, Johanne Clerico, Amsteloda- 
mi, 1690, 



•w f*»^ * V*« 



xxviii DISSERTATIO GENERALIS. 

quid esse prsster Solis et Lunse et Planetarum Re- 
Yolutiones ^. 

At de his abundantius : et quidem nostros li- 
mites transgress! forsan, viros academicos veniam 
oramus. Illos nobis talia revolventibus, eorum 
plurimis bene nota, nee tarn sui causd,, quam nos- 
tree recordationis et hortamenti dicta, condonaturos 
speramus. Nimirum irrepserunt nobis in mentem, 
sensim, at quidem non sine sensn, in naturali quo- 
dam, ut putamus, ordine, meditantibus potius, quam 
subito vel temere effutientibus, vel inutililer aut 
ambitiose laborantibus. Stent nobis pro exemplo, 
quanto magis gentibus antiquissimis fida defuisse 
Chronica, tanto magis eorum historias fabulis ex 
necesse abundasse; et quo magis authentica, qusB in 
manu, et probata, eo altius veree historiae fundamenta 
ppsita fore, eo majori majestate oritura incrementa; 
ep magis partes ejus singulasfore aptas, et quasi pax- 
illis inter se conjunctas, hortationes tutas, descrip- 
tiones (naturalibus eedificiorum ornamentis baud ab- 
siniiles) lucidas, et pulchras; eo magis, denique, 
totam structuram non artificiosam, vel ex aere pen- 
dentem, sed legitime, et qu^am quasi naturae 
necessitate, veritate ips^ fundatrice, stabilitam ; et 
nos, — ut tandem aliquando ad nostra redeamus, — 
multum jam diuque viam rectam ad Historiam Can- 
tabrigiensem meditantes, edoceant, ut edocuerunt, 
et jam edocebunt, a Chronicis in vestris cimeliis con- 

* 'Monde Primitif Analyse et Compare avec le Monde Mo* 
dernpy par M. Court de Gebelin. Livr. Troisieme. §• lu iii.; et 
T. Mauriiii Hist. Hindostan. B. ii. P. 1. Ch. 3. 



DISSERTATIO OENERALIS. xxix 



servatis, earn esse deducendatn ; et nos, vestroe fidei 
Privileg^a hsec commendatujos, iis saltern Canta- 
brigiensibas, qai sint, Tel dehine fuerint, de histo- 
ricis suis curiosiores, ea, quee in magnum commo- 
dum vel delectationem verti possint, fore oblaturos. 

At nimirnm, nonnullos in limine objecturos au- 
dire nobis videmur — spes nostras preesentis operis 
materiem superare : quippe illae nimis tentatsa, per- 
tensse, largee ; haec vero pusilla, usui communi 
minus apta, ut quee plus quam satis academica. 
At nun ita quidem, ut speramus. Notulas esse tan- 
tum breves, vel Ephemeridas, temporis solum puncta 
declarantesy non, ut Annates Taciti, vel Ceesaris 
Ephemeridas (Commentaries) amplam ac plenam 
narrationem exhibentes, sponte confitemur: talia 
nihilominus puncta sunt, a quibus omnia historica 
quani e centro trahantur, et in rectum vergant, 
seque ^uam longissime difFundant; parvi quidem 
nominis, et formee perquam pusillee ac modest®, 
utilissimas tamen record utiones, indicia Integra, tes- 
tificationesque clarissimas, atque potentissimas, se- 
cum trahentia. Immo sunt, *si heec verba malue- 
ritis, clavis, per se parva satis, atque omnino rudis, 
recte vero et tempestive utenti egreg^as facultates 
ac opportunitates maxime idoneas et accuratissi- 
mas dirigendi cursus suppeditatura. 

Neque objicere fas sit, haec eadem non pretiosa, 
quia non vetusta, sicut vina, quae sapiunt cadi 
pptius, quam eetatis. Pro certo enim sunt ve- 
tusta, immd nonnulla, de quibus notitia longior 
in aliud tempus differenda est, vetustiora quam era- 
ditis forsanplaceat In preesenti vero nihil nos mdve- 



X 



xsx 0ISSBRTATIO GENERALIS. 

atit controversise Caii* nostri, vel Twini, et Antonii 
Woodif Oxoniensium,depraBcoci illaCnntabrigte et 
Oxonii Universitatuniantiquitatedisputantium. Snf- 
ficiat nobis, quod nanat vir doctus M. Crevier de Pa- 
risiensi sua Academift: "II n*est pas possible de fix- 
er par des dates pr6cises les conimencemens, soit de 
rUniversite de Paris en gfenferal, soit de parties qui 
la composenty des magistrats, qui ia gouvernent, des 
principaux attributs, qui la caract6risent. Les re- 
chercbes sur tons ces points nc ui6n(ent en aucune 
faqon a une origine claire et d6terminle; et les 
premieres mentions, que Ton en rencontre dans les 
monuraens historiquesy n'en contiennent pointla cr6- 
ation et V 6tablisment, mais en supposent Texist- 
encej." H,^c eadetn, vel quaedam his simiUima, 
de Cantabrigiensi nostri dicenda sunt. Prima qui- 
dem Charta, quse pro \erk et genuine sumenda 
est, sub Henricum tertium enitescit. Heec in 
Turre Londinensi videnda manet. Si ulU hoc eevo 

* De Anjiquitate Cantabrigiensis AcademiEe Libri dao ; in 
quorum secundp de Oxoni^nsis quoque Gymnasii disseritur, et 
Cantabrigiense longe antiquius ease definitur. Londinensi 
Authore (Caio). Adjunct^ Assertione Antiquitatis Oxoniensis 
Aoademis, abOxoniensi quodain, (TwirWy) in quik docere conatur, 
Oxoniense Gymnasium Cantabrigiensium antiquius esse. Lend. 
1568. 

+ Historia et Antiquitates Universitatis Oxoniensis. Oxonii. 
1674. Lib. I. 

X Histoire de L' University de Paris depuis son Origine jusqu'en 
I'amiee 1600. Par M. Crevier, Professeur Em^Fite de Rh^to- 
rique en L'Universite de Paris, au College de Beauvais. A Pa^ 
lis. 1761. Tom. Sept. p. 90. DissertaJdon sur les Origmes de 
rUmvertiUdt fiiri». 



DISSERTATIO GENJSRALIS. xxii 

prior prodaci possit, producendam voltmiQs. Sed 
haec in transitu, et hie loci satis sint: ab isto eniip 
% tempore Chartarum et Privilegiorum Gantabrigi- 
ensium cursus flnit clarus ac pellucidus, idtr^ cer- 
tos limites et ripas circnmscriptas ; et si hcec non 
sit extrenia ora et determinatio, ea pro certo nallibi 
definienda est. 

De Chartis ipsis et Statatis, sive Regiis sive 
Academicis, in prsesens non licet inire disquisitio- 
nem. Ex his alia non pree aaro adamabant, qui no- 
biscum sentiant; alia, su^ caus&, non tnagni 
eestimabnnt viri prudentioresi immo non flocdi, nisi 
qaod bistoriae forsan aliquid suppeditamenti pree 
bitara. Quae jam in usu sunt, et ad mores recen- 
tiores referuntur, publica munera obeuntibus quid 
dam auxilii forsan suppeditent; qaeeque hodie non 
etiam observentur, et, temporibus moribusque mu- 
tatis, omnino negiigantur, et in abusum labisinan- 
tur, hominibus tamen curiosioribus, qui dilapso^ 
rum fragknenta temporum ament colligere, forsan 
arrideant. Immo si alia qnsedam non satis ornate die- 
ta, et, pro styli officiarii more, vix satis classic^, pluri- 
ma nibilominus, ut expectandum esset, melioris sunt 
luti, et, a viris doctissimis magis elaborata et perpo- 
lita, Latinitatis elegabtias adeo spirant, tit vel 
hominibus naris acutissimi possint esse voluptati et 
delectamento. 

Atque etiam si paoca queedam de nostra Canta- 
brigise Historic diceremus, plus alio dicturi, venia, 
ut opinamur, dabitur* Additiones et emendatio- 
nes ad earn pertinentes huic volumini subjungun-> 
tar: et nos quiddam erravisse confitetnar: atqne 



xxxii DISSERTATIO GENERALIS. 

in rebas tarn varits nos interdum erravisse qais mi- 
rabitur ? Jare suo, qui alios corrigere vel adjuvare 
doctrini 8U& parati sant, utuntur; doctisque viris, 
qui cum aliis^ suk v'med, laborantibus, de qui- 
buslibet eorutn erroribus benigne communicent, 
maxima debetur reverentia. Quod ad alios, qui 
maligne, vel f^Xavr^^f vel fiXoxt^fto^f aliis oppugnare 
gestianty censuris suis sibi placeant; videlicet, ho- 
munciones, qui quo minus ingei^io, vel doctrin^ 
vel industri^, vel libertatis aut veritatis amore pol- 
leaiit, eo magis se valere garrulitate et petulantid. 
prse se ferre velint* ^ Jerichuntis expectent, dum bar^^ 
Ihb crescant. De his nihil moramur, ad meliora fes- 
tinantes. 

Fieri enim potest, fore apud vos, Academici, 

nonnuUos, (et fuisse sat scimus,) homines nempe 

judicii subtilioris, et benevolentiae prdmptae, mo* 

rum optimorum magis studiosos, quam emolumento* 

rum avidos, simulque ingenio eo magis liberali et 

candido, quo magis in his studiis versatos, immo 

Universitatis Cantabrigiee, et generis human! ma* 

gis, quam sui ipsius amantes, oppugfuatores, confite- 

mur, (si oppugnare illis placeat,) honestissimos, qui 

nobiscum magis serid agant, nempe animorum suo- 

rum conjecture collecturi, bos vel operis snscepti 

amore, vel erga vos reverentiS. nimid, captos, res 

laude non dignas intempestivius et abundantius fore 

laudataros, immo nonnullas, quae censuram mere- 

antur, admiraturos: plane heec divinantes, iis com- 

paratis, quae diximus ali6, (in Historid Cantabrigiae,) 

satis, ut existimarunt, commendaticia, cum iis quae 

Privilxsgia Cantabrigiae promisisse sibi videan- 



.* 



• DISSERTATIO GENERALIS. xxxiii 

tor. Pauca igituri ipsis qaasi preesentibus^ de re- 
bus iisdem proferre cupimas : et, si temporam an- 
gustiis exerciti, si asperitatibus ac varietatibas re- 
rum agitati, vel si diversis diversoram hominum 
sententiis detnrbati, qui in hoc tramite decnrre- , 
rant, in re aliqaa contendere, vel quiddam dubi- 
tare, videamnr, illis, castorum nempe mansaetorum- 
que ingeniorum viris, dijudicandum relinquemus. 
^' Contentiones et oblatrantes disputationes*'' no- 
bis minus placent ; at quidem, ut inter sylvas Aca- 
demi verum queerere olim nos delectavit, sic earn 
nunc tandem invenisse quam maxime delectaret^ 

Inprimis, nos non effugit, e^ke ac fuisse, qui 
omnino condemn&rent hsec genera, de quibus 
nunc agitur, academiarum, nempe, coUegiatarum, 
dotatamm, privileffiatarum, in Oxoniae et Canta- 
brigise comitatibus nimis parce, ut illi arguunt, 
consertarum et contextarum. Verum enimvero 
tales extiterant, et tales evasere, si eos recte intel- 
lexeriraus, non eo quod sciential minus illi faverent^ 
sed quod magis amplificatam et latius extensam ex- 
optarent, et quod, preeterea, exist! marent. Gym- 
nasia haec privilegiata privato potius quam publico 
comraodo, partiumque Istudiis, quam liberalibus et 
optimis artibus, subservire videri ; adeoque (ut 
profiteri sclent) ab ignorantise et rusticitatis amore 
vel reverentid abhorrerent, ut vellent, elegantio- 
res literas ubique faonoratas, et collegia per omnes 
majores Britanniea civitates cooBrmata stabilitaque 
Tidere. 

* Francisci de Verulamio Preefat. ad Instauraiionem Mag- 
oam. 

c 



i^ ' VMSSBRTATIO GBNBRALIS. 

^^ Bntforsan apud vos, qui plane dicant, nos hie 

tMOnstrum quaddatn, temporum abortum, Tel, 
(paulo urbanins) Novain quandam Atlaoticla, vel 
Utopiam depinxisse. Sit ita : nostrum dod eat, 
(qnicqoid sentiamus) de his rebus litem diidc agere. 
Batis sit suggessisse, tales sententias a qaibusdam 
io restro gremio enatritis olim fuisse sparsas, 
et etiam in Teniplo vestro S. Mariffi prolatas*; 
in teinporibus quidem, ut verutn fateamur, tnmul- 
tnosis, obi pro sao quisque ingenio contendere 
nutf et omnigenarum opinionum quasi concerta- 
tio oriri solet. Nee revera mirqm esset, si per ilhk 
' tempora fuerint etiam qui artes et scientias re- 

bospnbli^ detrimento potius quam ufilitati judica- 
rent, hand secos atque ille vir, ingeoii uimis fasti- 
dio8i,qui, tali controversid exteram apud Academi- 
am motA, victoriam et prcemia scholastica reporta- 
batf. 

At revera fuerunt in temporlbus magia tran- 
qnillis, etiam in nostris, immo Inter eos, quibus vix 
uUoa vestrAni amantiores facile invenietis, qui, (baud 
secus atque illi jam memorati) putaverunt, fuoda- 
toreg nostros reipublicee Britannicoe meltas consul- 
tnros fuisse, tarn ad bonas titeras, et rectam eartim 
iustitutionem, qu&m ad mores et veram religionem, 
a Imx et Focula sacra harum illustrium Academia- 

• A Gulielmo Dell, S. T. P. olim GonViUii et Caii Coll. Ma. 
gistro, Actu vero UniformiiaiU, sub Caroli Eestauratione, ejecto 
a. 1660. — Opera ejus edito fuerunt, a. 165*; nuperrime repetita 
BUnt 

+ Discours. qui a remport lo Prix de Dijon en Taimec 1 755. In- 
ter Opera J. J. Rousseau. 



DISSERTATIO 6ENERALIS. xxxi^ 

rum loDgius latiusque, etiam per singulos Angliae 
comitatus, fuissent dispersai quam, ut nunc sunt, 
in angulo disposita^ et unius loci cancellis circum- 
scripta'i'. 

Sed agite, dicitis. Quid haec ad nostra ? — Et 
confitemar ipsi, nos none contemplaturos esse res 
fixas et determinatas, non e nubibus pendentes^ 
sed terrse subjectas. Et instare vos audimus, si 
queedam in his Academiis ab initio fuerint minus 
recta, (ot res human® non subito et quasi rap- 
tim ad ordinem exactissimum illabi solent,) si 
alia caduea, et ruinosa, (ot omnia terrena vocari 
debent,) si queedam corrupta et degenerata, (et op- 
tima interdum in pejus declinant,) si mul|^ nimis 
vetnsta, et robigine tacta (ut robiginem quandam 
suam spargere ubique locorum tempus festinat,) si 
hcec omnia concesseritis, strenue lamen iidem ur- 
geretis, multa quae mauent laudatione digna esse, 
et pretiosa, multa majorum nostrorum sapienti& bo- 
nisque consiliis referta, multa recentiornm studiis 
et scientise incrementis provecta : si, preeterea, ite- 
rum forsan instaretis, pauca qucedam t minus per- 
fecta, immo queedam quse reformationem requirant, 
maneant, remanere paulisper a Deo O. M. sini, ut 
sciamus, post consilia benignissima jam vanescen- 
tia, et conamina optimorum virorum frustrata, 

• Libffrdia iTisiUuUij a Vicesimo Knox, A. M. (S. T. P.) olim 
S. Jobannis apud Oxon. g^**' Vol. 7"*- Edit. p. 148. 

+ Sic quidem, leviter forsan nimis, prs Matris suae Almae re- 

Terenti^, vir doclus et huraanus Samuel Parr, S. T. P. in Sermone 

SIM Spitali, Apr. 15, 1800. 

c 2 



zxxvi DISSERTATIO 6ENERALIS. 

tempos ipsum, etiam sub silentio, esse sincerissi- 
mum et simul potentissimum reformatorem. 

Quod ad Academiarum nunc existentium Insti- 
tuta spectaty sint^ (fieri possit) qui objiciant, 
Athenas nostras nimis Greec^, nimis Latin^ reso-* 
nare; nimis saltem in peregrinis Unguis versari, 
quam Athenas Britannicas deceat, aut necesse sit. 
Tales vero, ut conjicimus, impugnatores rarius ves* 
tros apud gremiales, aut alumnos, oriri solent, 
^isi qui sint, (ut speramus, paucissimi,) • ventri aut 
somnolentia dediti, quique Greecarum etLatiaa- 
rum linguarum, aut ulllus artium et scientiarum 
administrandarum rationis ineptissimi sunt arbitri. 
Cum talibusy qui nee audiant nee videant, criticis, 
inane esset literariam controversiam movere. Venter 
non aures habet, nee somnus oculos. De nonnullis 
yero audivimus, qui, si non ex vobis, de vestris 
tamen solent judicium ferre, hominibus, si recte res 
humanasintuitifuerimus, qui vix, et ne vix quidem, 
in ullo vitee suae spatio has literas edocti, parvi eesti- 
menty quae minus norint; et vix ea laude digna pu- 
tent, ex quibus ipsi sperent nihil fructus aut famae. 
Cum illis imperitis verba nulla facimus ; cum his 
plura forsan quam satis, nisi quod potius ducamus 
vestr&m juvenum aemulationem excitare, quam alio- 
rum f ftXauTiap delinire. 

Quid enim? Dicant fortasse, has linguas, Grae- 
cam n. et Latinam, esse (sic vocatas), mortuas; 
nunc dierum minus necessarias; magis quam expe- 
diat, artiftciosas ; contortion ibus^ transpositionibus, 
ellipsibus, multum perplexasj magno studio et 



DISSERTATIO GENERALIS. xxxvii 

labore acquirendas, non pari volnptate aut utilitate 
habendas. 

At videant, qui talia objiciant^ne nimis festinent. 
Qui enim pro mortud Grseca lingua habenda est, 
quse per celebrem illam M oream, per Insulas Medi- 
terraneas et IoDica5$, etper vastas illas regionesTur- 
co-EuropeeaSy adhuc vivit; videnda quidem, vo- 
cum quod ad usum grammaticaletn et sensuui pristi-' 
num spectat, quiddam mutata, sed tamen quod ad li- 
terarum characteras etductus, ejusdem formee anti- 
quee, et plurima exhibens verba significationis primi- 
tivae? Accedit quod, ubl, *Pw/a«i)C9) quae vocatur, 
bodierna Greeca, pbpularis est, antiqua nuUo modo 
delitescit^. Qui porro Latinatn vocabis mortoam 
qu(e in partibus quibusdam Europse magis est 
etiam in vulgari usu, quam apud no9^ et cum ia 
Unguis Italian, Hispanise, Lusitaniae, et Gallise an- 
tiqua Latipa tarn dare discerni et distingni potest? 
Agnoscendum est, has linguas ab ordine et pro« 
cessu, quem Europeei seculi sunt, logico^ quiddam 
declinare, atque in dispositione vel constrnctione sud 
quandam artis sequi rationem : Et cur non ? In hdc 
ipsd. ratione moribus et ingeniis hominum potius fa% 
vent, quorum necessi tat Ibuslingueedebent inservire. 
Genus humanum pro certo non minus est animale, 
quam intellectuale; atque ipsahsec, quam vocant, di- 
cendi ratio artificiosa, etsi in quotidianis hominum 
congressibus minus necessaria, in iisf nihilominus 

* Pnefat ad Gloss. Me<L et Inf. GraBcitatis, per C. Du Frosne ; 
etVoyagedeDimo etNicoIo S^hanopoli en Grecei en a. 1797| 
1798. Tom. 2, pp. 18, 19. 

f Monde Primitif Analyse et Co^pparc avec le Monde Modeme, 



• • -.( 



4 



xxxviii THBHERTATIO GENERALIS. 

congressibus^ et etiam in omnibus Unguis, seepe appa- 
retj in scriptis vero, sive prosaicis, sive poeticis^ in- 
primis effiilget; et seepenumero non modo est 
decora et venusta, maximeque utilis, in variis 
animi facultatibus exercendis, et instruendis, sed 
multo magis in affectibus aut excitandis, aut 
sedandisy in hominibus a proposito male ominoso 
et periculoso dimovendis, vel ad aliquid momenti 
conatu feliciori et impetu majori provehendis: om- 
nis enim vis et ratio dicendi hue tendit: adeo nt, 
quae in hoc argumento ar» esse judicetur, nullo 
modo est naturae contraria; quippe non impedi- 
mentum est, sed quasi fulcrum, et, dum subsidia 
arnica et gratiosa adhibet, naturam ampliorem et 
capaciorem reddit : in electione atque dispositione 
yerborum, aeque ac in constructione sententia- 
rum, tanta est vis et facultas *. 

Quod ad linguam Latinam spectat, bene disse^ 
ruit vir publicis muneribus non magis idoneus, quam 
artibus elegantioribus versatus, et morum probitate 
prseditus, eques ille nobiiis, olim e nostris, 6u- 
lielmus Temple:' « linguas hodiernas, Italicam 
nimirum, Hispanicam, et Gallicam, esse tan- 
turn dialectos nobiiis Latinae imperfectas, prime 
crudis vocibus et terminationibus gentium barbara- 
rum intermixtas, quarum incursibus Imperium Ro- 
manum ftiit obrutum, una cum ruinis et depravatio- 

** EpreaTes qa'une double construction eidste dans toutes l«s Lan- 
gues," &c. Liv. IT. c* vii. p. 528. 

• Cicero de Oratore, Lib, 3. Dionysius Halicarn. de Sinict. 
Orat. Sect. ir. Optime de hac re Blair in Lect. ut cit. a R. P. 
Knight, et ipse Knight in Analytica Disquisition©, &c. p. 125; 3'* 
edit. 



DISSERTATIO GBNERXLIS. xxxix 

nibiis linguae Latinse; dum interea lingua ipsa 
Latina, Greecise spoliis decoratai populi illui^trissimiy 
qui bistorise recondationi commendatur, meditatio- 
lubns ac exercitationibus composita est et consti- 
tuta*." 

Quis etiam non sentit cum Bacono nostro, 
** utile fore, si universee Academise per totam Euro- -^ 

pam sparsee arctiorem conjunctionem et necessitu- 

4 t* 

dinem contraherent f ?" Et quis non videt, banc -' 

fa'miliaritatem et communicandi viam non nisi per 
linguam omnibus communem ineundam esse ? Quis 
vestr6m oescit, viros doctos, de omnibus artibus et 
scieotiis annos per quamplurimos jam actos inter 
se communicantes, vel consultantes, banc viam ini- 
isse, et quasi Mercurium, Deorum internuncium, 
extitisse linguam Latinam ? Quisnam igitur banc 
lioguam levis pretii putabit? Immo potius quis 
doctus, vel doctrinae cupidus; earn non perutilem, 
pen^ dixeramus^ necessariam, judicabit, at quae, 
fidelis administra, comesque viae et virtutis^ad varios 
scientiaa usus se accommodavit? 

Neque hie sistendum est : diligenter enim rem 
perpendenti apparebit, gratias etiam ingentes, 
magnis benefieiis acceptis, linguis Graecis et Lati- 
nis esse referendas. Nam revera non modo per 
eaSy ut per canales, arles et scientiae, a fontibiis ori- 
entalibus derivatae, ad nos defluxerunt, sed, iis nisi 
praecurrentibus, et cursum praemonstrantibus, gentes 
etiam occidentales, quod ad suam historiam spectat, 
aridae forentet siccae. " Omnia forsan, ad eas per- 

• Miscellanea, a Gul. Temple, eq. aurato, Part. «*•• in Trac- 
tatu de Anliqud et HodiemA Doctrindy Vol, II. p, 56. 
+ De Augment* Scientiarumy Lib, ii. ^^ 



X I DISSERTATIO G£NERALIS. 

tinentia (Gulielmi Temple sunt verba) sapra sep^ 
tingentesimum vel octingentesiioQiii annam, illis dU 
motis, delitnissent." De rebus ultra hoc spatiuin ex* 
currentibusy et prsesertim lis, qucead nostros Britan- 
• BOS ^' toto orbe divisos'' spectant, omnia nobis minus 
nota, sunt, quo minus ab illis tradita et confirmata^. 
Et quidem hsec generalia in promptu sunt omni- 
bus: et de singulis coram Academicos minus ex- 
pedit disserere. Quid enim opus est multa denar- 
rare de innumeris elegantiis, de copid, de varietate, 
de sublimitate, linguee Greece? Quid de.poetis 
prsestantissimisi quid de philosophis, et mathemati- 
cis gravissimis^quid deoratoribus,ethistoriographiSy 
quid denique de celeberrimis in omni arte et scientia, 
in omni genere dicendi, per orbem Christianum de- 
cantatis, scriptoribus, qui Greecid in antiqud florue- 
runt? Yos soliti estis, Academici^ proprio jure 
usi, juvenes admonendo et cohortando Britan^ 
nicos de his Uteris strenue prosequendis prae* 
dicare ; 

'* Nocturn& versate manu, versate diurnd;'' 
et, quod ad has pertinet disciplinas, tam amoenas 
et jucundas, quam utiles et honestas, juvenes Can* 
tabrigienses, aureis preemiis, et poculis sacris ad 
semulationem et dignitatem propositis, in utri- 
usque linguee studinm incitare : 

** Quamobrem pergite, ut facitis, atque in id 
studium, in quo estis, incumbite, ut et vobis ho- 

* CitatioDuxn plurimae Bertrami in ** Notis in Descriptionem 
Britannias per Ricardum Cirencestrienaem," et in Opere ipso, a 
Rocnanis et Grsecis scriptoribus sunt excerptae. 

1 



BISSERTATIO GENERALIS. xli 

nori, amicis utilitati^ et reipublicoe emolamento esse 
possitis*." 

Sic igitur se res babet. Si nimiruin bee disci^ 
plinee cause essent^ob quas aliastudiai qute hodiema 
experientia eliciat et edoceat, quee usus qaotidianus 
comprobet et requirat, aut quae vetastatis religio 
bonoret et consecret, ?icta quasi jacerent, haec 
instituta supra memorata in laudem minus verte- 
rentur. At quidem ut in novissioiis prosequendis 
fuistis non ultimi, ita in antiquis bonestandis 
esse soleiis primi. 

De rebus buc pertinentibus, olim bic institutis, 
alibi diximusf. Et non ita pridem apud Oxonien- 
ses veteris nostree linguoet Saxonicse, studiosis bo- 
Dores et prsemia sunt proposita ; munus Profes8ori-> 
urn apud eos j; institutum est: et quod illud potuit^ 
fecit. Simili ratione nuperrime tos apud vir doc- 
tus, quo vivo nemo magis vos bonorabat^ Ro« 
bertus Ty rwbitt, Hebraicis literis munifice § as- 
titit; et quod moriens legavit^ juvenum animos ' 

ad eas prosequendas . alliciendo et concitando, 
firmiter et durabiliter, ut sperandum sit, sustentabit. 
Quas enim ipse liberalitate donavit pecunias, eas vos 
non minori judicio admini^travistis. 

Accedat tamen oportet aliud genus argument!. 
His enim consiliis sua suppeditabunt tbeologici. 
Quippe omnes Cbristianorum ccetus, quomodo- 
cunque in partes diversas de fidei suse dogmatis 

^ Cicero de Oratore, Lib. i. 
-I- Hist. Cantab. Univenit Vol. I. Ch. xi. 
% Dotatttm a. 1752 ; sed efficax redditum a. 1705. 
§ £4000 legavit. Hebraice tres Exhibitiones exinde orientes 
Senatus Decreto constitute sunt a. 1818. 



xlii DISSERTATIO GENERALIS. 

quasi distrabantar, et singuli in singulas controver-^ 
sias inter se divertantur, omnes tamen adeo conve- 
nire sclent, nt libros, quos Novum Fadiis vocant, 
adanient una et venerentur ; adeo ut non fieri possit, 
quin de discipline, quae hue spectet, universi velint 
conclamare Gbristiani : 

** Hanc video, sed pulcbra colo, qaee cerno per 
ipsam.'^ 

Et quidem hactenus de rebus Classicis, et de iis, 
qui non de Collegiis vestrivS adeo judicent, ut est 
prorsus impugnare velint, sed quipotius studiis qui-' 
busdam et disciplinis ibi constitutis se, quid- 
dam forsan objiciant. Alii de matbematicis forte 
simili modo vobiscum serio agant. 

Ex iis, qui Pbysicisvestris et Matbematicis sese ob- 
jiciant, alii sint, qui, n. juvenes, juveniliter se agant, 
et prse ignorantid ; — alii, musarum studio, vel arti- 
bus humanioribuSf qnse vocantur, dediti, qui, si non 
pree cujusdani tvha-iaa-fAs inconstanti^ et insolentid, 
aut delicatuli »ingenii protervitate, at saltern prte 
mente studiis aliis preeoccupatd — alii, quippe Tbeo- 
log], prae fidei suee reverentid, pree prudentid, ut 
putant, non intempestivd, aut prse magis seduld se 
res ad divinas abstrabendi curd — alii forsan, et 
iidem Matbeinatici, pree pbilosopbise, prne Matbe- 
matices ipsias amore et observantid — De bis in 
ordine, sed breviter. 

Qui pree ignorantid disciplinis quibu&libet se ob« 
jiciat hoc tantum declarat, (quod ut pueri inter 
elementa disci mus) Pica garrit^ n. dentibus et labiis 
dat sonos, non vero verba clara emittit, aut quae arti- 
culatione discerni possunt. Non vero linguA, sed ra- 
tione, bominem agnoscimus. Sed ut de philosopbia 



DISSERTATIO GENERALIS. xliii 

dictum est, quod novit, bene novit; ita de ignoran- 
tiA» quod ignorat, penitus ignorat : et argumentum 
ab igDoranti& nihil requirit nisi ad ignoraniiaia ar- 
gumentum. 

Porro, qui pree poeticis abundantiis^ delicatis 
nimis affectibus, aut mentibus aliis studiis prfieoccu- 
patis^y judicant, quid dicunt, nisi, Musas et rura 
sibi ante omnia placere, aut Logica, Dialectica, 
Historica, Politica, et si quid alia, se Mathematicis 
prseferre ? Sed, ubi qusestio orta est de cujusdum ar- 
tis aut scientise pulchritudine, liberalitate, honestate, 
€|t utilitate, asseveratio nihil probat aut improbat: 
etf ut de gustibus non disputandum, ita nee de his 
rebus ex generalibus concludendum est. 

Quod objiciant nonnulli, pro parte theologiee^ 
p6rcipimus eo minus, quo magis rebus, hue ten* 
dentibus, a fundatoribus vestris provisum est. Quid 
enim? Nonne sunt omnes pene coUegiorum ma- 
gistri, aut custodes, lutores, et socii pene cuncti, 
tbeologi ? Nonne officia lisd^m imposita et exercita, 
clericalia? Beneficia varia, iislargita,ecclesiastica? 
Ijecturce ordinatee, munera Professoria, preces pub- 
lic8e, ac conciones in templo et collegiorum sacellis 
habitee, nonne omnia hasc, Mathematicae quasi inter- 
mixta, spirant omnino Theologiam ? Nee nos vehe- 
menter movet, (quod a quibusdam dicitur,) Mathe- 
maticam ipsamvergere in In^ofo^iuv essesolitam; et, 
ut sub hoc proetextu. alii jam ab olim Aristotelis Phi- 
losophise oppugnaverunt (utposteaCartesiiPrincipi- 
is,) ita tandem alios simili ratione Newtoni Matbe- 

♦ Ut Grayius nosier in lEpistoU ad Westium, in Vita- per Ma- 
sonem. 



xliv \ DISSERTATIO GENERALIS. 

maticee belLisse ^ ? Quid eniin heec ad rem ? Dei 
natura non se subjicit artibus experimentalibus, non 
cedit scientiis intellectualibas; non aptat se regulis 
Euclidaeis; non a priori petitis circamscribenda nee 
defendenda est propositionibus ; et, si qui fuerint apud 
vos docti, qui inaniter talia conati sint, fuenmt alii, 
qui graviter iisdem restiteruntf . At quidem ut a 
talil;)us argumentis Theologise gravitas non est an- 
genda, ita nee ab eorum confidenti^ vel impotentid 
Mathematicarum pretium aut dignitas est diminu- 
enda: nee magis, ni fallimur, quam Logica, Me- 
taphysica, vel Historia veritati se objicit; imrno 
potius, cogitando, inquirendo^ connectendo, et de* 

* BaconuB non se iheologic^ opposuit Aristoteli, ut alii quamplu- 
rimi. — Philosophia Aristotelis jam ab olim Cantabrigiam penitus 
occupaverat. Cartesii Matbematica secuta est, et inter Cantabrigi- 
enses pbilosopbiain eju? admiratus *est Henricus More, Aulae 
Clar. Soc. (" divinus ille Philosopbus" ul vocatur a Gul. Whiston) 
cum omnibus pane Ca^|abrigieasibus. Idem vero H. More a 
Cartesio in tribus dogmatis dissensit, et ei graviter, non acriter, 
oppugnavit. Epistola H. Mori ad V. C. quas Apologiam Com- 
plectitur pro Cartesio, &c* Inter Opera. Lond. 1662. — Hutch- 
insonus, Oxon. et Discipuli ejus se objecerunt, ut bene notum est, 
Newtoiio theologice. Sic etiam Berkeleius Episc. Clogher : quas- 
dam buc spectantia notat Gul. lonesius, A. M. in £pist. ad Pupil- 
los repetitis a. 1820. Epist. sexti. 

i Demimstrajtio de ExtstentiA et AttribtUis Dei, a S. Clarke, 
S.T.P. (Caii Coll.) De h&c celebri maihtm&iick DemonUratione 
argumentis a priori petitis fundati, quid sentirent multi e Can- 
tabrigiensium eruditis, Clarkio coaevis, ll{>paret in Disquisitione 
de Idai8 Spalii, Temporis, ImmeThsitaUSy &c. per Edm. Law, 
S. T. P. (docto admodum Pet. Dom. Mag. et Episc. Carleol.) 
primum Cantabrigias impressa a. 1734. Hsc antea notavimus 
in Hist. Cantab. 



DISSERTATIO 6ENERALIS. xW 

tnonstrando quam maxim^ se agens, mentem eri- 
git, ac dirigit, viamque veritati apertiorem et 
prooiptiorem redd it. Haec est Mathematicoriim 
ratio. Et si quis forte Mathematicus argumento- 
rum vi, superstition is somnia, metapbysices molimi- 
na, vel enthttsiasmi deliramenta aliquid moveat, 
aut deturbety non ideo ex necesse damno afficeret 
ipsam illam Religiouem, quae sedeat in intellectu, 
corrigat mores, et quiescat in corde. 

Isti qnidem a scopo multum aberraverunt, eo 
quod Demonstrationem summi Numinis ExistentuB 
ac Attrihutorum ejus in basim mathematicam po^ 
nerent; nee minus, eo quod Naturam ejus secun- 
dum quasdem Algebraicas JRationes et Proportiones 
Geometricas explicare ac elucidare vellent. Ita 
multi judicabant apud vos eruditi: quippe quod, 
cum hffic Tia Geometrica et Rationum Composition 
nis et Resolutionis analogia in scientiis et artibus 
bumanis aut civilibus multum valent, nullo modo 
tamen ad Dei naturam, quee bominum sensus supe- 
rat, attingere possunt. Est enim ea nee Propositio- 
nibus Geometricis, quoe sensibus sunt subjiciendte, 
cognoscenda, nee Rationibus et Proportionibus re« 
solvenda, nee Quantitatum mensuris circumscri- 
benda nee dividenda. 

His rebus seri6 perpensis, et penitus perspectis, 
vir apud vos auctoritate magnft, viam in demon- 
strationibus Dei deducendis ab his longe diversam, 
ut scitis, instituit. Missis argumentis, qu» ex altd 
iU& vift (a priori ut vocatur) pendent, ut rei minus 
idoneis, humiliorem illam, sed, ut putSstis,. latio- 






*9 



xhr\ DISSERTATIO GENERALIS. 

rem, tntiorem, et certioretn, (a posteriori dictam J 
qnam naturse opera nobis indicant, et humanus in* 
tellectus facile cernere potest, summo ingenio pro- 
secutUs est *• 

Quod objiciunt alii argfunientam, nempe tos 

nimis Mathematics; occupari, vosniet apud, scilicet 

mathematicos, ut ab olim, sic nuperrimef, ortum 

est. Cuncti nimirnnl doctortim coetas un^ voce 

conclamant, *^ omnes artes, (et scientias) quae ad 

humanitatem pertinent, habere quoddam commune 

yinculum^ et qaasi cognatione qu&dam inter se 

cootineri X^^ ^^ matu6 sublevare, et opitulari, sin* 

gnlisque honores proprios deberi. Heec mytho- 

logiae veterum et HieroglyphiceB olim adumbr^- 

rant; qoatenus Masae numero no?em erant, eae- 

demque sorores, similiter ac Gratise; his chorearum 

dux et comes yenus§; illis, intellectualis et mn- 

sic8B harmoqiee Dens, Apollo* Elegantissimum 

illud de Cupidine et Psyche figmentum eandem 

* Gul. Paley, S. T. P. in Dissertationibus dc NaUirali Theo^ 
logiA. 

+ Quid de rebus hue spectantibus censuerit cL Jebb et alii docii 
sui temporis videndum sit, in Jebbii Operibus, Vol. 2, p. 259. — 
Nuperrime C.Wordsworth, S, T. P^ Trin. Col. Mag.p«(ii<, Gra- 
tiam proponere de literis aliis, in Gradibus papessendis, Mathcsi 
adjungendis. 

X Cicero, pro Archil Poet4, sub initio. 

§ Jam Cytherea chores ducit Venus, immincnte lunS,, 
Junctseque Nymphis Gratiae decentes 
Alter no terram quatiunt pede. 

Hoa, Oo. L. I. 4. 



DISSERTATIO 6£NERALIS. xlvii^ 

indicavit harmoniam: similique modo apud iBgyp- 
4ios septem literse^ duobus digitis inclusae, Musas^^ 
et cynocephalas, mixti generis animal, literas vel 
literaturam indicavit: et propterea cynocephalus 
omnium literarum parti cipi, Mercurio, sacer eratf. 
Yiri ex Cantabrigiensibus docti, quos mod6 
respeximus, bsec bene senserunt, et| nil obstante 
Mathematices, quo ipsi flagrabant, ardore, doctrinis 
caeteris, quoe classicee ac elegantiores vocari solent^ 
cultum suum et observantiam nolebant recusarej 
immo exoptabant eas juxta ipsam Mathesim, nee 
longo intervallOy coUocatas videre : atque hoc pro- 
posito, ut existimabant multi, laude dignissimo, GrU" 
tiam apud Senatum offerre, ut notavimus, petebant. 
Bene quidem intelligebant^prsemianon pauca3ene. 
factorum monificentid,tam privatim in collegiisiquam 
public^ in Universitate, iis distribui fuisse solita, 
qui in poeticis, bistoricis, rhetoricisi et theologicis 
prolusionibus et exercitationibus a consociis suis 
victoriam reportarent : et haec quidem admiraban- 
tur; sed expectabantmajora; nempe, doctrinis clas- 
sicis ac aliis utilibus disciplinis, in ipsis publicis exa- 
minationibus et in Gradibns capessendis, partes suas 
sustentare, atque honoressibipropriosticcipere, per- 
mittendam ; his adjungeresoliti, aurea ilia numismata 

c»v <rf)p«Jir«. HoRAP. Lib. ii, ^29. 

» Et* h xai to ^mv ixar^ ^E^f^if tHfJi,n^nf tw 'crxvruy {aitz* 
Jjoi^i ypxfAfAaTdov. Id. Lib. i. 14. 



xlviii DISSERTATIO GENERALIS. 

duo, a Caacellario donata, etsi solennia, et honorifi-' 
ca, tamen non ad omnes Graduates, ac quidem ad 
ipsos gradus ne vel minimum, referre. 

Et isti forsan advocati talibus inter alia duett 
fuerant argumentis; — quod, ut apud OxonienseSy 
multis ineptiis Hcholasticis tandem exulatis^, per- 
missum fuisiet Mathesi juxta Hamanitates suas 
honorari, ita sperandum esset, Classicis, cum disci- 
pline qu» cum illis conjungi solet, apud Cantabri- 
gienses simili modo^ eequalique sorte, distingui et 
coronari fore permissum ;— et quod, ut ilia mores ho« 
minum moUiunt, et nsibus vitss civilis communibus 
inserviunt su& bumanitate, non minus, immo, ut qui- 
dam putaruntf, magis, quam beec suft severitate, 
et quidem ipsi Mathesi Classica esse tarn subsidi-^ 
um, quam omamentum, amboi sub almee matris 
Universitatis tutela, eodem modo foyeri, et dex- 
tram conjungere dextra sini deberent: sic persuasi^ 



* Dispidationes in Parvtdoy &c. longo jam tempore apud Oxoni- 
enses religiose habitae sunt, at tandem ab ipsis Academicis, nempe 
viris Rev. R. Newton, Napleton, Amhurst, et Knox, S. T. P P. pro 
mentis in derisionem Tersse. Omnes hi, (ni forsan excipiamus 
Knox) Tuiores erant residentea in Academili Oxoniensi. Quaedam 
etiam objurgavit vir Rev. H. Kett, B. D. non ita pridem Tutor 
Tnn. Coll. (in Elementis Generalis Scientiae). Quanto autem in 
melius res literarie nunc tractentur Oxonie, videndum sit in Re- 
sponsione ad calumnias Reoensorum Edinburgensium in Oxoni- 
am, studiorum, quaB nunc in Academic Oxoniensi habentur, ra- 
tionem denarrante, Cap. ti. Oxon. 1810. 

i Vicesimus Knox, S. T.P. in Tractatu nuper edito, 1821, de 
Scholis Qrammaiicis, &c* 



DISSBRTATIO GENERALIS. xlix 

Mnsam ipsam, Humanitatum divauiy (si res classicas 
narranti fas sit more ludere cla8sico)suam causam co- 
ram Senatu orare sibi forsan audire viderentar : 

« 

Nolite sinere per vos Arits Liherales 

Hecidere ad paucos ; facite, ut vestra auctoritas 

Meae auctoritati fautrix adjutrixque sit *. 

Ag'ite vero — alii fuerunt, ut nunc sunt^apud gre- 
miales etiam vestros, iidemque, vobis ipsis judici- 
bus, viri ingeniosi, et tarn de Geometric, quam 
Algebraic&i optime meriti, qui, etsi doctriuas illas 
ipsas Tehementius admirentur, non in omnibus el 
singulis nunc usitatam in iis instituendis rationeo^ 
possunt sequi : Mathematica systematic»s tradita esse 
non objiciunt ; immo putant, nihil tradendum esse 
magis seriatim, in ordine systematico, quam ma* 
thematica^ et etiam tradi oportere secundum sys^ 
tema summo et communi doctorum judicio compro* 
batum, ddhec quiddam melius, ab iisdem perceptum 
et confirmatum, elucescat : sed metuunt, ne omnia 
singulaque per systemata recepta nimis supenti- 
tiose colantur, dum speculationes forsan felices 
aliorsum conceptse ne vel digito tangautur; non 
bbliti, quali religione nomen Aristotelis, singulaeque 
sententiee istius philosophi, pro modo suo certe mul- 
tom colendi, tam i^ud Cantabrigiensesquam Oxoni* 
enses, nostros antecessores, olim haberentur f : ipsi 
quidem^ miscendo censuras admirationibus, Geo* 

* Terent. Heautoot. •■ 

+ Mirandam, si npn poti|is ridendum^ tale decretam idibbI* 
enduin esse inter SMttuts Oxonientiura, <* Ariatotelemp aitnilher 
totamque Peripatetiooram doctrinam pro Yirili dtieniereteneanimifJ* 



DljSSEETATIO GGNERALIS. 

metriaqi pro optiBQli Lagicee artis ms^gistr^^ cer<- 

ti^V^tque .Mieotw iu proMquendis duce» m* 

munt, et ^Ifiebraicapt scieotiam esse mire clur^un 

elegantissimamque ultro ag^noscuDt ; at simul axis- 

timant, tani in prioris quam in posterioris doctrinee 

Elementis exponendis plus obscuritatisinesse, quam 

in libris academicis necesse sit, aut deceat, plus 

dnbii, quam doctrinee a sensibus et experienti& 

dedttcendse expediat, aut rebus ipsis constet; et 

proinde minus deliciarum, quam quod juveniles 

aniiftios allicere atque captare debeat. Adde, quod 

konim nonnulli judicent, vestram ipsam mathemar 

ticam qua&dam conari, quce forsan non sint juris 

sui ; talia videlicet quee motiks et liicis causam 

explicare pergant, et alia quee ad corpora ccelestia 

spectent. Demonstt*ationes malhematicas de rebus 

th iis^ pendentibus de^mafit, et religiose colunt : 

fled talia, ut illi urgent, vires ejus superant : Eucli- 

dem fit Ne wtonem pro divinis pene hominrbus acci- 

piunt, sed neque adeo divinis, ut errare nesciant ; 

neque isti de alteruUo cantfllare valient, quae poetft 

de Homero ^ : 

at vix ut alius: 

StaU Tit. % Sect. 2. Ezimis qusBdam censuraB in hoc fliUtutam 
Tidende sint, a yiro honeeto, R. Newton, Anl. Alb. MBgistro 
4at«, in Viooaimi Knoxii, Liberal. Inaflt.' Vol. 2. 

P lieonidaa Taientiniia, in FloriUgtb Gmco, L. t. 67. Edit. 
ML - 

+ Ibid. L. T. 17. 



Verom enimv^ro cuai ^e teliimft A^^d^i^icQ^ 
oompelUoHifb Mcit vobiqanii |«f:J(w, jb^iIu] ij^ pjc^c- 
iiag h^piiiom oMtt^m^tacoraqfi olMifsrva^ti^s^ nibU 
nB ve\ JQv^ulQtis mi(Uiei|iatic8p qwi, qomindtt^re vel 
etiam comiMndare pr«e ngbi* farre. Sojam qui^que 
martem, qaem obtinuit^ d^fendat; nos QOftmin. 
Hoc acilicet dootax^t nol^i^ erat in propositp^ inapL- 
{esbaut reddecep iios, quii:quid alii di9 puris (qaae 
vooantor) mathpmaXici^t et de iia, qi|} his 9jti|diis 
vehemeutius dediti^ i^e r^bqs ab huiqanis, arti* 
bos iUis Uberalibn^ sffi^fiUvHlJ^e u^ilil^oais, «e pror- 
M18 abstrabaotp quicquid 4a talibp^ ii ^jati^ient^ 
nos nathematiposji el, pro teniiitate owtra, ipsaoi 
in somnio booore ten^e inatli^aticaoi, ut qiii^ 
[patnne opera ex^icet fitqu^ illa^ret, legea ^jju^ }|p 
vives exhibeat atqme den^oi^tr^ji et Ifhym^p ^^ 
qosB acieotias a 9onmbas et v)tplk;icttt deriya^ 
aiiyorent et proniaireaqti videlicet hoc in ineo;^ 
rii teoantes,. noa faic lopi gw^ ^^ i^ft^be^i disse- 
rendoip, neo can mw^hem^j^cifl coateo46Q49a)ff ft^ 
hoc uique nobi^f dum verba fiieirio^ ^f lit?ris» oi^« 
nia, more noetro, historice tanyt^ e^ 4f^Darrafida* 
Hactemui de .sebiW lit^ir^riid * ; et forsan pjos 



* Sjcriptores CantabrigienseB, ad quos praecedeiitia referenda 
nmt, ^t qaos in Hist. Cantab, ex parte jam citavimuBy sequun- 
tur: GuL Green, S.T.P. Anls Clar. Tutor, in Traetata de 
HodiotaA Pbilosophil ; Gal. Maaeree, A. M. Aule Ckr. oKm 
l^ji^yay ifi^onc T^emndos Scaocarii'Baro Caraxtor, in yariis AJge* 



faraidf O^riboa^ aaa aeparatim editia, et conjtmctim com aliia in 
Aetia PUloBopbiciay Vol. 47, et cum GhiLIVend, A. M. qma^ 



d2 



lii DISS£RTATIO GENERALIS. 

satis videatar, qa&m ad ipsam occasioneniy nostran^ 
modeatiam et tenuitateniy aut vestram spem. Fto- 
culdubio res ipsa inateriem abunde suppeditat: 
eorum vero laudatiot quee omDium admirationibua 
extolli Solent, trita foret exercitatio, laus exigfoa: 
nee talinm reeordationem requirat academicorom 
experientia. Jncidimus vero in hoc genus argumen* 
tf, non inani conamine, sed certiL quadam spe, docti, 
manifestum fore, nos, si formas, et processus quos** 
dam scholasticos minus, quam alii quidam solent, 
religiose suspicemur, artes tamen Itberales et scien^ 
tias intellectuales debito honore tenere, et justas 
iis grates persolvere paratos esse. Longiusqoe, ot 
veram fateamur, earum admiratione^in iis quae prflB«- 
cesserant, lectorem morati sumos, quo minus alia 
nontiulla, qu® manent, placeant ; non omnino ne* 
scit, homines extitisse, qui pro veritatis oppug^ato-^ 
ribUR et'arttum ingenuarum devastatoribus putent 
et designent eos, qui de rebus minus ceriis 
quiddam dubitent, aut de minus utilibus et jucun- 
dis aliquid detrahant, rx crra et r« f^n t^r^ inter 
se plane confandentes. * 

Res igitur qase se nunc oflferctat nobis breiriter 

m 

dam CoU Jes^ Socio et Tutore: W. Ludlam olim S. Job. Cantab. 
SociuSi in Rudimentis Mathematices, repetita Lond. 1809; ct 
Galielmus Fr«pd, jam memoratus, in Vespertirds "per Hyemes 
AmanUatSbuSf 18%, 1821. Alios ^tiam, etsi non Canta- 
bngiensea, lioeat recognbscere^ Hutchinson in Mosis Princi* 
pia, A^l7U-j GuL Jon^, A. M. in Epistolis ad Pupillos] 1830. 
et Tho. Beddoes^M* I^* m Observationibus in NcUuram Efvideniia 
D^moTutrativa, 1793 aUosq. OzonieDset. 



DISSERTATIO 6ENERALI9. U» 

considerandas, fUDt iUius generis, quod ypcatur 
poUticum et ogcammnwum, de quibos hie ^pi plurt- 
«a verb* facere v« expectaodun, erit, pn««r. 
tim qaam de iis in Libro Privilegiorum Canta- 
-brigiee subsequent! difFundantur plnrinia, et quum 
prudentiee esset, ut plurimi sentiapt, de iis nihil 
proferre; ne forsan in aere piscari, in oceanove- 
nari) aut inter flactus maris tempestnosos volare^ 
<^pere videremnr. Sed qoo fata Tocant sequi* 
rour; et mens nostra sibi vix constat.. Genios 
enim nescio qois, iterum ut antehac, 8§u bQnu«» 
sen mains, nos provocate et eonscieotia sive recta 
sive male feriata urget. 

At quicquid Genius ille moneat, distinguendum 
est. Caveamus ne per vestiga tores cum accusato- 
ribus, apologistas et defensores cum inimicis, et 
arnicas coUationes cum censmia malignis aut sa*- 
tyris mordacibus confundamus. Quidnienim? Quts 
alium rerum plarimis abhinc annis actarum ante se 
natum accusabit ? Liceat posteris acta et io- 
stituta priorum ssecalorum examinare, inter se 
comparare, trutinare, et liberam sententiam de iib 
ferrCt si modo enm modesti&, cum jnstitid, . cum 
foenevolentiA, cum bumanitate. Sed, ut suam 
qnisque homo, sive culpse, sive virtutis, onus ferris 
debet, ita singulee setates* Et, ut hojusce sib- 
cnli homines de majoribus suis judicare debeant, 
ita poster! de nostris. Lex labitur, et non i;aro post 
se relinquit hitolenta : prsesens vero uetas integra 
atque innocens sit, et, nisi sordes coUectas re- 
movere recusaret, earn talium accusare crimen ^ 
esset. 



N(ft6 iidem omtiitio ftuftidfc igfimri, qdali vinculo 
lioiiiinds hi ^tts sdb^hts tel ttc^tdeiiiin dolHt foertnt 
aijtrin^i, jEtpud qttM' setatem joTenilem cgerint^ 
Kt^fts bMteH 4exc6ladritit| honores obtinaerint, so- 
fUd^f atnicMy t>atrdli08 compnraverint. Hos nimif- 
ram affectns oatata dob docet, experientia coftfir* 
mat, <^oatettipktio fovet: pnesentibus grati animi 
urg^et dele^tatto; abf^entibos etiam adest; amor 
prit9tmi]S ardet u^iie ad seneetvtem: adeo ot, 
sive casu aliquo tal^s sedes revisamus, vel quasi 
e lotigitifiuo tantdim tontemplemiir, pi4 quadam 
soleamtis efferri revereBti& : 

Oh ! tu severi Religio loci, 
Quocunque gaudes nomine — ^ Gr. 

Sed quorsum teadit beec omiib oratio ? Nempe 
bac t at cognoscamw de his animi affectibus^ bo* 
Ileitis fenan ct ^s^ temere diceodam fore, qood 
prot^rbialiter de Cvpidiiie illo peeticp, temerario 
Mip^y incmisalto et J^ dMomJ^u, ** Coocam amorem 
esse/' aut quasi wnare H tapere sit impossibile. 
ilois if«str&m, academici, son meminerit, Thacydi- 
dem, scriptorem istutn Belli Peleponnesiaci cele- 
brem, qao modo erga sues Athoiienses se gesserit ? 
OrationibuS) qoas legati Corcyrseorum, et Coria- 
^oram tmdebank^ et iis Atbeqieosiam el Lace- 
^M&oilioramy inter se comparatis, clarios lace ^mg^ 
parebity moBstissini istius belli occasionem dedisse 
ipsos Atfaenienses, ^aos gabernandi lubido nimis 

* Orayu Ode «d Grands ChartreiMe« Epist. 30^ inter opp. 



invaserat, eosque prs^ aim vitnperando» esse. J9ic 
visum Mt Tkocydrdi: kimenque veritati!!, (|vk>d 
IB histori& ejus resplendet, eaoi reddiait xrfifAot t^ aH, 
nagis fortasse, quam fienteiitianitB ejus profunditfti^, 
et verboram eloquentia. Talia vera inter deniiir-* 
randuin, nonne idem dilexit Athenienses? Imnodo^ 
videtur de Athenis se* superbiisse, et glomm quilsi 
pneripuisse nomine civ is Atheniensis, hoc modo 
suam exorsus histqriam, OouiIu^i^ik Ainifct^^c iy^d^t t^ 
)roXf/»o» TMir U%K9vtwniv%ui¥ ; et in adminuidit iU& Perictis 
fonebri oratione^, qu& de rebos Atheniensibusr eon«> 
cionanteBti indiicebat Periclem, nihil non ornal^i 
nihil non Hberaliter, nihil non benevole de Athenis 
in ordiae cotiseribit. E contrai Dionysiusr Halicar- 
nassMis adeo erat tarn rhetor, ipiatti hi&totiograplm^ 
at etiam Thocydidem castigarcW^ ntpote Atherti* 
eases petiifs vitiiperaatem, quadfi adinivantem, ef 
of aure^ eorundem illecebrltf Terboniifn minuii 
ttttAaiitem, et» exittde bistoriiB deeori non satis 
eemolentem: ac si bistoiriogt*apfatts no^ magfitf 
essrt hamani generis, qosfni etojuslibet civftatitri- vel 
alia qotevis* ei esseH p¥ovineia pi^ifetev tetitateM. 
Fatnanf illam et vaaiiequam Dionysir censitrani^ 
Hobbesiusf Malmesburiensis jure castigavit, et 
us^pw ad meiieBr. 

<|uod ad acadeittim spectaC, qutst iMfgaree» FrMw 
ci^cuiH Baconum, virum eiftr^ otuneiti juditii aleatti' 
pene po«tnm, eas multum am&se ? Idem tamen 

* 

* Thttcydb ds Bek Pelopon* Lib. n. e. 34. Bd^Bawc. 
+ De Vtt& et Hist. Thacydidia. PraiiA. dt HtoMMii f«i(k»ft<!ftifi 
Thucyd. 



Mil mSSBRTATIO 6EI9ERALIS. 

inprimis^ igUm^ tm non effugit, Hobb^iuiii 
MftlmesbmrieDsem, omct riiis, affinnttre soittes 
60se^ UniversitateSy qaee vocantar^ origines SMtt 
^t totam Tim traxisse a saeerdotalt paparam aucto^ 
ritate^ prinao fundatai^*-^ftic isti pntCtniiit, — velut 16 
Hrbetarrescastellatas, protuteift et praeisidioEcclMiife 
Romanas ; nonnullosque alios, nettipe Catholicos, ex- 
pectasse, res acadetnicas, quo, sub reformattonis prs&- 
tMtUydeflexerant, ee reditoras. Ex hoc tiumerofuit, 
si recte conjiciaiiius, Boster Hflirius, hdc modo^^ «K 
Yideiis^, Registrocd suam exorsns^ '^ Ad Honorem 
et Gloriam Dei omHipotentis, I>otnfni nostri Jeau 
Christie Salvatoris mandi, ejasdemqae gloriostf et 
beati^itntt Genetricis^ Maries Yirgtois, sancto* 
iPniiH|ue anmimn ocBleBtiam^ Eg<i Robcrrtus Hare» 
Artniger, hoc Opus Privilegiortins flliorawqife 110- 
gotia almas et immaculatm dnivefsrtati eonc^r* 
nefntia/' &c< Et in libfof, matiQ exai'ato, ^t 
magnft curk, circiter R. Hurri tettpffS) ut eH auto*- 
grapho fiquet, conscripto, auctor anonymus^ spe 
plenos, Ronianam Ftdem et pristidos mores iterttM 
in Angliam redacendos fore^ miro conatu et confinlio 
leges atqae consuetodines pontt ac descfibit, qcM» 
tarn in republicft, quam in academiisi sab isla- ima* 
ginarii restitutioney valerent. 

Sed revera ne cum idlis, n. Hobbesio et strisr ill 
omni parte consentiamusi vetant UoiversitattiAi his- 
t<ma vetas;};, primsqiie noBtrse ipsins, una cvniprivi* 

* Ad pag. 1*** huju8 Libri Privilegiorum* 
\ + Peft«d nos. 

X In Elogios dos Reis de Portugal, Sec, p. 73, auctor, Anto- 

4 



mSfiGRTATIO GfiNBRAUS. ii^ 

fcagiia, chaite^ qvM, sive fiotiti® Hwe genuitase (de 
quA re jb praesens dod agimtis) a regtbas |^- 
tMS) qaam papis, pite m ferdnt primimi deritari ; 
et deiade oeoasioncs Tel prselextaii aliDram pritik- 
gieram accipieadoraai dati 8«nt. Nostra forsali 
sententia eat, tLeges et Papas inter se de Ms 
T^bw commoaiGare, auctoritidis suae inTicem quasi 
participesfierit et, pro rei mag^nitudiiie^ cofamisiteHe ; 
Regibus nempe chartas^ dotatioBes^ et mortal maan 
tenendi potestatem dantibus; Papis eas coDfinaaal^ 
bos, et buUas, qo8e vocantur, ex officio suo sacerdo- 
taii coAcedentibas. Quod ad illos pertiueat, qtti 
niaurutn existioletit^ res acedemicas ad partes Ca- 
tholieasrediturasesse, quo miQUscamistis ooDcIudene 
possimoS) satis se offert argamenii nobis ab ioitio ; _ 

et sane, si nonnuUis rerum taiic temporis status 
instabilis dcuret praegrandes expectationes, illae om- 
nino in aera cito ^vanuerunt ; et tarn praesentis aevi 
spiritos et consilia, qqaoii Britannica, quae vocatur^ 
Constitution sab Galielmo rege fixa et oonfirmata^ 

nio Pereira de Figiieiredo, observat de Dionysio I. literarum 
humanioram patrono muaiflco, "foi o primeiro que em Por-' 
ttigal iDSlituio hama illostre uniteirBidade, que trasladadA de Lis- 
boa para Coimbra, tern fido mSi, e creadora de grandiflsimos en* 
geohoa.'* Similiter, stretme pro part^ GAlloram regam is lac re 
C^tier: «' PujiMite, qiie si on s'en tient k V ettentiel, et qoe isoA 
s^enforoer dans des circomstancas de detail, on se conteAte 
d*aTancer que l^onTsnite de Pahs est en droit de raoonnottn Char- 
lemagne pour son auteur, on ne nnnqiiera point 4e prsnves capa* 
Ues de satisfiure^un boft esprit/' Hist* de rUniTersite de Paris, 
Tom. T'*'* pp. 92, 93k De originibus Uni^etsitatum Britansioa- 
ravi qsasdam similia narrantur in Woodii HiM. <( Antiq, Univer' 
lis Oxon, Lib. i. et Can De Antiq. Caatab« Lib. i. 



I« DISSERTATIO 6ENERAL1S. 

tele aliquid noo tnodo non probabile, sed vix piM- 
iibile* nunc reliquiU 

Attamen, si fundameota Universitatum aliquid 
forte lateant, fastig^ cernuntar, mores et coosue- 
tudines patent. Liquet eninoi heec Gymnaftia sedi 
Romanee (tantum valuit majorum nostrornm reli- 
gio) muUntn subjecta esse; exinde chartas papales 
(bolias) datas, libertateset indnlgentias dispensataa; 
et^ ut aliee Utiiversitates Europse duplici nodo civi- 
^ lid et eocleftiasticae auctoritatiH ligntoe fiierant 
cathedrae pontificali, sic etiain qiiodam mode aca- 
dcniiae Cantabrigiensis cnria. Etsi enim lex regia 
stabat superior, lex civilis valuit, et Romanee 
sedis Pontifex constitutiones suas et Decretalia 
scholasticis imponendi retinuit potestatem*. 

Talis rerum aoademicarutn administratio (quod 
ad legem civiiem speotat) multisdisplicuit; non eo 
quod non agnoscerent, multa juris civilis principia, 
rationesy et fundamenta Inctda esse, generalibus 
argumentis innixa,digna quae magnam partem Juris 
Gentium coostituerent, eleganter etiam saepius con- 
scripta, immo humanaf, et doctrinae varietate re- 
fertaj;, studiumque ejus et disciplinam miro 

* Bulla Joannis ad Universitatem Cantabrigiensem transmittsa, 
de quibusdam ConstitutionibuR in Scholia auis legendis, sicut caer 
tere DecreUles, IS"""* Edw. I. et alibi. 

f Certe quod ad pcenas capitalea attinet, quae» secundum junB 
civilis institndoneSy erant paucse et rane. 

X ** Niuno autore de bassi secoli si pu6 trovare che tanto si as- 
somigli agli autori del secolo d'oro quanto i giureconsulti, che fio- 
rtrono cento e cinqaant' anni dope Cicerone, si avvicinano air el&- 
ganza e propriety di quelH che siccissero sotto Augusto :" Discone 



DISSERTATIO 6ENERALIS. Ixi 

modog'entes Eoropse hodiernas excitavisse; sed quod 
aegre ferrent, formas et processus jurU comnMam^ 
legis terra, quibns Magpna Charta et Britannica 
Coitstitntio inprimis faveut, locum dare^ apud * cu- 
rias aoademicns, formis et processibus juris civilis, 
quqd, in corpus, quo tempore Romani in jugum 
servitutis jam missi fuerant, redactum, minus favet 
libertati : etenim, ut tempus inter currendum ssepe- 
numero edax rerum est, quas omnino stare veliemus, 
sio etiam forms curiales non raro devorant principia 
legis preestantissima. 

De natur& et principiis juris civil is ample dis- 
serueruot, ut scitis/viri olim e vestris eruditione 
preeclari^, quorum vestigiis hie loci nimis premere 
uon opus est. Satis sit innuere, quod, quo lon-^ 
gius formee et processus juris civilis Romani distent 
ab lis juris communis Angliae, ieo majus, utrii^ 
que flequali lance ponderatis, prsconium hi 
quam isti ab omnibus Britanms promeriti suntf, 

• 

•opra 1ft Vicende della Letteratura ; per Denina, ut cit. a David 
Inring, LL. D. in Observat. in studium juris Civilis. Edinb. 
18i5. 

Nee minus ad rem, quod unus e nostris ui^get ; De Histmria 
juris CiviHsetCanomci, cum ComparaiioneL^ OnUioy 

hahiia in $aeeUo aulm Trin&aHs die Commenvirationis^ 1756, ex 
teiUtmenio Thoma Eden^ per Jacobum MarrioU, LL. D. 

* Edeni, LL.D. (olim Caii et QonY») Juris Civilis Elementa;; 
Oxford, 1744 :' et J. Taylort, LL. D. (olim S. Joannis) Juris 
Ciyilis Elementa. Lond. 1786. 

+ Quod spectat ad formas et processus juris Communis 
(de quibusloquimur) certe; quod ad leges Anglis multas, miniaie^ 
de qoibns nimis vera stmt, quae de capitalibus supplicit9 'proftrt 
Marriot in Oralione supra citata : . *• Aii'g lorum leges, qu« Ui»- 



Uit DIS8£ftTATI0 GENERALIS. 

et r^poitayeruDt. Hoc demonstranmt multi acn* 
d^micit preeiertim vir honestos, FortesouioSi e4 
mm ita prideoiy satis eleganter ac historicei Hur« 
dins, olim Cantabrigiensis ^. Exinde apparet, 
lieges Anglicas impurarum juris canoaici et 
CSsesam mixtoraruiD iutegras esse servatas» illasqoe 
Reges Angloram antiquos, (nsc dod Heoricum YII. 
el Ylll.y Tudores, et omnes Steuartos) qui ad po« 
t;iBstatem despoticam se serio indinareot, Imperi- 
all legi magis favere ; immo civilem ipsaoi 
legem nou constare cum libertatibusi quas pro se 
vindicare semper soliti fuerunt per constitntioaem 
suamBritamii; adeontcausam abundeolim habueriat 
Barones unA voce conclamandi, ** nolnmus leges 
Angliee mutari/' 

At, ne nimis somniAsse ia hoc bicipiti fastigio, 
(cmmmici et civilis juris) aut saltern gkNciari de 
somniis videamur, hsec dnntaxat uatamus, yidd se- 
^imdum leg^a civilem* ^' quod regi placuit legi^ 
habuit vigorem f/' dictum Britannis semper minus 
gratum; quippe '* uqu sic Aagliso fiUatota ovi^i 

tis laudibas efferontur, calamo stillante saoguine scripte (mM 
vidcatur : — cum carceren yix viJSdwi re^s, yi^ iu^HMh ^ ^' 
qndy et loril^ua &cm qui «08 in morteai ti;ajb#wu" 

^ CanceHariuB Fortewme de Laudibns Legnm Angliey cap. Mu 
Dialogi Morales 0L PoHtici in Angl. Constitatioiienu A Bic. 
Hnrd, Epiac. Vigorn. Dial. t. Edit 17i^0. 

+ UlpianuSy in tit. de Constit. Princip. Lib. i. ethistitat. tit. 

de Jore nat V ^ ^ ^^^^* ^^ ^'.^^Q Ghrsci Juridici^ ^▼'f 
«MW T¥P«<^*^•« No^of iffy* et qt^idnfi in %jr. piatjx^ 

IMu c^. «, Prinow vpcatur I^of !«^4fVS6«f > # c^ » 9?fc 
dsni not. in FortivN^f • A4 cap. 90. ^ 



Pf^aGRTATIO G£NJE)HAUS. Ixiii 

possuQ^, duoiiiedumpriocipip volpnt^^ite, sed et to- 
tips regiii a^seatu^, ip$a cooduDti^n" 

tli$, aliisqup 1iMj4iai9c4i ben« iqstitqcti, fucrant, 
tMn inter ve^tros, quam inter alio:), no^ q v^tris^yel e 
v.obis forte fortnna exeuntes, aut plane ej^ctosf, qui 
nonnuUa qufledam in hoc libro privilegiornni co^ben-: 
ta, privilegia, quod ad alios attinet, Di9,le priyilegifijta 
vocant^ et sqepe qnod ad vo&met e\ini^ ipsp^, 
tfi^fA ai^fct. Hsec nos in memori4 teneiites, et, nt 
verum fat^amqr, ab eornm s^ntentia noii toto c^i^ 
dipjcrepantefi, exoptabamus reritatis qqasi medul- 
lam emor^, et simul nosmet ipsos reddere <^- 
tiores, unde talis re rum status oriretur, et a p^'in- 
cipijs exorsi, res ipsa^ nostris oculis siji^jicc^e, 
et alio|!iim, ^i qui sint^ qui i\QJl>ifi^um seotirent. 

Nobi? talia nobiscum revQlT;^n^ibu9 re^ t^^ism 
hjoc rediis^e videtur. Si m^JQf^es nostri i^i ^ca- 
deqiiis constituendis ipagis in principiis legis com- 
m^is Anglisy et jgninns in priueip^s juris civiliii 
et cai^qnici fyind^Dpent^ j^uiy^n^, e9rum fivstigia 
fptfgi^ clf^ra ess^|;, f^tqi:^ oculi^ Britannqrum 
magis grata, quo magis ad reipublicse suse formam 
apprapinqoassant; impugnatoram cavillationibas et 
querimoniis obnoxia minus fuissent; academico* 



.*f S90tUfiriiis.KaKt«i6ue4e L^udibus JUsiguin Ao^^t ciqp- tO; 
tmqw fi\U^ T. 8iaith« J. C. Eq. aoc et a)> epist #t iCoosiL Bli- 
fuflMm B^MBy oUai. B^giii. CoU, foi uo$; ^ Yigprnxi isbfit 
fffi^viA higiuniiodi (BflriUnciiiti) coimwowui p^rfiE^t— lotr- 
resBe enim id illo coaTentu (PjjpIiMdoiito) onmef ioteUicpiniurt 
cDJoscunque amplitadinis, status, aut dignitatis, me priaoaps five 
ptefas fuerit.'' JDb Asp«bl« Ang^onm, ^k is. Cap.. 2. 

#^aiiLliliau|rt(»» Br^^ Muttenai. qmI^ Tiba Baker, ^oc 
f^iiOtWA Piarcii Viadic Vf^Uma NoncQaformiatanua ; ft Gt 
neius da eject. Nonconfonn. V. % p. 77. 



Ixiv DISSERTATIO GENERALIS. 

rum adulationes aut laudationes vix requisiTiHsent ; 
prompto universorum Britannorum consensu et ata* 
cri suflVagio commendaoda et admiranda fuissent ; 
rixee, (probabile est) dissensiones^, et contentiones 
ab initio iion abundassent ; magistratuum f Can- 
tabrigiee jura stetissentinteg'ra; academicorum ip- 
sorum libertates fuissent iDvioIatae; conscientifle 
sue, sive studentium, aut graduantium, sive gre- 
mialium aut commorantium, vinculis fuissent 
intactee;];; omnia, forsan, ut multa dicamus in pau- 
cis, magis ad gloriam et felicitatem vestree acade- 
mite, multo magis ad reipublicoefructum et delecta- 
tionem redundassent. 

Ubi plurima ofiendunt, singulas maculas notare 
longum esset et fastidiosum ; et, cum omnia pene 
omnium oculis hoc libro Privilegiorum subjiciuntur, 
. minime necessarium: pro se quisque ferat judicium. 
Missas igitur facimuschartas^ fictitias et buUas (de 
quibus in alio loco, ut jam diximus), statuta auctori- 
tate principis, senatf^ Britannici consilio vel con- 
firmatione non comitata||, qusedam, etiam ab olim 

• 

* Vera^ ni fallimur, hanim dissensionum origo coUigenda eet in 
Hist Cantabrigie, Vol. 1, ch. 3. 

i Charta privilegiorum primo Tills Qantabrigie an* Hen- 
nci I. (IWl) conoessa faerat, quae confirnrnta erat et aocta 
8ub4Ien. III. a. 1331, anno 1381 omnes^iuaa chartas aniisit villai 
et pro recoperatione earundem stricta est annuum redit6m regi 
soWere in perpetuum. Noi, M& Parrimi in 4"^ vol. Harli, ut 
infra, et in Prir. Cantab, paseim. 

t Priv. Cant. Vol. I. p. 347. 

§ Pri?. Cant. Vol. I. p. 377. Diseert. in Chartas. 

{ Dat. lato sub sigfio, sed actu Parliament! nunquam confirma-^ 
u, ut plurimw Chartarum Cantab, erant dattt. Prit. Cantab. 
Vol. I. p. 158, in Notis, 



DISSERTATIO 6ENERALIS. Uv 

non approbata, aut observata^ et nunc dierum non 
approbanda et observantia prorsus indigna, ut 
quee ihoribus hodiernis sunt contraria, doctornm 
hujusce . seeculi virorum experientise atqae studiis 
repagnantia ; immo nonnalla quaedam, prae tempo- 
rum incoDstantilL et mutabilitate, vel verborum et 
rerum tenebris obvoluta, non obedienda, quia non 
intelligenda; nedum quidem videnda, nee adeunda : 
preeter haec ibi mala, (inter alia salutifera cert6,) mala 
privatorum collegioram heerent statutis, de quibus 
hie Liber Privilegiorum silet: plura quam satis 
exempla actibns, constitutionibus, et statutis Uni- 
versitatis adhserentium idem hie suppeditat : varia 
hajusce farinse inter sua statnta viri Oxonienses, 
varia inter sua Cantabrigienses persenserunt, ag- 
novemnt, deploraverunt*. 

Hinc Tarice sunt inter varies ortse controvei^» : 
etenim dum alii putaverint, quae tempus antiquave- 
rit, ea palam aboleri debuisse; alii, munia scholas- 
tica refici posse, formas publicas, et examina 

* DiplomaUy Charta, et Priyilegia Ozon* Cantabiigiensibus 
simillima Tidenda sunt in AylyffU Hid. AnHjua et Hodiema 
Oxen. VoL IL Appendix. Et qn^d molti Oxonienses patarunt 
de Statutis suis, idem R. Newton, S. T. P. aperte dim declara- 
yit, et nupenime Vicesimns Knox, S. T. P. in Sect. xut. Tract, 
Kec multo aliter vir cl. Thomaa Baker, S. Johanis ^ectuB sochis^ 
inter MSS sua ; Gulielmus Whiston, Profess. Math. Cantab, in - 
MemoriavUm ms et Scriptorum a aeipao ooncmnata^ S vol. 1740 : 
Edm. Miller, Seraiens ad Legem^ Hist Cantab, de Privatis 
Collegiis, p. 04, 1717, et in Operibus suis JebUiu^ (3 ^ol. 17^7.) 
cam multis aliis. 



Ixvi DISSERT ATIO GENERALIS, 

sto4entium reformari, atqae alii alia; existi- 
mabant malti,' qaeedam nitnis ecclesiastica fieri^ 
quam.qaee cooscientiis academicoram possiDt favere; 
simulque magis jus civile spirare, quam quee Bri- 
tannis plaeeant. De posterioribus istis infaastis 
nosmet faimus (at ex supra dictis apparehit) inpri- 
mis soliciti. 

Et quidem ista posteriora sunt^ ut fuerunt^ nobis 
molestissima; sumus enim ex iis, qui nostros non 
obliti sumus errores^ non vero ex iis, qui alios 
coarguunt) accusant^ condemnant, Humano ge* 
neri natura ipsa dat leges, et necessitati cedendum 
est; et quantum libertas cum necessitate constare 
queat, sit^ precamur, unicuique academicoram 
suum privilegium, sua libertas : et, cum sub cujus* 
que Termini finem, Y ice-CanceUacius, ex officio suo, 
errantes et quiddam delinquentes absolvendi reti- 
neat anctoritatem ; cum queadam, sive Regia ju^ssa, 
sive Senatus consulta, Magistrorum decretis paa- 
lum mitigentur ; cum valeat juris civile principium, 
^* quod per inultos annos non peractum est, fit ob- 
soletum;'' cum in coUegiis et Universitate^ quae 
universns ipsarum societatum consehsoa desues* 
cere sinat, oblivioni tradita sint— -cum heec sint 
inter Academicorum privilegia, procul a nobis sit 
ea impugnare. ^* Mens cujusque et conscientia is est 
quisque," 

Haec vero cursim tantum, et quasi per transen- 
nam : quantiim vero jus ad civile pertineat, id quam 
tnire Spirent Statuta Cantabrigiee, quee jam memo- 
ravimus, possunt indicare ; quse vero secutura sunt. 



DISSERTATIO GENERALIg. 

clarius demoDstrabunt ; et cam academise nostne 
statuin exbibebuDt hodiernum, ad prsesens nostrum 
propositum mag^s attinebant. Hie intelligendain 
est Reginse Elizabethse ad Statuta Universitatis 
Cantab, exordium,^ quod, et in re, et in verbis, 
quam multum sit in codice Justiniani, adeo ut plane 
prse se ferat ejusdem esse imitationem, alibi f no- 
tavitnus. Hue etiam referendse sant Liters Regis 
Jacobi, quae, satis imperatorie datse, demonstrant, 
(et eo consilio datee, ut academici scirent,) quantum 
Rex (ut Jacobi verba in ali& re usurpemus) in auc- 
toritatis suae plenitudine possit. 

Et hactenus de his. Nos nunc convertimus, et 
e&i quft par est observantia, ad Senatum academi- 
cum. 

Sunt qui solent multum admirari Senatum hunc 
academicum, qui, cum constat ex duobus domibus 
Regentium et non-Regentium, habet, ut putant, 
quoddam simile (junctis Cancellario vel Vice- 
Cancellario) Senatui Britannico, constanti similiter 
ex duobus domibus, Nobilium et Communium, cum 
gnpremo Rege : et inde est, forsdn, quod nonnulli 
Universitatem nostram nominare solent, Literariam 
Rempublicam. Et sic Elizabetha. 

Interea sint alii, qui academicum hunc Senatum 
pro dignitate ejus colant, et aditiirentur, sed, etiam 
si vellent, omnia quee ad etim attinent, non pos- 
sint admirari, quaedam non vehementer, alia quae- 

• Priv. Cantab. Vol. I. p. 157. 
f Hist, Cantab. Vol I. p. 91. in Notis. 

e 2 



Ixviii DISSERTATIO GENERALIS. 

dam ne vel minimum. Exempli gratis : concilium 
istud vel Caput Quinquevirale, (quod dicitur,) con- 
stans ex uno Theologico Doctore, uno Juriscon- 
sulto, uno Medico, uno non-RegentCi et altero 
Regente, un& cum Vice-Cancellario, nequeunt ap- 
probare. Quidnam enim in vindicandis suis privile- 
giis ii sibi vindicant? Siccurrit statntum : '^ Horum 
autem authoritas est m omni Senatu, et Gongrega- 
I tione, de omnibus Petitionibus prius decernere, 

quam ad reliqnum Senatum deferantur: adeo ut 
illae tantum Gratiee solee approbentur, et Regenti- 
bus et non-Regentibns proponantur, in quas sin- 
guli eorum consenserint, et non alise : et si quia « 
quam in Senatu petatur, aut concedatur, quod non 
sit prius istorum judicio et assensu comprobatuoj, 
nullum erit omnino et invalidum, nisi his nostris 
statutis alitor cautum sit^.*' 

Ex preemissis cernimus, Caput illud esse quodam- 
modo^ quod Grammatici vocant, Verbump in quo 
tota vis orationis est^ et sine quo nulla esse potest 
sententia. Si enim singulorum ex Capite assensus 
non concedatur, quicquid petatur, actum est de 
Gratid; frUstra congregatum est; nihil movendum; 
nihil agendum. Quis Senator istam auctoritatem 
honoraret, quae legislatorum auctoritatem cohibere 
etsupprimere posset? Quis nimiam istam potentiam 
adamaret^ quae suam libertatem omnino destruere 
pergeret ? Qui senatorum unusquisque hoc conci- 
lium quinque virorum laudibus eveheret^ cum vel 

*£lizabetheStet.4l. 



DISSERTATIO GENERALIS. Ixix 

unus ex eo universutn senatum possit in nihilam 
redigere, non qaidem motutn in corpore inceptnm 
retardandoy sed, quod magis, incipient! resisten- 
do, et penitus supprimendo? Ne miremur, si 
sint, et fuerinty in isto virorum doctissimoram et 
graTissimorum Corpore, qui hoc Caput non natu- 
ralem ejus partem existiuiant, sed potios quam^ 
dicnnt excrescentiam, tumidam, non pulcfaram, mo- 
lestissimaro, academici Senatus libertati inimicam, 
talem nimirum, cui in Senatu Britannico nihil 
simile aut secundum. 

In Britannicee Reipublicae Senatu^ legislatorum 
singuli jus sibi proprium vindicant movendi, et pro* 
ponendi, Billas inducendi ; Senatus, congreg^tim 
deliberandi, et in commune consulendi: sic decet 
legislatores, pro bono reipublicae acturos. Si ex 
corpore suo Comitatum aliquem constituere vellet, 
possit. Quare vero constitueret ? Nimirum ut is 
statueret, utrnm ipsorum aliquis moveat,an non mo- 
Teat, litrum ipse deliberet, an non deliberet, utrum 
ipse aliquid concluderet, an non concluderet? 
Certe hoc cum gravitate sua mini me consentiret. 
Talis igitur Comitatus quidnam est officium ? Rem 
pendentem tangentia inquirere, quid ipsius singuli 
pernoverint, proferre, quid ab aliis intellexerint, re- 
censere, sua inter se comparare, et, Ve penitus ex- 
ploratA, totam clarius Senatui subjicere. Quid 
postea ? Senatus ipse judicat. Et si res hue pro- 
gressa aliter se haberet, Senatus Britannici Privile- 
g^a non numeranda essent inter ejus adkxranda. 
Et sane haec sunt male ominosa. Quid enim 



Ixx DISSERTATIO 6ENERALIS. 

dicemns ? Immo potius, quid non dixerunt e Se- 
nata non pauci? Qnid si Caput hoc universum sit 
iptegritate praeditum ? Nonne erret in judicio P 
Anne omnis sapientia latet in Capite^ nulla valet 
in Senatu ? Qiiid vero si duntaxat unus ex Capite 
sit corruptus? Nonne suos assessores deturbet? 
Nonne omnia, etiam optima, irrita reddat ? Anne 
homines, sibi ni^is indulgentes, de aliis consu- 
lent? Nonne sui collegii commodum vel gloriam 
ante partis majoris Senatus proba consiiia, et jastas 
expectationes ponat? Nonne Princrpis mandatuna, 
vel primi ejus pro tempore ministri nutumet volun- 
tatem, ante Universitatis honorem,,bonarum litera- 
nlm fructum, aut etiam virtutis et religionis incre* 
mentum consulat ? Sunt, sat scimus, qui putent, 
hoc ipsum Caput esse quasi vorticem, quo privilegia 
nniversitatis desideratissima possint absorberi. 

Nihil opus est hujus potestatis exercendee ex- 
empla in medium coram academicis proferre. 
Bite apparent in publico Senatus negotio : et do* 
lendum est, et segre ferendum, ssepius inde oriri 
obstructiones, quae viros gravissimos et doctissimos 
cohibent, quo minus sententias snas Senatui possint 
offerre, et suffragia pro conscientiis suis dare, etiam 
da rebus maximi fofsan moment!, vel ad doctrinse 
progressionem, vel ad juvenilem institntionem^ 
vel ad virtutis et verae religionis puritatem. Qui- 
buscunqne meditationibus se domi delectaverint, 
quiboscunque consiliis referti in Senatom prodi- 
erint, nihil sunt assecuti^ etiamsi bene sciverint^ 
majotem partem Senatus eoncttibus suis bonestis 



DIS8ERTATI0 6ENERALIS. lul 

» 

: et exinde factam est, multosi quas sien- 
serint gravamina, sastentasse ; indignantes qoi- 
dem virtuti suae viam non patuisse, holentes 
Tero operam suam et oleam simal rarsus per^ 
dere, causae succabuisse, et silescere. 

Et hactenus, breviter satis, de Senatu, et curiis 
academicis. 

Earom rerom, de quibus adhuc quaesitum est, et 
jam nunc, oratione continuat4, manet^ quaeren- 
dum, nempe politicarutn et ceconomtcamnif mate- 
ries est varia, diversis temporibus in academiam 
Dostram congesta, diversisque rationibus et argu- 
mentis, si quis eas defenderet vel oppngnaret, 
sustentanda, aut oppugnanda. Pars plane superio* 
ris aevi, dum adhuc udum et quasi molle lutnm 
esset, non fuit satis affabre ficta, Tel feliciter 
expressa, et an fnturis annis, quibusve artibus 
refingenda, prae modestid yix ausi dint asserere 
Tiri prudentiores ; immo fortasse potent, antiqui- 
tatisuam quandam deberi reverentiam. Pars alia 
mani£estim sequioris est sevi, quam lidem pro* 
dentes simul et liberales non pretii magni, im- 
mo potius damni^' putent; pestifera incrementa, 
profana oraamenta, ramosa subsidia, omnino 
digna, qbae, velutt Vasa vitiosa et contaminata, aut 
dii fictiles, etiamsi in templis aureis positi, peni- 
tus assent dissolvenda et divellenda, totisque viribus 
destruenda. 

Haec sane intelligenda volnmus istis de subscrip- 
tionibu^ ad dogmata quaedam politica, metapby- 
sica, et theologica, de quibus ortae sunt (ut de 



'W»» DISSERTATIO GENERALIS. 

rabos ofascnrioribns et gravioribus oriri solent) 
loogae Tiros inter doctos et pios controversise, vagie 
dobitationes, atqae snbtiles qntedam opinionam 
diveniitates et distinctiones. Ad eonimdem vero 
veritatem atque auctoritatem, sub juramenti fidera, 
obligandi sunt vestrorom universi, sive alamni, 
primum honoris gradum suscepturi, sive altiores 
in ordine petituri. Et quidem subscriptio bis re- 
petenda est, si gradaatas idem in sociorum nume- 
rum eligeretur.» Et pro Gradu Baccalaurei ia 
Theologia, vel Doctoris in aliqua Facultate, 
htec eadem subscriptio reqairitur. Has postremas 
subscriptiones Literisf a Rege Jacobo ad universi- 
tatem debemus missis j prima mandato ore ejus 
dato, simulque scriptis su& ipsius manu traditis,t 
referenda est. , 

Quo nomine tales subscriptiones nos designa- 
bimus? Qualem sententiam de iis tulerunt viri 
gravissimi? Nempe bos conatus itmovationes 
appellant. Primam originem ti^xerunt, j^sic pro- 
ferre solebant, ut meminimus, et, ut apparet ex 
hisce privilegiis, recte) non a statutis nostrorum 
fundatorum antiquis, non a legislatoria regni auc- 
toritate, immo vix, et ne vix, a privata voluntate 
et proprio consilio Senatus academici; sed, ut ex 
supra dictis apparet, voluntate mere regia, et 
mandato Jacobi, Angliee Tyranni— quod vero 

• Socji Minores, «t Majores. CoUeg. Stat, in hoc Libro non 
contbentur. 

+ A. Iflia. Priy, Cant. Vol. I. p. 234. 
t lb. p. 347. 



DISSERTATIO 6ENERAL1S. Ixxiii 

vocabolum noh in sensa hodierao aGcipiendani vo« 
lumus, pro crudelif sed, de more iisitato Grseco- 
rum antiquoram, pro dominatore; at simul hie ' * 
loci eo magis retinendum, qaod Jacobus* et etiam 
omnes ^Stenarti^ ut ante Tudores, Britannorom 
consuotadihes derelinquentes, et Romanorum 
Imperatonim^ (cum jam actum esset de populi 
Romani libertate) secuti, soam quisque iu rebus 
tam civilibus quam Ecclesiasticis voluntatem vice 
legis statuissent : 

Hoc voloy sic statuo, stat pro ratione voluntas f • 

* Justiniani Civilis auctoritas ex qao pependerit* intelligi 
potest ex initio Libri primi iTislUutionum; ex quo Ecclesiasticaf 

a NoveUiSf qusB yocantur (yiapai A»ar»^fic} praBsertimy db 
mandaU} prineipiSf (Aiarofc^i; i^^ sic incipiens, fy oyo/E*ftri 
T8 Attrworov Iyio-ou Xfifcv rov 0feu i/Am. p. 67.) Edit 
Hen. Stephani. 1558. Nihil hie profecto de saperbftr illA 
Romani Senatus glorii, cum Roma adhuc libem esset, n. tam sub 
Regibus, quam Consulibus, paptdi conseruu. Similiter Canones 
Ecelesiasticiy sub rege Jacobo (A. 1603) dati, aequo ac Statuta 
Academiaa Cantabrigiensisy et Articuli tres supra dicti, pendent 
ex auctoritate Principis solum, absque suffiragio Parliamenti 
prseoedentiy yel approbatione et confirmatione subsequent!. 

Collectio Articulorum, Injnnctionum, Canonum, &c. 
Edit, a Sparrow, 1675. 

+ lisdem de causis legem civilem communi praetulerunt Tu-> 
dores et Steuarti, qnibus inducti fuerant alii olim reges Anglic, 
quos summatim reapicit iste prises fidei yir, Canoellarius Fortes* 
cuius; scilicet, ut mere regaliter, non politice, in subditos do- 
minarentur, et proinde ut ^* ad libitum suum jura mutarent, nora 
conderent, poenas infligerent, et onera imponerent subditis suis, 
propriis quoque arbitriis Gontendentium, cum yelint, dirime* 
rent lites," Et simul non omisit notare vir egregius, x^ges 



DISSBHEITATIO 6ENERAL1S. 

Et hiDC lite iniseiiffi, quae ntrosqae Jacobi filios, 
Carolnm primom et Jacobum secondum, op- 
presserunt et demersenint. 

Kegias istas lat^as, aat tres istos Articulos, hic 
loci sab ocalos ponere acadjsmicorum nihil necesse : 
manent legendi ia sno loco jam citato hujuace 
Libri, de Privilegiis Cantabrigise, non rsroXv equi- 
dem, (sat scitis) sedisroXAdft, cotnplectentes; qaippe 
non solum Regis Suprematus, et Abjurationis, quae 
vocantur, Jurajuranda continentes, sed rerum 
omnium in Libro laturgiae Anglicanae inclusarum 
approbationem, et assensum ad triginta novem 
(A. 1562) fidei articulos, ut in omnibus ad Dei 
Verbum consentaneos, exigentes* Regiae Literee, ut 
diximus, in hoc libro apparent, et tres isti articuli, 
quos adeo in deliciis habuit Jacobus: et, ut illi 
nos nunquam efiugerent, in excerptis nostris 
e Stat. Cantab, ut bene intelligitis, divulgati sunt. 

At ne quis asseverantiae temerarise nos incuset, 
et in his rebus non exercitatus, declamare inaniter, 
non sobrie dicere, nos existimet, non alienum esset 
rei, Literas Jacobi recognoscere, simulque Matris 
Almse Cantabrigiae pristinos mores exquirere ; ut^ 
recentioribns cum antiquissimis inter se comparatis, 
manifestius fiat, quomodo se res habeat. Lector 
igitqr pro libitu Literas Jacobi legat : neque eegre 
ferat, si nos statuta antiqua quee hue spectant, 
publici juris fecerimus. Sic igitur manent legenda. 

AnglisB lA coronaiione sua ad legis susb (per quam intelligit leges 
Begni) obBenrantiam astringi sacramento. 

^ Ih Legibua Anglie, cap. 34. 



0ISSERTATIO QENERAUS. Inv 

De Juramentis Sckolarium in !"'''• ndvetdUf 
•Stat« 114. ** Jusjarandum a cunctis et singalis 
scbolaribus suis aetatis quatuordecim anDorum et 
sapra existentibus infra terminum eorum acces- 
sioDis hie ad universitatem accipiant, videlicet, 
de obedientiA pnBstandA summo Cancellario** * 

De incipientibus in Artibas nulla subscriptio ad 
articulos fidei requirebatur : Sic se habet statutum 
antiquam: Statotam de Prfesentatione Bacca- 
laureornm in jure civili et canouico ordinarie 
legentium. '^ Procuratoribus prsesententur, qui 
8tatim ab iisdem juramentum recipient corporale, 
quod secundum modum consuetum legent et lectu- 
ram ipsam continuabuut;' 

Et quod ad gradus generaliter spectat, ita se 
habet Stat. Antiq. 27. — ** Statuendum, quod de 
csetero nnllus in hac universitate in gradum. ullum 
scholasticum admittatur^ ni^i in suft admissione 
inter csetera jurare voluerit, qij^od erit obediens 
Cancellario hujus universitatis, qui pro tempore 
fuerity et ejus vicemgerentiy quamdiu moram trax- 
erit in eadem."— *Quod vero ad Tbeologicum gra- 
dum attinet^ suum proprium examen subiit de 
more theologicus, ut alii incipientes in sua pro- 
prik facultate sua, 

Neque quidem ex quolibet officiario aliud 
requirebatur juramentum praeter illud, quod ad 
fideliter suum officium exequendum spectaret; ut 
sequitur : 

^ Apnd Ozoniam (dolet memorare) etiam in praaeiu ex tub- 
gradnatis requiritur, ut subacribant iatos 39 Articulos. 



IxxTi DISSERTATIO GENERALIS. 

<< In admissione ad quodlibdt officium statuitnus, 
preeterea, et ordinamus^ quod nalla persona pri- 
vilegiata de caetero admittatur ad aliquod officiom 
in hac Universitate, nisi prius ex sua admissione ad 
officium hujusmodi coram cancellario vel ejus vicem- 
gerente et Universitate Regentium corporate prse- 
stiterit juramentum, se officium illud fideliter exe- 
cuturum, et impleturum omnia ad officium hu- 
jusmodi pertinentia, effectualiter et sine fraude/' * 

Et quidem talia de majoribns nostris accepimus. 

Quod vero spectat ad hodierna, dicetis pro- 
culdubio, nos quiddam a scopo aberrare, narrantes 
quae rerum veritati non omnino conveniant. Et 
quidem conceditur. Juvenis nimirum primuoi 
g^adum apud Cantabrigiam petiturus, nunc tem- 
porisy se membrum tantum esse bon& fide Ecclesise 
Anglicanee requiritur subscribere : hoc quidem 
pro Senatiils academici indulgenti&, et, ut putant 
nonnuUi, quod potuit Senatus, fecit ; et quod fecit, 
suffidit. 

Quid vero dein jam quamplurimi redamave- 
runt ? t Instant sanei— -et nos, ut vernm fateamur, 
in suam trahunt is^ententiam, banc indulgentiam, 
iHusionem potius sapere, quam liberalitatem^ pm- 
dentiam quam clementiam, protervitatem quam jus- 
titiam, immo, ut vulgo dicitur, puram putam dis- 
tinctionem esse sine differentia. 

Quid enim? nonne omnes, (sic solent interro- 
gare) in statu pupillari, formulis, et credendis, 
et precibus ecclesiae Anglicanse uti de more re- 

* Statuta Antiqua. Non in hac libro continentur. 

t Qui. Frendius, A,M. in SubscriptionemCogitationes. A. 1789. 



DISSERTATIO GENERALIS. 

qnirnntur? Nonne cceDam recipere dominicam 
tenentur secundum ritus administrationem in Ec- 
clesia Anglicana? £t qui subscribit, se esse 
bond fide menabrum Ecclesise Anglicanse, quid 
aliud subscripserit, modo pleniiisyquamyquod ut ado- 
lescens adhuc rudis professus esset, de eo per aetatem 
jadicium nunc facere posse; idse nunc, cum in foro 
conscientiffi credere, turn ver4 fide profiteri ? ** Bonsl 
fide esse membnim Ecclesise/* idem sonat, ac si quis 
diceret, se cuncta dogmata iUius Ecclesiee penitus 
recipere, atque disciplinam ac auctoritatem ejus ex 
toto corde comprobare* : adeout, quod sub lingua 
quasi obmurmurasset olim iste primo sub gradu, ad 
superiorem evebendus de tribus supra dictis Jacobi 
articulis clarius et apertius pro se prsedicare iutelli- 
gendus sit;— quod antea quftdAm arte tachugra- 
phic& innuisset tantum^ nunc latiorL et ampliori 
sciograpbift circumundique depingere. Addas 
prseterea, omnia bsec et universa collectim in sensu 
literali et grammaticali tunc esse subscribenda. 

Et hactenus de his: coUegerunt autem, ut spera- 
mus, hujusce Dissertatiouis Lectores, nihil earn 
yersatam esse de iis, qni munus clericale subituri 
sint: aliud genus argumenti iu isto cursu exquiri 
debuisset. Non agimus, ne vel minimum, de 
rebus sacris« Tractent ecclesiastica, quibus curse 
sit ecclesia. Nostra hsec oraticnncula tota pendet 

* Ne quia forsan existimet, base verba, hma fide menJbrwn^ 
in sensum peryeraum, detorqueri, consulat yiram, in Legdtibus 
Decigiombus perituniy sammum justiciarium Band Regis, Mans- 
field, in causa, Brans, sub finem Epistolaa Funieauzii ad 
JasUciarium Blackstone. 



iMviii DI8SERTATI0 GENERALIS. 

ex universitatibus. Neque aliquis ex nobis queerat, 
qui haac omnia possint fieri ? quibusnatn arti* 
bus atque argumentis juvenis,^ aliis stadiis jam 
inde a pueritik usque ad adolescentiam, et per 
triennium jam retro actum, apud vos occupa- 
tus, aut sui vel aliorum a voluptatibus, yel quo- 
raodocunque exercitatus, quam minimum theologi- 
CIS literis deditus, factus sit adeo peritus, adeo 
promptus, adeo religiosus, adeo in theologicis 
minutiis enodandis solers, ut ex improviso exiis^ 
set, quasi theologicee reipublicee ad gubernacula 
accessisset? Non nostrum est quaestiones hujos- 
modi resolvere; sed potius aliam quandam magis 
simplicem, et simul magis seriam proponere: Quo 
Jure } Scilicet quaestionem, ad quam veremur, at 
Hookerus ipse, vir gravis judicii, aut magnus ille 
Warburtonus, aut ingeniosus Paleius, nisi preeter 
rem, respondere valuisset. 

Nobis, e contra, suppeditat materiem tarn rei 
ipsias natura, quam aliorum rationes et argu* 
mentfl, virorum scilicet, qui non e novis et stultis 
sunt, non ex bomuncionibus a triviis, neque ex 
turbulentissimis quibusvis,tem6re coUigendi, aut sta- 
diose nimis expetendi ; sed ex coetu doctorum et 
gravissimorum, pacis et religionis amantissimo- 
rum: hi nunc quasi amice adstare videntur, 
et sponte se nobis offerre^ Hisce argumentis 
referti, talium virorum auctoritate incitati, vide- 
mur nobis nihil de nostri tenuitate protrudere, 
sed omnia ex eorum abundanti supellectile reci* 

^ Duse PetitioDes Subgraduatomm ad Senatoffl et Vice<^»nceU 
lariuxD. Dec. 1771. 



DISSERTATIO 6ENERALIS. Ixxix 

pere^ ex ipsis academicoram paris conscientiis 
exantlare. Et sic quidem plus triginta ^ ab- 
bine aniiis, dum adhuc juvenes essemus, cam 
academicis Gantabrig^ensibos eg^mos. Et pro- 
fecto gratke Deo O. M. a nobis referri debent, qaod 
talia nos conaremur, qualicunque saccessa, isto vitee 
flexu, quo conscientia magis tenera esse solet, mens 
rebus muodanis minus distracta, et experientia, 
si Ddinus exemplis referta, bonis tamen consiltis 
incitata simul et confirmata^ propositi fit tenacis- 
sima, nee facile quatienda nee movenda. Iterum 
igitur urgemus, has subscriptiones neque cum Ju- 
ribus Oivium, neque cum Humani Intellectus Fa* 
cnltatibusy neque cum Prineipiis Constitutionis Bri- 
tannicae, neque cum Prseceptis et Doctrinis Chris- ^ 
tianismi, constare. 

Quod mirum saepe verum. Cogitanti alicni, et 

in memoriam vetera revocanti, (hoc nobis est explo* 

ratissimum,) apparebit^ has academicas stipula^ 

tiones (quas subscriptiones appellamus) a majo^ 

ribus nostris eo sapientius constitutas fuisse, quo 

magis in hisce rebus simplices essent, et cum 

rebus ad artes et facultates non generaliter per^ 

tinentibus minus conjunctas et connexas. Sua 

qucedam propria natura^ suee relationes cuique rei 

sunt, suis propriis argumentis et admonitioni* 

bus tractandee : et optandum quam maxime foret^ 

ubi esset aliqua consuetudinum et morum mutatio, 

progressionem ibi factam fuisse salutarem> et ad<* 

mirandum ilium cursum a medietate qu41ibet ad 

» 

* Inq. deSubscrip. &c« An. 1789. 



Ixxx DIS6ERTATI0 GENERALI8. 

omnem ^xceHentiam, qaam Reformationem aole- 
mus appellare, Detnpe, si velitis^ disjaDctionem a 
dominatu Papse sacerdotali, et appropiDquationein 
ad Teram istam Rempubltcam literariam, civilem, 
generalem et nationalem, cujas nonnullos inter nos 
sibimet satagere cernimas. 
Qaid vero ? 

Hasce res propius intuenti, timemas, ne Tide* 
atur, in quibusdam nostris motibus faisse plane 
regressionem, yel potius cumum ad magnam de- 
prajrationem. Erasmus queri solebat, jurajuranda 
apnd sui scecali Christianos magis severa esse, 
magis abundantia, et simul minore levitate tractata, 
quam apud Ethnicos ; <^ et professionem septem 
artium liberalium suscipientes non satis liberaliter 
jurasse, ex more potius quam ex animo V Et in 
his lusibus increpandis et damnandis multus est. 
Quid non dixisset, si vidisset* ea magis abundare 
apud nostras Protestantium Academias, quam 
apud suos Catholicos? Quid si subscriptiones 
nostras minutatim quasi dessecuisset^ et eas pro 
sno ingenio singulatim ponderasset? Cui non 
mirum videatur, academiam nostram, quo tempore 
fuerit magis ecclesiastica, immo papistica, fuisse^ 
magis liberalem et civilem ; et cum minus eccle- 
siastica facta esset, evasisse minus civilem et li- 
beralem? Morum priscorum, in hac disciplina, 
desiderium esse videtur. Dum enim (conceditur) 
gubemaculi habenas in propria manu teneret auriga 
ille vigilantior, Papa, laxis tamen habenis in hoc 

* Libellus de Lingua, 



DISSBRTATIO OBNERALIS. Ixxxi 

enrriculo prpcessum est. Nonne, quasi in praesentiA 
virorum, legibus nostris et constitutione ^ersatorum, 
Jacobo Reg^i, Consiliariis suis aduiatoribtis co- 
mitatOy et suos articulos amaios propria soft mana 
ofterenti. Mater Alma jure institisset, 

Moribus antiquiB Btot res Romana Tirisque ? 

Noiane priscarum consuetudinom conscia pro se 
natisque suis indiguabunda exclamasset^ Nolumus 
Leg^es AcadeDiise mutari ? 

Ad ba^ addas, academiam nostram, ex hodiernft 
860tenli&, laicam et civilem esse, nun ecclesiasticam* 
Ei o^au> de bAc opinione dicat* ** Tinnit, iaanis est/' 
Nod es nostris conjecturis hoc asseritur. Res plane 
nunc liquet, in ipsis Regis curiis patefacta et promuU 
gata. Et bene hue tendunt verba viri, qui apud 
ipsam O&oniam tarn elaborate de Universitati* 
bus Anglicanis disseruit: ** sed quaecunque fuerit 
antiquitus clericorum sententia, pro lege com« 
muni stabilita nunc accipitur. Collegia nostra 
esse laicas Institutiones, etiamsi interdum personis 
ecclesiastic is omnino composita.^' Idem a fortiori 
dicendum sit de Universitatibus, quae nihil aliud* 
sunt, quam Collegiorum aggregationes. lisdem 
pene verbis utitur summus JusticiariuSt MansfieU 

dius*. 

His ita existentibus, curnam adolescentes acade- 
micos, homines laicos, cives literarios, ixxXho-m^iiv 
urgemus? Idem est prope ac si ex admittendis in 
artis pictoriae academiam requireretur Xv^i^HVf vel ex 

* Blackstonii Comment B. 1. C. 18. Mansfieldii Generalia 
Prospectus Decis. in Caueie CiTilibus. Ed. Etads. Vol. L p. 15$» 

f 



Ixxxii DISSERTATIO GENBRALIS. 

antiquariis x^ffviii/t vel ex tbeologiiitis tviyfAfji^fAot^ 
y^^ety. Liceat PlatODi scholam suairi mathematicam 
ingressuris Principia Geometrise in memoriam 
fevocare : 

Inscriptio est pura puta characteristica, et i^tunxta^ 
saperimposita, nihil pertine^s ad rem prassentem. 
Liceat aliciii Democrito, (si modo risuni movere 
cuperet,) nos commendare ad medicoram Col- 
legium Montpelierense, quorum, ut legimus, 
atttdentes sub admissionibus, se non opifices 
fuisse, declarare, et «e abasiardare, requirebantur. 
At quidera in hftc re serio nobis agendum, tion 
ignorantibus, quid multi inter vos sapientissimi, 
quid omnes omnium exterarum universitatum existi- 
maverint; has scilicet subscriptiones esse quoddam 
moDstrum, (hnmanum caput cum cervice equin^,) 
dignissimum quod inter prodigiosa naturae annume* 
retur. 

Ex statutis vero nostris antiquis apparet, neque ex 
Ifbro hoc Pritilegiorum aliquid contrarium apparet, 
hoe monstrum, hasce subscriptiones versicolores 
atque alienigenas a majoribus nostris non iuipositas 
fuisse. Sic se habuit nostra Alma Mater, istorum 
gravaminum adhuc nescia : et quod asseruimus de 
nostra, idem de peregrinis asseri potest. Qui in his 
vinen sudarunt, operarii laboriosi, et in rebus aca- 
demicis inprimis exerciti, ex omnibus hue spectanti- 
bus radicitus exploratis, et minutatim, ut ita dixeri- 
mus, dissectis et examinatis, nihil erul^se, et ad 
lucem protulisse vjsi sunt;, quod hujusmodi disci- 
plinee faveat. Proculdubio abunde patet, nniversi- 



DI8SERTATI0 GENB&ALIS. Inxiii 

tates babuisse suas propriaa potertaAes, c^ntu* 
maces et rebel les componeiHli, 8i}ppi*imeadi» piini- 
endi, expellendi; $ed, nobis veritateio iuter has 
iheologico-iiterarias sylvasqu^erecitibas, non inveain 
potest, tenuisse istaoa casDistriam hiijosce farinae 
articulos imponendi, aut vim istann sopbislicam et 
cabalisticaiiiy sua n^mbra, eosdetn subscribere re- 
cusantia, pro iuquilinis reputandi, et ex societate 
suk ejiciendi. Orbis Christianus contentus forte, 
et plus quam satia securus, dortniit et quievit sob 
£cclesiee infallibilitata, et prius^ quam aliquis ad sa* 
cerdotium promoveretur, variis examinibus de vit4 et 
doctriniL probandus esset; iauno Tbeologiae istur 
dens sibi propriuii cursum academicum tbeologi** 
c»ff ut apud nostros, subiisset, et omnia heec forsan' 
naturali qu&dam ralioue, ut qjuse ad eecleaiam 
spectarent. 

De regiiDioibus et apparatibus exterarutn Uni*' 
versitatum appellamas Franco-Gallicas^ Germa- 
nicaSy ludicas, et, si fas sit» Hispanicais. NimU 
rum harum singulae Studia Geueralia vocabaotur, 
quavum, ut visum est,. Farisieiisis fait autiquissima* 
De hftc quasi superbientes, historiographi c^us 
eruditi Dut^ouUai et Crevier testfmtar, istam Uai- 
versitatem fuisse nationalem, etPrivilegia Faeut^ 
tatwUf quae voc^nttir» (Theologise oempe, Juris^ 
et Medicinal) minua antiqua fuisse, quam Ar* 
iiunif et Naiianum* (kIc dictarum)» nempe, ex 
diversjs provinciis CoUogiatavum* £t later eas 
fnistra quoareres stipulationes hajosmodi sacerdo* 

• UHiatoira de l'Uni?ewit6 de Paria, Tom, 7, p. 1%% 

Paris. 1761. 

f2 



Hxxiy DISSERTATIO GENEKAL1S. 

tales ac imperatoriasy et Privilegia snb conditioni- 
bus subscribendis condonata. 

Eadem tradita sunt de Universitate Yiennensi^y 
qasB Arcbigymnasium nominabatur per cunctam 
Gercnaniam, optimarum discipliiiaruni mater et. 
nutrix, reliquarum Academiaram in eetate facile 
princeps : ad Parisieiismm normam concinnata, 
V habuit quatuor suas Nationes, nempe Austriacam, 
Rhenanaoi, Hungaricatn, et Saxonicam, singulis 
proprios suos Procuratores eligentibus, et, pro 
qrdine Facultalum, suffragantibus. His similia 
accepiraus de Ubiopoliy Germanorum Athenis, 
Colonic Agrippincet, ubi longo post tempore^ 
(n. a. 1388) ad " commune Bonum" Universitaa 
fuit erecta, iiadem regulis informata, iisdemque 
jnribns et privilegiis, quibus Lutetiee Parisiensis, do- 
tata, Haud aliter, ut apparet, Italicse Univer- 
sitatesy Pisana, Bolognensis, Paduensis, Sien- 
nensis fuerunt constitutee. Sic item Hispanicse, 
Salamancse, Savilliee, et alibi, se habuernnt omnes 

" CoUegiosmagores^vocatae. Inquisitionipostea fac- 
te sunt, confitemur, misere subjectee ; libri quilibet 
Indici Expurgatorio expositi erant, et ipsae Univer- 
sitates, ab initio, ut alise prsedictae, Decretalibus et 
Bullis Romani Pontificis paruerant. Scd heec omnia 
erant omnibus communia. Natio erat una, et, ut 
nunc est, Catholica ; diversa longe a nostr&, qnce 

* In " Austria Mappis Geograph. distincta, &c. et Hist. Do- 
iDinioruin, GymQasTorum, &c. oomplectens," p. 81, et deinceps. 
" De Univeraitate Viennensi," p. 81 — Viennaa Austriae, 17t7. 

+ *• Sacrarium AgrippinsB, vel Designatio Praeoipaarum Ec- 
clesiarum Coloniensium Reliquiarum," &c. p. 5, et deinceps. 
Colon. Agrip. 1736, 



DISSERTATIO 6ENERALIS. - Ixxxv 

aoQC est, jure optimo, a Ghillo qaodam vocata, 
•'Natio Sectarum/'* 

Quomodocunqaef verobaec sehabeant mala, (satis 
mala pro certo^) ecclesiastica faerunt, noo academica ; 
-^-et nos etiain habuimus nostras pro heeresi In- 
quisitiones, ^* Summi Commissionatus Carias/' et 
^* Cameras Stellatas/' quae ad quaestionem nostran 
minime pertineDt. Nisi enim appareret, in gradibus 
incipiendisy et perficiendis, et in professorits mii- 
neribus sobeandis, alia exercitia, alias requisitiones, 
alia jarajuranda, imposita esse quam quae sibi pro*- 
pria essent, Artes gradaatoris in Artibas^ Leges 
Legistisy Medicinaod Medicis, Tbeologiam Tfaeo- 
logicis, nisi haec plane apparerent, cadit qasestioi 
ut nobis videtur, et nostrum vaiet argamentum. 

Res vero sic, uti nos diximos, ab initio constitutas 
fuisse, quae deinceps apud exteras universitates in 
ordine sunt secuta, et omnibus patefacta, confit- 
mant. Gardinalis Bentivoglio statum Universita* 
tarn Douae et Louvaoiae describit, et posterioremt 
nt omnium in Flandrid antiquissimam, et sacras 
Sedi prae caeteris devotam : de bujusce vero generis 
pactis theologicis ne verbumj;: regiones Elec- 

♦ Voltairio. 

f Argumenta qiuBdam attinentta ad ancKmtatem Eedew, I^ 
gWy '' Tast Laws/' quas Tocantur, et talia, Hookero, Warburto- 
no, ei Paleio agitaU, in Diasertatione pnasenti miatts rapicimui ; 
Um quia vix hie loci aunt, quam quia ea magis sx ptohmo aliW» 
pio modalo nostro, tractariinas* 

t Relationi Fatte dall* Ifl"^ at Rer."*- 8ig. Cardiaal Beats. 
▼ogUo in Tempo deU' aae Nuntilitare di Flandrs, s di ■Vwacia. 
Tom. u p. 150. Col. 1630. 



\xxxt) t)tSSERTATlO GUVEBALIS. 

toris Palatini quam alieme fneritit a tali discipline, 
demonstratiir — ab EpistolA LndoTici Fabricii de 
Acad. Hekleibergensi ad Spinozam^ per quam cele- 
bri isii pfailosophoobtalitcathedraiB Professor! rim in 
HVik Universitate Elector Palatinus — et a Be&pofisi- 
one ipsius Spinozae ad clarum Fabrieium : invita- 
mentam Electore vere dtgnum ! Epistola digna 
Christiano! Recusatio digna Pbilosopho*! Sed 
omnia quam fotilia, quam infructoosa^ immo quam 
vix intelligibilia, h\ pro munei*e profes^rio dbti- 
fiendo ea subeunda assent, qose apud noBtraies 
)>l'de6uinuntiir ! 

Quisetiam nescity morisfaisse antiqui tarn Anglis 
0t Scotis, quam aliis ex gentibus Protestantibus^ 
iipud Catbolicas Universitates fieri studentes, et 
g^ados inde accipereP Ce1eberrimu$< noster Har- 
veiuSy anno aetatis saae novemdecimo, Medicinee 
sttidens fuit Paduae a. 1802, et ibiderti Doctora* 
tos Oradura accepit. Similiter Andreas BaU 
fourius, medicus inter Scotos darissimus, cum 
totdm Be sludiifi medicis dedi»sei, et se mabjecis* 
net examinibus a singulis Professoribus, qui a statu- 
tis ordifiati sunt, Baccalanreatus ptrimum, deinde 
Licenciatos Gradum, et postea summum Gradum 
Doctoratus est adeptuSyCadomi,a. 1601. flmmo^quali 
ardoro, quantsUjue frequentift ad Liitetise Parisiensis 
Academiam ex omnibus Buropae regionibtrs profluxe* 

* Hpistola Philosopho acutissimo^lcelebenrima B.D.SLI. Lvt* 
dovicf f^briicii ; etBespoaflip abeod0m, H^g^ ComitmMirt 3. 
Ii73. la '« Spiuow Poitkvunu^" p. 663. 

t Memor. Balfouriaaa. ?, 63. 



mSSfiRTATIO GENERALIS. r^xWi 

rint.StQdente8,etqoali curase<dederint ad res sutDp« 
tnarias eo^undem adminiitrandas ipsi Pari8ienseA» 
clar^ et quasi trhimpbatim nos dotet CK Cremrius** 
Neque mious liberalis fait Cantabrigia anti- 
aCJA:t ^t etiam sub renatis Uteris in vitavitdoctos 
viros ab aliis regiouibus, et in nostratium fastos con«- 
scripsit, tam ut ab iis subsidia studiornm aodiperet, 
quam ut cum iis suos bonores, suaprivilegia^saa pro«* 
fessoriamuneracomiBunicwet: tales fuerout Buce- 
rus, et Fagius, et eximius Erasmus. Hie, ut settis, - 
(oiaiirum antequam Jacobi mandata intervenissent) 
factusest Dominae Margarelbse Professor, A. 1510, 
et, ex mare, prius acceperat Magistrt, yel Doctoris, 
Gradom A. 1506 : illorum unns professus est et do«> 
cuit Hebraicas, alter Theologiam ) et ambornm ossa 
inter v<w quiescunt. 

Et hactenus de Enropaeis Academiis, et de ratione 
qu4 bouoresac munera publica exteris illae olim con-* 
tulerunt At dam de antiquis loquimur, non possu- 
mus non recordatione nootrd tenere, quali bonore 
vos, et alii Europee populi, habeatis Grseciam an- 
tiquam ; de quit forsan, quantum attineat ad lite- 
rarom diversimodas foriunas et mores scholastic 
cos, plura intellexissemus, sr librum unum, Ari-* 

• 

* De toutes lea prorincM du roy^uoies, de toutes lea parties de 
I'Europe, tccoarroiti Paris une ttiaMtude de jeunes genscurieux 
de s'initruiie. lis j trouroieot d'hona^tes boui;geois« qui entre- 
tenaot correspondence avec le pays d'oii venoient ces ^tudiants, 
leur faisoient les avanoas de I'argeat necessaires pour leur loge- 
mentf leur nourriture, et leur eatretiea.*— Hist de i'Unir. da 
Paria* Tom. tu« p. 15a« 

t Sob. Heo. lU. !«•. Priv. Vol. L p. 5« 



bxMvKi tolSSERTATIO (3ENERAL1S. 

stoteli * ascriptum, posteris tennpus non invidissef. 
Celekri veroex ist& funebri oratione apud Thncydi**' 
deni servat&, de Atbeiiis, hi non inventrice, nutrice 
galtem liberalissimSt artiutn et scientiarrini, satis 
didicimusy ut nobis persuasum sit, academias ibi 
fuissOy ut ita dixeritnus generales^sensaliberalissimo, 
Universitateji. Qood ad istod Atheniensiunn aa- 
cFamentum f (de quo tarn strenoe se exercuit War- 
burtonas) ;|; et argumentam ex eo pendens, refereii-» 
da, ni fallimur, sunt^ ad magistratus gerendos, et 
civilia munera et preemia petenda; et etiam qnod 
ad lieec, ut nobis videtur, Warburtoni argumeti«* 
turn non in omnibus cum rebus quadrat: quod 
vero attinet ad academicos honores, et ad literarum 
commoda, usus atque opportunitates, ea ne vel trans* 
verso digito tangit. Ad scholas Atheniensinm pbi-> 
losopbicas omnes omnium gentium confluxerunt. 
£)t quidem dum» rnv -sroXiv xotvuv 'sr^ft^^ovTcc, peregri- 
nos et inimicos ne a scboiis roilitaribus arcerent, 
(ubi artes quae in se verterentur didicissent) qui se« 
dibus artium et scientiarum suos expulissent§? 

De Romanis forsan nihil amplius exaudiendum 
est» quam quod a Ciceronis scriptis accepimus. 

* TloXiriiui troX««r f\iOi9 hoMtrcup iJ^j\xovra x«i {xaro^, 
Diog. Laert de Vitis, &c« p. 318. Edit. 1594. 

t I. Stobsi Sentent. Senn. 41, p. 343. Edit. Lugd. 

X Warburtoni Fcedus inter Ecclesiam et Statum. B. m. 
C. 3. 

§ Thacyd. de Bell. Peloponi. Lib. ii. S. 39. £d. Bareri. 

'O Munxoc £iixo( rtap EXiv^iPWp (de quibus Meuraius ** de 
Eleufdniis Mysteriis,") ad res sacras omnino pertinet, non ad K- 
lerariam Academiam ; ideoqne noa hujusce loci. 



DISSBRTATIQ GENEEALtS. ixxxfx 

Inde eolligimus *, primordia Romananiin litera* 
ram cum Atheniensibus conyenire, horum philo- 
sophise scholas cam illornm Academiis: et quas 
liheralissime acceperint ab Atheniensibns literaM^ 
eas Romani pro certo nolaissent cam sais pared 
mana et illiberali parttri. Quippe Romanis ante 
omnia fait amor libertatis, et istius populi tarn 
sab regibus qaam sub consul i bus, honorum et privi-* 
legioram inter se, raro disjuncta, et nunquam tuto 
violanda, communicatio. ' Eicteris prsemia militaria 
conferre solebant, et jura civitatis dare: qo! re-* 
cusassent iisdem academicaf? 

Sed qaorsum heec omnia? Non sane ut ver- 
boram levitatem, sed rerum gravitatem; non 
ut affirmationum temeritatem, sed argument 
torum dignitatem ; non ut conjecturarnm au« 
daciam, sed ut exemplorum vim et auctorita- 
tem exhiberemns; non denique ut ingenois ho- 
minibus, in commune bonum consulentibus, sed 
ut lis, qui sibi suisque tantum consulunt, oppug- 
naremus; Deum O. M. simul precantes, ut dis- 
tinguamus inter Reges mere regios, et Reges poli- 
ticos, et ut satis discemamus quam longo inter* 
vallo saepe distet Regia calliditas a ver& sapienti& 
et communi experientift. 

Sit sua cuiqne Regi, et cuilibet magistratui, libe- 
rum populnm politice gubernanti, propria aucto- 
ritas, sui honores. Sed in his, ut in rebus omnibus, 
est moderatio qusedam conservanda. — ^At quidem 
non ignari sumus, quali stupore regiam ad majes- 

* De Orator^ Lib. I. 

i Qui. Beltendeni, CioeroDis Consul, Sena o ftc Cap. xyiii. 
Edidit Sumuelis Parriui, 8. T. F. ' 



XG PISSEKTATIO GENEBAUa 

latent iNibdiiis istins eevi aecedendoin ^sset. Ln- 
doviciim XIY. Galilee. Reg^em, ut pdrfectum iUum 
RegeiBi eujus effigiem. in Cyro adumbravtt Xe- 
iiophon, uni verso quasi orbi exhibueruht Galli ; 
et Jacobum I. Angliee pro Salanaone,^ ei Jeso 
proximo attollebant tiosti'ates. Oh! adnlatores! 
servutn pecus, qui circumsedistis majestaten. Oh ! 
Sacerdote8) coraDi eo qui abomiDando thure lita- 
vistis! Oh! Fhtlosopbit qui plebem verbis subdo^ 
Ha irretivistis; qui principes titulis mire sonanti bus 
delirareeffeciBtis! JacobusplanefuitnitnisRex; mi- 
nus Rex politicus. Yixit iis temporibus^quibus, praB- 
Claris illis popularis libertalifi exemplis, et leg'alis 
societatis rejeciis, quse Groeci et Rotuani exhibae<> 
rant, Europee nationes redactse fueraiit ad immaneoi 
illam et barbarieam politeiam, — priucipis volunta- 
tem legis esse perfectionem. Ecqnis virorum sa* 
pientum de mandato talis Regis affirmare aa- 
deret — dixit — et, ut Legen Medoram et Persaram^ 
^ nunquam mutaudum est ? 

De juramentisy quibus veluti spinis subscription 
nes Dostrse circumseptee suot, seria nimis verba nos 
quidem facere nolumusi qui nee Cabbatisticam, nee 
Casttistriam sumus professi, et nescimns, quibus cau* 
sis liceat subscribere literasoblatassine legendo, sine 
intelligendo, vel etiam inter nientiendum* — et, an 
liceat, pro more tantum, et pro formk, iis manum ap* 
ponere, yel eas quasi per dispehsationem datam aui 
daodam tractare^ et, jorejurando preeatito, absolo* 

* Ita quidam e clericis istius temporis eum appellabant, qaos Ba- 
conus(**humani geoeris sapientissimus simul ethittniUimW) nimis 
sequitur. Prooem. ad, ** De Dign.'^t Augm. Scieatiamin," et ad 
Novum Organon. 



DlSSHRTAtlO GENfiRALtd. xci 

tioneai f^cclesiasticam, ex officio Procdncellarii, ex* 
pectare et accipere — tales sane iunt qiisestiones, de 
civili pctias et cnnonicd lege pendentes^ quam de 
communi Anglorum Lege: et, ut iprae leges et ac- 
tus a regali nitnis auctoritate^ Tel a principiis nimis 
ecclesiasticis stabititie sunt, qusestiones inde ortas 
juris civilisy c^nonutn antiquoram, et Gregorii De- 
cretalium studbsis dimittei>das malleoids^. 

Hsoc vero proprio Matte defendere videmar, 
videlicet* tion talere jwamentam preestitnm in pr8e- 
jadicium juris snperioris t } ^t, si alicui liceat pro 
fonnd et more jaramenta sahire, tolerantii for-* 
san magis digmiiA esse, in caus&, ubi jura mere 
nataralia et ^ivilia petantur } et, si in h&c re non 
religiose egertt, qui juraverit, magis impie fecerit 
auctoritas quee juramentum imposuerit, quam in** 
experientin, qote sobscripserit : adeo ut, dum 
Ten in preesenti statu sunt, non ii snmus, qui 
pro formA, et pro more subscribentes judioemus, 
aut damnemus. Alium penes sit talia statuere. 
Contra istaoi aoctoritatem profanam pugnamus, 
contra istam snbscrtpttonum abominandam requisi- 
tioaem nostrum est pugnare. Non quaerinms, quid 
de lis qui istas subscripliones et juratnenta pto 
form4 prsestefit, existimar^ deb^amus, sed quid de 
istft auctoritate, qme res civiles cmm religione con^ 
turbat; quid de e4 polfteid, quee juramenta sub 
form4 quasi invitet, urgeat, et, pene dixeramus, 
cogat. 

At revera subscriptiones jet adjurntiones nou 

* Decretal. Qregorii» Lib. ii. Tit 24. De Jurcjurando. 
f Ibid. Capit. 19. 



xcii DISSERT ATIO 6ENERAL1S. 

magni ponderis momentum ad se trahent, «i eorum 
consuetudines et mores, qui eas primam exeg-e- 
runt, liceret acrioribus oculis intueri. Qu&nam 
fuerit religione Jacobus in foro conscientiee, nihil 
statuimus, nedum inquiremus. Quis fuerit in com- 
muni vitaa usu, id amici ejus testati sunt; immo 
Rex ipse testatus est, quali levitate, qualt fa- 
miliaritate, quaii impietate usus fuerit* nomine isto 
r€r(ay(»iAiM»r<at cujus etiam mentionem facere religio 
fuit Judeeisyf consuetudo horrenda plurimis, ei usi* 
tata ! Quis fuerit coram populo et in public^ Regai 
administratione, publica ejus acta, omnibus nota, 
satis declarant. Dum adhuc in Scotii, presbyteria*- 
nis familiariter utebatur, et Calvinianos colebat ; 
cum in Anglid, ubi Episcopatus jam floreret, et 
Arminianismus popularis esse inciperet, Episco- 
pariis inserviebat, et Arminianismo vehementer 
favebat. Idem etiam , per Commissionarios, apud 
Synodum Dortensem, Arminianos Belgicos, furore 
prosecutus est. Immo vix sivit clericos suos literali 
et grammaticali sensu exponere, quae jam ante ju- 
rati sensu literali et grammaticali subscripserant. 

Quid dicemus de Coronae Sacramento? Vide- 
mur nobis videre, si quid bonus ille Cancellarius j: 
dixerit de caus&, quamobrem nonnulli Reges Ang- 
liae contra leges terrw quasi bellaverint, et iis 
civiles prsetulerint, ad Jacobum referantur, quid- 

* Diarium Rob. Birrell, in " De Statu Antiq. Scotiae," p. 87, 
ID Fragmentis Hist. Scot, et Humius, in Hist. Ang^liae. sub Jac 
Regno — CsBtera supplebit Episc. Burnettins. 

+ Buxtorfii Lex. Hebr. & Chald. p. 140, et deinceps. 

X Fortetcuius, de Laudibus liegum AnglisB, Cap. 33. • 



r 
t 



DISSERT ATIO GENERALIS. xciii 

dam a religione ejus, et Sacramentt reverentift 
detrahendum fore. Nonne enim, ut antea Henri- 
cus VIII., et Elizabetha per proclamatiouesy leges 
civilesy et canonicas, sic etiam Jacobus per man- 
data, per earias imperatorias, atque ecclesiasticns, 
et Canpncs sues populum Angiiae studebat guber- 
nare ? 

Et qoidem, res politieas per Steaartorum et 
Jacobi regna perpendenti, et quali facilitate re* 
ligio publica se miitaret, veremuri ne appareret, 
istud ipsum sseculam, quod per Angliam snpersti- 
tiosum et '< fauaticnm"' audit, quodam impie- 
tatts, in parte, signo notari debuisset, nt saeculum 
non Tuv c-fiofAtiKiop o^Kov^ rdligionem quasi ludentium. 
Etenim manif^stum est, eultum ejus publicum nimis 
politicum esse, quam' qui religio revera nominare- 
tur, ea quippe qu^e in conscientid regnat pur4 tan- 
turn. Publica religio quater se quasi circumvol verat, 
iterumcttomutanda. Adeout quod Erasmas de suo 
sseculo exclamavit bic liceat rocognoscere : ^< Ex* 
cote juratos articulos ; virosque qui Magistrattim 
suscipiunt ; et eum quidam ita gerunt, quasi jura- 
verint se perjuratos. Quoties autem jurant Cee- 
sareit priusqaam coronam sacram accipiant ! Quo- 
ties jurejurando coeunt principum fiedera ! quoties 
peijorio rescinduntnr!'' — Et bactenus de Jacobo, et 
de populi eetatis suse moribus. 

Liquet etiam ex supra dictis quali oeconomiA sub* 
ministraverint ab antiquo res suas literarias Aca- 
demies; quali preesertim liberalitate se gesderit mater 
alma Lutetian Parisiensisi et deiuceps exultaverit, 
0i triumphaverit. 



xciv DISSERTATIO GENCRAUS. 

Qiiam longo mtervallo nostrie, quee nunc sunt, 
tnatres almoe, Universitates AugUae distant ! Quam 
gravi et jusl4 in earn inveheretar querela! Insia* 
rent multi qui in Anglican^ £ccle.sift enutriti^ et 
prMfun ejus aoaantissimi, articulo» quinque 
Calviniaoos minime probant. Instarent onuies 
Fratres Dissentientes, quibus istius Eccle^^iae 
discipliDa in rebus sacris minus placet. lastarent 
Catholici, qui Regis Supfematiam aversantur, et, 
ut in UQO verbo dicamus, omnes, ab ecclesia 
stability alieniy sive Christiani, sive non Cbristiani. 
Agerent cum illis cuocti apud ipsas coai' 
iBoratiy sive in statu pupillari, sive graduiu 
aUqjuem expeotant^s ; omn^sque qui si alibi vixe- 
rint, et aUqaaodo graduum suscipKudorum eausft 
ad Universitates peregrinati sint, eoram mollis 
ibrtasse pro form^ sobacribendoixi fuitt quod non 
intoUigei^nt; aut^ qyo magis intelligerent^ eo minus 
Qomprobar-ent : denique com illis agwent per^rinaa 
upivepsitates, qiiippe qo«e suam in nostrates libe- 
ralitateo^ recordati, jiistaoi cuW)- iis benefiiQiopun 
communAoati^mn^ et quasi remuoetationem ej^pec* 
tavi»ent. 

Quandoquidem qiise e» anti<|iio de Uftivenvtetiboa 
exAiidAvivrm^ e^aitravimuSf de rMentioribua. hue 
pertioenlfta r^censere minos neceasarinm duxioms^ 
Et vos ipsi, Academici» benescitis, in iis iM me- 
lius adjaaiaistrari ; :hujiisce farinae Licentias non 
ab iis requiri; in gradibus capiend is tales theo- 
logicas subscriptiones juvenibus non imponi; 
nempe neque in Europaeis^ neque in Ainericanis^ 
immo neque in nostris Scoticis, vel in I>ttbliniensi : 



DISSERT ATIO GENERALIS. xcr 

his rejectiSy nostrce solae spatiantur in hoc cur* 
riculo Oxoniensis et Cantabrtgiensift ; adeo lit sint 
qui hoc ipsam titneant, ne quo magis PriVilegiis, 
divitiisy ad honesta studia incilamentis, atque in 
artiom et scientiarum pr8&clari» exemplis abnn- 
dent et floreant academiae nostrae celeberrimee; 
eo minus ad sapientem politeiam esi^ provecta^, 
eo magis a libertate remotas. 

Qaam segre hiec ferrent magnates ettam no9^ 
trates ; quam »gre etiam Principes transmarine dno 
inter alia declarare possint exempts, non veteris me^ 
moriee, et qutt'Seepicis exaudivimus; Unum cnjnsdam 
nobiiis viri, ^ cni, ad altissimam restram dignitatem^ 
Cancellarii, evecto. bonorificum etiam Oradum 
(ULJD.) saperaddere voluisset UnWersitas. Hunc 
euiidemvero gradnm recusavit vir nobiiis. Qnare, 
preeamur, recusavit? Non qood bonores acade- 
niicoa^ qOQssimui coluit, et petiit, contempserit, sed, 
quod subscHptiones graduatoris cunctis imposittt, 
niinis tbeolog^fle, ei minus platerent. Circa idem 
fere tempus Athenas veatras petiit, juvenis adhuc, 
et litems bonestas perdiscendi cupidus, Princeps 
Poloniensisf . £t quidem i^usas vestraa tam ele« 
g^ntiores, qnam sevenores, mire eoluit. Immo, 
ttt acoepimusy stadia, et prsemia, et bonones su4 
setate dignos ibi in ordine academico consequi 
Yoluisset. At quidem non satis din permansit: 
exiit e vobis invitus, et ad suam patriam, vestra- 
rmn literarum doctorem ex vestris secum abducens, 
redivit: adeo in deliciis sibi foerunt vcstree dt>c- 

* Duels de Grafton. + Princeps Poniatowski. 

2 



xcvi DISSERTATIO GENBRALIS. 

trinae : adeo Politeiam academicam vestram, et 
theologicas restrictiones miDus adamavit. 

Haec dicta exempla ut ex auctoritate certA 
accepimus, ita de iisdem dabitare non possumus. 

Hoc vero notatu dignum videtur, ** Statota de 
Cancellario" ad '^ Electionem ejas etOfficium"* taiti- 
turn attinere ; f quod ad Nobiles spectat, et, Statn- 
tum *^ de Concedendis* Gratiis/' et Gratiam statuen- 
tem " qonmni Nobiles habendi sint/' referre tantum 
ad'^Terminosqui vocantur^'academicos^Formas at- 
que Modos et exercitia scholasticay de quibus Nobiles 
Dispensationem habeant;|;. £t quidem oomia 
hmc statuta ^sunt acta antequam Jacobi Mandata 
de Subscriptionibus accesserant : haec quam gene- 
ralissitne^ ut visuin est. Jacobus accipienda Yoluit ; 
et fortasse sint inter ea quee <' salvk regi4 
auctoritate" manere voluit. Nostris Anglis, qui, 
ut in statnto§ exprimitur, *' immature preeripiaut 
Gradum in exteris Academiis, adDoctoratus dignita- 
tem omnis prsecluditur aditus.'* An Transmarini, qui 
ad ^* Eundem gradum/' qui vocatur, admittantur, 
et qui/ quod ad Terminos Academicos, dispensa- 
tionem habeantf ** Speciali Gratia'* sine subscript 
tione possint admitti, nihil ajffirmaverimus. 

At quidem de Gradibus generaliter inteliigen* 

* Eliz. Stat. 43. 

f Eliz. Stat. Cap. 33. 

X Senatug Consulta, sive Qratie. Jan. 31, 1577. Prir. 
VoU I. p. 380, &c^ et ut ampliug explicata, pp. %90, 307. 

§ lb. Vol. I. p. «60. 



DISSERTATIO 6ENERAUS. xcvii 

da b^ec sunt : quoniodocunqae eiiim supra dicta 
se babeant, patet, quaestionem nostram de ** gradi* 
bus honorariis** non htc versari, uec eos nostrum 
muUum interesse, ut qui raro accipienti prosint, 
DOn accipienti vix noceant. Versatur ea de literis 
sub coUegiata disciplina rite iocumbendis, de gra* 
dibus in academico ordine obtineodis, et de variis* 
cominoditatibus, quae cum his conjungi soUnt; 
scilicet, de omnibus, quae, cum non audiant hono- 
raria, fiant eo magis literaria et civilia, et homini- 
bus ad varios vitae usus adeo utilia, et ex nonnuliis 
in publicis muneribus ita requirenda, ut, pene dixe< 
ramas, sint omnino necessaria ; quippe qui accipiat 
una cum iis multis facilitatibus et coramoditatibus 
fruatur ; qui non, multis incommoditatibus et inca- 
pacitatibus se subjiciat : adeo ut ilia, de quibus res 
nostra agitur, existimentur istius esse generis, de 
quibus Cicero: '' Multa enim sunt civibus inter 
se communia, forum, fana, portions, viae, leges, 
jura, judicia^ suffragia, consuetudines pneterea, et 
familiaritates, moltae(|ue cuip multis res rationesque 
contractae/'* 

Hisce rebus pro sua dignitate consideratis, per« 
suasum habemus, vos, Academic!, non dicturos fore^ 
haec 4 -nobiis nimis severe, nimis religiose tractari : 
quippe inter vos sunt, ut fuerunt, multi, homines 
iogenui, ingeniosi, pti, docti, qui sic judicarunt. 
Igitur ex eorum testimonio causa pendeat. 

Persuasnm etiam nobis e9t,Academici,fui8seapiid 
vos, et esse, multos, qui bsBC in animis secum volu- 

• De OSc. Lib. u C. 17. 



xcTiii mSeeUT ATK) G BNERAOS. 

taveriiDt» qnipp^ sanctm consdientide coltbres, honm 
disciplinse fnotoresy liberaiiutn doctrinarum dispen- 
satoresy juyeTium ingenuormn cnstodes et tutores, 
qui bene moniti sunt, causam libertatis esse 
simul caHsam Dei et virtutis, et cum Gregorio 
NazieiKEen6 agnoscunt, ^tuv twrmiiva-tp uvai xotrfAw 
ayxxocivuTiv : scilicet tales, ex necesse, percipient, 
tempera quiddam melius, quam quod pra^sentes 
infiHitutiones suppeditant, non modo desiderare, sed 
etiam poscere et flagitare : nihilominos tamen (at 
bene' norint illi, nee nosmet ipsi sumus ignari) 
quod seniel seritnr, si radices egerit,idem interdiam 
Hon facile evellendum est; praesertim ubi, quod 
antrtoritas stabilierit/ consuetude sanxierit. 
^ At qnidem, si non deficerent animr, vires rod 
ftbessent : patet via : et; ut constantes temporam 
redintegrationes et loci opportunitates quam' Stt- 
pissime nos agitant ad res adstantes persptbien- 
das et retognoseendas ; sie est etiam, iibi ho- 
mines negotiis ordinariis se ^bstrahant, 'et aniinos 
BU(^ in piteteritis contemplandis * et trotinan- 
dis quasi reficiant; ubi horee sul>seciv8& et occa- 
siones/ utsio ctixerimus, extemporales se preebeant 
Ad res fntdras prospiciendas et ad rationes insti- 
tuendas, quibus ea quae longo jam teinp<>re satis 
male foenint admmistrata, posthbc in melius restitu* 
antur. 

Neque omnino desperandilm est. Videmur nobis 
idiseernere quandam ex tenebris effulsisse IcK^em: et 
-si non nova progenies e cte\o delapsa fuerit, baec ta- 
men prsesens eetas non est hominum ovhif tuv xrotouirrwir. 
Ut apud Oxonionses,multis scbolasticis ineptiis,qu8& 
Yicesimus Knoxius, aliique in ludibrium verterant, 



DISSERTATIO GENERAT.IS. xcix 

tandem extiltftis, re^ il4^adeikiic» melius uixnt trAc- 
tantur, quam aiitehac,* sic etiani, vos, ot audivi* 
mus, vosmet extulistis ut Reform at ores ; et in eodem 
Marte, quo Tortiter et boneste, etsi debellatas, se 
gessit Joannes Jebbius, vobis res facile cesserant.f 
Quam vellemus, ista vestra ovalia pro signo 
nianeaty alios nonnullqs postbac fore descenmiros in 
illud certamen [U^ov otymx, si qnis alius) cui Robertus 
Tyrwhittius astitit, eiy in temporis progressu, 
oiAo6vfjL»fo¥ HAfTtfovyTctq triuiuphaturos ! Nos quidem 
etiam nunc quasi prssentem videmus eximium ilium 
virum, fixis oculis, sed vultu ingenuo, iirniis 
propositisy sed summa benevolentia, coram senatu 
astantem^ et Gratiam suam rit^ proponentem : 

" Placeat vobis, ut illi, qui munera scliolastica in 
regiis statutis contenta expleverint, in posterum 
sibi concessum habeant gradum in aliqua facul- 
tate suscipienda, etsi tribus articulis in canone 
tricesimo sexto comprebensis non subscripserint :'*j; 
Oratiam sane dignam, quae vestro Oratiarum Libro 
esset scripta, et pro certo, vel queedam ei similis, 
futuris anuis scribenda. Etsi enim Utopianim nos- 
trarum vix vindices sumus, neque haruspicum disci- 

• 

;* GeMmli^ Pissert* /supra, p. 48* Not. i ^ . 

■ 

+ In Qeiu Dids* ibid, potatur inter desideranda Cantebri^ 

■ • • • • 

giana, intermixtio quaedaro alianim literarum cam Matliemati- 
€18 in gradibus suscinienaifl : paulo post, nos, alienis stadiis occu- 
pati, ti re present! ro^num nostranr tfubduximtit. tnterea, nobis 
igitorantibus, qurp^xs Cantabrigiae non eommorantibut, ret optet% 
accidit. 

X J. Jebbii, M .D. opp: Vol. I. Ed.'I. DisneJo, S.T.P, A. 1771. 
— Alia Robert! Tyrwbittii, A. M. (de quo supra) Gratia, Senatui 
obUta, in Tractatibus Theoiogicis Episeopi Watsonii servatur. 



DISSfilHTATlO GENfiBALm. 

pliBse periti, .de b4c GratiA, qoiboscunqae fajgrtt bo^ 
uori eam restituere, prsecinere sumos aosi : 

Veoient annis 



Sscula deris, qaibus Oceanuff 
Vincula renim laxet, et ingens 
. Pateat tellus, Typhi8i{ue novos 
Detegat orbes, oec sit terris 
Ultima Thule * 

At sane nos non effagit, quo tempore heec Gratia 
cle Subscriptionibas agitata fuit, nonnuUos aca- 
deaiicorum spargere undique rumores, abolere 
penitus ^ubscriptionem non esse penes senatam, 
et&i, modo spiritam ejus servasset, literam mutare 
possit. Estne igitur res in dubio ? 

Pro certo Senatus omnium Collegiorumi omnium 
Artium et Facnltatum, totius Universatis est Con* 
cilium. Et, ut scitis, Statutum Elizabetbse sic se 
habet: '^ Cancellario cum consensu totius Aca- 
demife licebit nova Statuta ad eraditionis amplifi. 
cationem, et decori alque bonesti conservationem 
inter scbolasticos babendam^ sancire; sic ut ex 
bis decretis nostrrs nihil detrafaant aut officiant/' -f 
Ex hac aactoritate, Senatus consulta sive Gratise, 
ut videtur, nunc pendent. 

Quod ad dubia spectat, sie currit Stattrtom : ( 
'' Sf quid dubii vel ambigui in istis StUtutts et 
sanctionibus nostris oriatur, id per Cancellarium 
et majorem partem Frsefectorum CoUegiorum ex- 
plicabitur et determinabitur; quorum determina. 

m 

* Senbeae Mod. AcU ».Sc.U 
+ StaU Eliz. Cap. 4% in fine. 
X Ibib Cap. 60, in fiae. 



DISSjBRTATIO 6BNERALIS. «i 

tioni et interpretationi reliqaos omnes cedere ?o* 
lamas." 

Exiode liquet^ molta pone Senatam icademi- 
eam«*Hsi modo per Caput liceat-^eteiNm ex sypra 
dictifi apparet, nihii posne, mst to commuiie con* 
sulere ei peraiittat Capot. Et quidem coHe- 
gimm, majoreii parten Senatns Bobertt Tyr« 
whittii GratiflB favere^ Viceeaneellaria eani eerte 
lion displloere,^ et ipsuin CancflUarinm 'eaadeni ve* 
Jiementer comprobare. At niaiirain Capat ^ veto** 
soum interposuit. Similiter cam T. Edward^ins 
S.T.P. A. 1787 Grattam Senabit de ahokadis 
Subscription ibus pro|>onere Tolait, irritam'eaiii fecit 
istud Caput molestissimum. 

Exinde fuimus edocti, d«m justam senatos 
auctoritatem colore volttimus^ earn non supra fa- 
cultates et Tires suas tollere. Per regium man- 
datum, alia faeere non liceat, si vellet: per 
Capitis ^ Veto/' alia ; immo, ut |am diximiis, 
nnlla, qneeanqne yellet, possit. 

Cum igitur haic rei qosedam insit dubitatio vel 
difficultas, aliis de e& faeere judieiam relinqaimaa. 
liceat modo nobis eos acad^uicos admirari, qui 
clavam, ut aiunt, ex Herculis manu extorquere 
cnpiant. Est in Regno aoctoritas certe, quae 
Senatui auctoritate superior eminet, ideoque po^ 
tentior est, Summi nempe Uniti Imperii Parlia- 
ment!. Hmcj ut existimant Hli, requisitiones 
istas indecorajB supprimere, gravamina ista mo- 
lestissima removere» vincola ista dehonestissima 

* Epist ad VieecuioentrittOi io Jebbii 0pp. VoL X 



cH BISSERTAfnO OENIIRALia 

peiiitas diruaapere viikt. PenM earn plane .esrt 
Corporationes in justis suis Privilegiis ritie tueri; 
Hi flimol cerlissiine em suo officio e$U viclere, ne 
quid detrimeati ex sus membris Corporationes^ 
ne quid damni ex corporationibuBiprisBespablicai 
capiat. 

Sint forsan apud vos qua pro suA reverentid 
erga Senatam- Cantabrigiae aoadetnicmDviimdiqae 
Knpremse Begui auctoritatist qxoptarenr^ utraaqne 
has potestates 6ibi proprias vices una forecoilecluras^ 
«tqae> arnica coUatione et consensu inter se faoti», 
presstoti sobscriptionis formuUi abolit&» qnandam 
nieliorera, magia decoram, et^rei ^nagts aptatn ttc 
accommodatam, repositoros: qdse 'scilicet, nt an- 
tiquitus, ad acadeiiicam obedientiaiti respiceret, 
vel que ad Artes et Fa<^oHate8^ ae ad bonos 
mor^Sy pertineret. i . < . ' • 

Utcbnque vero beec sint, unieutqae potestati svie 
propriae sunt vires. ^* In appellationibos, at 
vocantur, (verba sunt Jpstitiarii MansfieUii^) om^' 
Wia red^nti post applicationem ad Regii Banci Cu- 
riam factam, ad Universitatem et Statata Univtersi^ 
tatiS) St com eft resa^a esset; «i cAm Collegi£i,f .ad 

■ 

* ProspectttB Qenenlis <Deciaionttm Legaliaon summi Justjti' 
jurii Mansfielfiiiy Vol. L p» lii»8—166. Edidit Evans. 

" i Hoc vera noo ita inteHigendun) est, quasi contra CoUigic 
non l^galiter applicandum esset ad Curiam Bauci Regis. Ezperi- 
xnentuiD, confitemur, periculosum est, et res plenunque mals 
verdt; est tamen ubi applicatum fuit, et bene vertit; ut nuper- 
rime in causa Parocbise S. Botolpbi contra Aulam Catharinam.-— 
Phsterea, Justitiarii Decisio dicta respicit ad membrum Collegii 
conta alia membra, vel contra i}^um Callegiu]r« 



6tatotaGoliegioruai» et.Decrettim Visitatoria, cujus 
Decreftum est finale/^ Nimimiii Yisitatori. tauta 
est potentia. 

At (com pace dixerimas Minimi viri^ nee. vestrC^oi 
^aUqoo8 cffugere pos»t) pneter-ordinariasjllas auc- 
toritatett vel Senatus^ et MagistronnM^ velGanoeL- 
larii aat Yice-cancellarii) vel Yisiiatora, Hfve iftfoerit 
EpiscopuSf 8tve Legates a latere Papa^ (ot olim,) 
sive CancelhiriaHy nve Rex ipse, bi officio alioa- 
jus colfegii Fandatorisy est etiam aactoritss hiH 
omnibtts superior, que saue et illis motos ftti 
cultatem suppeditat, et earum yires^ ubi ddiciant, 
reparare queat. IHee suut quasi musculi bnmani 
corporis, qui diversas ejus partes et tfiemybra ad 
munera sibi propria exequenda concitant: hsec est 
quasi Spiritusj et ubi deliquisse vita videatur/l^i 
suscitationeaft efficerQ potest, creatni quasi, etspes 
ultima ; 

.' .* • 

— opifez rerum, et (Deo favenUj mundi melioris ongo. 

• * 

Hoc intelligendum est de.potestate ilia extra-^ 
erdinaria, quce cum res oreandi,. reformandi, re* 
staurandi, turn etiam maguas- iojurias reprimendi, 
magna opprobria dimovendi, et niagha grava^ 
mina coercendi, anctoritatem sibi vindicate videlioM, 
de ultima ilia rationed quae vocatur, ftu^&vm .Yiffito 
TATORis potestas. 

Sunt certe quamplurimi, per Britanniam -tiunc 
sparsi, et, nihil dubitamus, non pauci apdd ipsam 
academiam commorantes, quibus qiiam mayjime 
in voto est, supremam banc auctoritatem cause 
illi jam diets, nimis debellatse, honeste et eX. 



GIT DISSERTATIO GENERAUS(. 

officto- astitnram fore. Yix enitn spcrandam est, 
(sic existimant) Caput istud. quinqneTirale jam 
memoratuniy quod -paucis abbinc annis molestimi- 
mam auom ** veto*' intulit, minus moleste in hac 
re poathac gesturam^ nisi sommae placeret aoctori* 
tati; ipsft faFente-HAibil clarius putant — idem istud 
unanimo Toto oonaeusurom. 

De bac mictoritate quiddam olim jam dispatatum 
4iiit. Alii affirmaverunty quod, ut Societates et 
Corporatiouet a Rege omnium snoram privilegio- 
mm primam originem traxerant, ita penes Regem 
mere regiump Xkon poliiicum cum parliamenio, jure 
aupremi Yisitatoris muhtts nunc restat: hue refe- 
renda sunt argumentu Scriptoris, qui * in defendenda 
Regis Jacobi II. visitatione Magd, Coil. Oxon. 
copiose disseruit de '< Regis yisitatari& Potestate 
YindicatcL/^ Et Universitas ipsa Oxon. paulo ante 
iisdem principiis institerat ; A. 1647.^ 

Alii judicaverunty banc potestatem jure stare jpenef 
regem^ sed poliiicum^ non mere regium^ nempe 
penes regem et Parliamentum : alii vero, pAnes 
sumimam Regni ,a%ctoTUatem esse, ubicunque po* 
sita sit. Ex bac parte posteriori iiiit Guliehnus 
Prynnius, I Hospitii Lincolniensis Barristerius, olim 
Oxoniensis. Hie nimirum demonstrare sudavit, 
hfmc potestateiti esse in suprema Regnt auctorttate^ 

* Regis Vifrilatoria AuctoriUs Vindicate : a Natiu JohoatoOy 
M. D. a. 1688. 

.+ In Tractata, cui tin Privilegia Univ. Ozon. in re ad 
Visitationem spectante. 

% Excusatio Acad. Oxon. Ezaminata : per Qui. Prynaiami 
A. 1547. 



DIS8ERTATI0 GENERALIS. cv 

n. in Parliamento : Prynniiis ipse a Parliamento 
coDstitatas . fuerat Coinmissionarias ad visitandam 
Academiam Oxoniensem. Hie idem vero Pryn- 
niun non rejecit Regem, modo non mere regium, 
sed politicum, ot patet ex amplissima sua Oratione, 
in *Domo Commiinitatis babitS, de conditionibii!S 
ineondis com Carolo prtmo, et exTractatibus, in 
Suprematiam Parliamentorutn et Regnomm, A. 
1643. 

In prsesenti Libro Privilegiorum vestigia hajas 
potestatis passim occurrunt. Manus ipsam noo 
inKtiKv^ nominatur — lit alia cum in statatis stabilitis, 
tam in negotiis pablicis exequendis — sed intelligen- 
dom et discernendom est in rebus momentosis aut pe- 
ricolosis. — ^Veritatem vero panlo altios exquiramus. 

Cuniim tractanti hujusce libri paginas forsan 
apparebit^ Chartas, Bullas, Indolgentias, Conces- 
moaes^ Donationes, Literas Patentes^ aut qnacan- 
que nomine ista Instrumenta fuerint appdlata, qoee 
conferant pritilegia Universitati, Tel a Regibus, 
vd a Romanis Pontificibus esse deducenda. De 
poDtiiciis, cam Actus de Uniyersitatibus Incor- 
porandis^ ea omnia pre^teriverit, nihil nos moramur : 
de regiis fortasse quiddam lentius festinandnm esset. 

Tempora, et processus, quibus multa ex bis privi- 
legiis primom concessa fuerint, non accuratissimesnni 
cognoscenda aut discemenda : ex iis qucedam sane 
(ot alia, qoee de rerum hnmanarum principiis ver- 
santur) in tenebris obvolota, ex conjecturis pbtios, 
quam ex certa scientia pendent. Hoc vero paulo 

* 18 EUs. cap. W. 



cvi DISSERT ATIO GENBRAIilS. 



axactias intelligi potest, pluritna ex lisdem lostro- 
meptis prseparata fuisse ts^ecola per ista, quibus^ ut 
bene notam es^ gentes nbique Burops^, et inter 
cceteras nostra, tarn feudalibus, quam imperjalibus 
et canomcis olim jam legibns subjeetpe futerant. 

Et quidem inter ea snnt tempoira^ qjues a^ iiostra- 
tibus sunt vocajta, <' Periodi Britannicse- Gooatito- 
tionis inconstantes et irregulares/' Ubi heec pri- 
vilegia clarius et plenius enotuerunt, videlicett sab 
regnis Hen. III. Edw. I. Edw. II. Edw. III. et 
Bic. ll.y se pnebent, non»ut tunc primym creati^ aut 
condonata, sed ut jam existential denotantur ; cum 
de Padiaqientis multum disputatum fuit; com ex 
Nobilibus alii qui citati fuerant per R?gis Scriptum 
ad unum Parliatpentamt^ non summoniti foirte-ftier 
riiQ( ^d alterum, et semper po$tQ9,om)8si; cum inter- 
dum nam.ina omnium icijbatprom.cMDissa smt^ f^Aeo 
ut nunc lateant ; cam de equitibus comHatoum qwe-> 
dam di^piutata fuerant ; ut etiam: hodie de origine 
et pir)teMate ipsius Communitatis, thultee sunt du- 
bitatiooea et controversise. . ^ . 

Notatii vero dignum est, multa quse per itios 
dies comeiessa fiierunt perdUteras Patentes, quasi 
per potestatem mere regiam, acta revera^lijtisse in 
Parliauento, etsi in publicis Instramentis talinm 
Actorum nulla eat menfcio. | . Quednam vero acade- 
• • • * 

.f ,£]8yDgii (Cler. Pafi.) de, M9do T«nendi P^^liameDU in 
AngUa. Sect i. cfa. 9, 10, 11. 

f Dugdalii Perfectum Exemplar Summonitionum Nobilium 
ad' Magnum Concilium/^c. tempore Regis Gd^vardi I. 

t Multas Literas Patentes ita concessas esse et revera esse 
Staiuta, abunde probat Ricardus Wettiua (Irlandie Canceliarius,) 



PISSBETATIO 6BNERALIS. cvn 

mka pririU^ia specialiter sic coneessa. faeritit, 
non inqoiremos : hoc vero non preeiereandom 
vodtatouB-rresse,: abi auctoritas Parliamedti clarius 
eipleotusin PriYilegits tiogCris* ab . antiquo enites- 
cit; atqi^e iibi PetUiones ab Vnivemtete, ut.a.so*- 
oietatQ. v^ Corporaiione^ in Pariiamentoeshib^tie 
mtiti etoi dm, qt verom fateawur^ non suinus isx n% 
qai omnia pbsspot: approhare , oonceflsa> Ave ab 
Auctoritate mere itegta* aiv« ** in plein ParlianienU'' 
Talia v^ro plane iodioare videatur» 'Academiam 
HQ^tram n^n ^sae adjso reg^iiiiiy u& non simul sit 
Parliafiichtaria ; iaiiiiopotiil^y ene» -et CBsedobere^ 
tommb regimioe et auttoriiaite, quain snb.proteo* 
tioae e% tutel&t Parliameiiti : et hmc omnia sequali 
lege sunt dicenda de AcademiA Oxoniensi. 

Sied ante omnia. notandnm est Statutinn Parlia* 
inenti de duabos Aeademiifi Cantabrigioet Qx)o»Ne 
Inioorpotandis. (13 Slizi c. ^»). Notumenim est, 
Cprponitiones a Parliamento^ seque ^ ao^ a Rege> 
creari« £t quidem Rex .ipse, in corporatio&ibos 
cr^andis, agit.revera non. in prc^rii vel private 
personal aed in piiblio4, sea politick, nt Rex politi. 
cmi alioquin cam peraoiii i^os Gorpomtio moritura 
es^t, 

£t boc Pariiankenti statntulb . nostro prbposito 
q«MPi.m49itne idooenm eat^ 

Hoc eaiea^ Farliamenti Stftlaitam estActus^ qui/ nt 
r<9 nuttc . sonty creat, confirmat^ et perpetoat duas 
Universitates, ut Corporationes, in re, faciOj et 

in IhatUtu, ^ Inquieitio de Mode PittdB Cimadi;'' Bd. 9^ i).40, 
sub. fin. 



• ■• 



ctiii DIBSERTATIO GENERALIB. 

nomine; et eo diatios in his arg^iis enodandis no- 
rati sninuSy ne videamor hie vel alibi aliqatd fkyvae 
Jacobi II. tyrannidi, per quam jasta pririlegia Ma^ 
girtri et Socioram Collegii Magdalensis Oxon. im- 
pugnavit — isti auctoritati aimis regice, in qn& defen- 
dendft scriptor jam citatus^ hoc ipsuoi mnniisSB* 
premi Visitatoris appellat : et simnl eo acrioribos 
oculis banc rem inspicere vohiimns, ot certiores nos- 
met redderemns, ubi hoc Bapremi Y isitatoria officitfm 
revera positum sit, et quibus ambus inserviat. 

Aderupt/ procnldobio, molti in his rebus eno- 
dandis promptiores, immo qai'dioent, nodam Gor- 
dianum ibi esse nullom. Et sua sit caiqae facnltas. 
Nos cantiores sumos; eo magis fortasse, utpote 
rebus non ita prtdem actis moniti y solicit!, con- 
fitemur, de malis; inceiti de remediis: et inter 
dubitandum alia queedam occummt. 

Pro certo enim prims ChartsB et Pnllee, undo alios 
derivatee- sunt, ipsee sunt omnino fictitias. Hce 
fact® sunt aliarum, quasi Kqiides gradationis, cansa 
et prsetextos. — Neque patet quo tempore^ aot qu& 
auctoritate nonoolla aniiqmarum statntorum data 
sint: adeo ut illud in lege principium, ** eandem 
vim requiri ad dissolvendam, quam ad crean- 
dam obligationem/' hSc forsan hand raptim possit 
adhiberi. Nee quidem omnia quae nonnulJi jam citati 
dixerunt de hac visitatori& potestate temere accipi- 
enda sunt : immo certissime non vera sunt. Dicant, 



* Natbaniel Johnston, M. D. in, " Regis Visitatoria Aucto- 
riias Vindicata,** ut «up* &c., respiciens ad Visitationem S. Mar- 
Magd. CoU. Ozon. A. 1688. 



DI6SERTATIO GENEKALI& cix 

nimirum, penes neminem pneter regem esse nostras 
Universitates visitare posse^ — ^neque alios qaoslibet 
ab antiqao visitasse ; cum abunde tanen liquet, Epis« 
copos^^rchiepiscoposfyPapas per Cardinalesj;,Can- 
cellarios §, imnio Yice-Cancelhinos, et etiam Parlia* 
rnentum^ visitasse; addas, statuta et privilegia de- 
disse ; yetustata aboluisse, alia restituisse, reposu- 
isse alia: nee quidem pro certo apparet, plures, 
quam dno, Reges Angliae, in publico Officio Supre- 
mi Visitatoris Anglicanis cum Universitatibus rem 
gessisse. 

Gnlielmus Prjnnius, Oxoniensis, (jam citatus) 
unns e CominissioDariis a Parltamento constitutuspro 
Tisitand4 Academic Qxoniensi, et^ ob experientiam 
suam in scriptis publicis evolvendis a Carolo II. 
Recordorum in Turre Londinensi Gustos constitutus, 
de Yisitatoris Officio qusedam disseruit, ut et sum« 
mus ille Justitiarius, Mansfieldius, ut supra; et 
oterqoe quidem ex oflEUriis suis. Postremus sane 
tradit suas J}ecuione$ Legalei de speciali tantum 
Yisitatore, vel, ut Yocator, locali, qui singulb 
Colleg^is preeest ut Judex: non sane fuit ex officio 
Mansfieldii aliquid statuere de exiraardinarid, 
n. suprem& Yisitatorik Potestate, quae omnia Col- 
legia singiilatim, ut et Uni versitatem coUectim, prae^ 
sidet, pnevidet et gubernat, baud minus quam totam 
Britannicam Bempublicam. Ista est potestas, quae 

* Qodwio« de PnatuL Angl. pp. — • Edit Richardsoni. 
f Archiep. Parkerus, De Aoliq. Brit. EccL pp. 298, 368» 
411. 

X Caidinalis Polius, A. 1667. 
§ Pryniiias, p. 31. 



ex DlfefeteRTATlO 6ENERALTB. 

revera creat res, cottBrmat, el perpetuat ; aol an* 
tiqua dimovet^ eaduiea reficit, nova reponit, et om* 
nta ad mores, consuetudtnes, literas» et relig'ionem 
populi existentis aptare potest et debet. 

Hsec auctoritas, utm variis paginis Privileffiorutn 
conspicienda est, ita preesertim in iis qiiee exhi- 
bent res aclas post abolitam Papse Suprematiam, 
regnantibuR BLen. VIII. Edr. VI. MariA, et Eliza- 
bethd; et quidem nisi heec intellexissemus, Decisio- 
nibus Legalibus snmmi Justitiarii de Visitatoris 
auctoritate vix assentire potuissemus. 

Fueiunt, bene scitis, Academici, apud vestros 
viri exiiiiiiy tam juridici, quam theolog^, tain Oxo- 
nienses quam C^ntabrigienses, qui jndicaverant, re 
penttus e^plorat^, nonnuUa quee et in collegiis et in 
Universitatibus ordinata sunt, esse illegalia. Nc<5 
nos, ut v^rnm fateamur, ab iis toto ccelo dissen- 
tiremus, si modo non appareret, vestras xjuritis 
quondam sibi peculiaria retinere. Comparatioiie 
enim factk eorum quae summus Justitiarns drctus 
statait de . Universitatibus specialrter, *= cntn .ii«, 
quae de Corporatiohibus generafiterf ih causis ci- 
vilibus ab eo alibi statuuntur, veremnr,' ne ittveni- 
endum foret, esse in istis curiis quod vix ad legem 
nostram * communem, aut etiam civileni, omniiK' 
i[]uadret ; quippe, eadem ' est ratio ibidem neqne in 
principiis neque in formulis« Deratione visitatori& 
in curi^ suft academic^ summum ilium Justitiarinuo 
sufficiat appellare : " Non judicat (sic ille) per re- 
gulas et formulas communis legis, sed patitur (n. vi- 

» Prospect. Gen. &c. Vol. L p. 158.' 
f Ibid. p. 119. 



DTgSERTATIO GENERALIS. exi 

stlator) agentem allegare non allegata, et probare 
non probata." Haec, et alia hia siiniiia, iis dtmitti- 
mas judicanda, qui Uteris in juridicis pree altts bccu- 
pentar. 

At qofdem qaod ad ea spectat intra nostram pro- 
vtneiam (si hseo fas sit dicere) reposita, vir egre- 
gius, confitemur, nos inter saoraofi et saxum (ut in 
proverbio) stare pene fecit. Fuerant enim, ut vi- 
detur, e S. Joannis Coliegio, qui putarunt, Yisi- 
tatoris potestatem fuisse ntoiis pro soo arbitrio; 
qaibus satis visum est Mansfieldio respondere, 
si intra jurisdictionem suam se teneret Yisita- 
tor, potestatem ejus absolntam esse, et, ut jam 
notavioMis, finalem, et regis curiis non iuterveni- 
endum esse: ac» etsi sint quaedam jura civilia, quae 
cnrise regies modo legali submittantur, tamen quod 
ad alia, tam ad Collegia, qoam ad Universitatem 
attiuentia, Statuta esse legem, et Yisitatorem jn- 
dicem. 

Et, etiam- in hoc argumenti cnrsu, aliis relin- 
quemus querelas movere— de iis statutis, quae sive 
in CoHegits, sive in Unirersitate, existentia, pri- 
vatos irel partes tantum corporationis a'cademi- 
€86 oppressisse Tideantar — de multifariis istis, et 
Wbi contrariis* — de moltis rubigine obVutis, et 
propter numerbs admirandis — ab omnibus tamen so- 

f Curstm notattt digna gini, et feKciter inter se oompaPentiiry 
^tatutom de Coiwiombu8» (in StaL Trin. Col. Cantab. A. 15fO) 
ab £|iz. datum, et Stat«.de CoocionibuS) in hoc Libfo Prir. 
datum ab e^em ELjzabeth^, Universitati A. 1570. Prsef. 
ad Concionem in f rin. Col. habitam, Dec. 19, 1793, a Ro- 
berto Garnbam, A. M. ejusdem Col. Socio. 

2 



cxii DISgERTATIO 6ENERALIS. 

ciis Collegiorum et membris GorporatioQis Aca« 
demicoe subscribeDdis, (de quibun^ ut sapra 
notatur, disseraerant tain Oxonienses quam 
Cantabrig^iensesy) nitiiis sane variis, quam quae hie 
tangere liceat ; — his, cam ceeteris, quaecanque sint, 
utpote quae salvd regid auctoritaie septa, supra 
senatom, supra magistros, supra Visitatorem^ et 
extra curias regias posita sint, his omnibus cmissia, 
nos inter nostros, satis amplos, limites coercemaa. 
Nostra enim causa est ingenuorum juvenum, sub- 
graduatorum generaliter, causa totius academicse 
societatis. Querela nostra est revera Cantabriffi-- 
ensis ^t Oxoniensis; immo querela totius nationis 
quse longo jam tempore datnavit ad ccelum. 

Et nonne in terr4 est potestas, quae querelam banc 
audiat, quae non sublevet? Immo vivit, si modo 
vires suas exerceret in terrd talis potestas; et haec 
est ilia ipsa, quam nominavimus Supremam 
Potestatem Corporationum academicarum augen- 
darum et reformandarum Yisitatoriam. 

Suum cuique est ofBcium. Et haec dicta Po- 
testas est judex, cui bujyysmodi lites dirimere li- 
ceat. Si Caput istud Quinquevirale quod adhuc 
egerit, idem posthinc agere perstaret, fiet impe- 
rium in imperio, societas nimirum a senatu 
distincta, a corporatione diversa, supra ipsos^ et 
extr4» se toilcus; poterit libertatem agendi exsena<>*. 
tfts manibus extorquere, adeo ut si vellet is abolere 
snbscriptionem, non posset : sin autem senatus pos- 
set, et non vellet, suo se gladio trucidaret ; et in 
utrovis discrimine snprema potestas debet succur- 
rere reipublicae literariae : 



DIB8ISRTATI0 &BNSRALte. omiib 



JS«c ipsa oensiliis academicia per 

ioteraiHe oporfet, npi^ petendo^ et aopplicando, fied> 

ex aucloritate Mf, Bnem barom abomiDatiQiiiim 
9tatiieiiifai» 

Neque hsec verba aspere ranent^ ac si oblhi 
essemus observantian senatai debitam, aot pa, leni* 
mipa^ quae in rebiis bojasmodi mores aeadeniicl 
p^rmittaat ; aat retraheremas, nimis jam seven, 
qiiBB aate concesseritnus. Minime qaidem. in 
prsesenti rerpn state, quisqois sit, sabaeribai 
qai credat, et gaudeat : qui rpx gaudeat, l^viMiMtii* 
bus, quae adsint, uorit uti. At quod ad rem ipsam, 
ea non patitar ' indulgentiam. Et est ubi blanda 
verba non ^lodo irrita sgnt, et vaoiloqua, ^ed rui- 
nos£^ et daipuosa.. Mprbu^ ^veterjR^9ien3^ et ^n-, 
gravescens, et pe^tifer* iMga lateq^i^ serpens, boo 
p^tit lenimenta, ned pemesdia: et, si homintbiis de- 
beatnr quaedam indulgentia, nuHa debetur pravis 
consuetudinibus, 

At^ si argumentun), ,in quo yersafjtiuri nos non 
QGiire fefeUerit^ res ^ s^tfis, de quibijyi qiqi^riq^ pir^ 
wiil» siiat in Ae» <9t mne ^^w iieriainMiinma(U,gvai7M 
injurias, somma opprobcia seoum tiabunt. Quid 
eniiA dicetnus? Qtrid non dixerunt Academici 
Uptime nieriti ? Koune (interrogaverunt) haec spec- 
taut ad philosophise et bonarum literaruro progressio- 
nero, ad civilis libertatis conservationem, ad acade* 
micee disciplii^ pestaorationem,ad morum juvenili- 
um probitatem, ad Beipublicee dignitatem, ad i|>sius 
acadera^iae de^jus ^\. i««^Wli4|^ f if^P.pi^^f 4epia¥^» ad 
religionis iSW«W« *HicJ»ritete» atqjw ^Oftfirmatio- 
nem^ ae ad piirAtatem>e6n»ien4iaraui; quas-ante om- 

h 



exW DISSERTATIO GJ^fiRAIilS. 

nia vindicanda est? H»c (aula testati sunt viri ftd-» 
modumcolendiytimOxonieDsestqaamCaotabrigien- 
sw, quosjam citavimus, ad alios ^oamplurimos mox 
appellaturi. Immo, horum nonnulli testati soDt, 
tales subscriptiones esse, x«r ff^o^^nv, SfofAo^X^air, xai 
XfiroiJk»y(^iU9. * Amplias :etiam testati sunt, non sin- 
gulos et particolares homines injuriis has impo^ 
sitiones afficere, noo uni inod6 provinciae, sive Ox9* 
niee, sive CaDtabrigiee, ferre incommoda, sed caeteras 
etiataquodamtnodoAngliae uoiversas provinoiasaffi- 
cere vi tacitft, at, si quis ouocta uodique observet, 

> 

* Quanto damoo et periculo Statuta pnesentia Philoso- 
phiamy et tam humanaB literas, quam bonos mores aBecerint, ez- 
emplis illustravit R. Newton, S. T.P. Auls-Cervanim olim 
Pneses, (at in Vicesimi Knox Tractat) ut et Knox ipse tes- 
tatus est jaocD citatus. Sect, S8» et d^nceps. 

Has flubscriptioBes quam .»gre tuleiiDt ex iis nonBulH, qui 
Evang^lici audire malint, testis sit vir Rev. David Simpson, 
A. M. olim ex Christi Coll. Cantab, postea concionator Celebris 
apud Macclesfield, qui pone inter moriendum contra eas testimo- 
nium reliquit: " Apologia pro Religione, et Sacris Scriptis.'* 
1816. Nov. Edit. p. 1P7, 198—206. Et ipse Simpsonns, 
nihil dobitamus, sificer& et pi& concffcientii. • Subiit vero in memo- 
riam nostram quidam, cujus, cfua Presbyteriamis Seoticns esset, 
voluntas episcopari consensit, dam conscientia sua aoluit: Da* 
rid Lindseius, poeta. Scoticus, sic de yiro decantavit mori- 
turo : 

Solaiur frustra caiyux, splantur amici, ' 
Et medicum accersi sedulo quisque jubet. 

Sed dare splamen nemo, dare nemo saiutem, 
Te prsBter potent. Rex I^ieobe, mihi. 

Quffi corpas gravat,* atque animam simul, exue mitram 
Huic CApiti ; bujus dnus me premit ec perimit. ' 

Picrdr ViiidiciflB FrAtnua Nooconfonnistftnim. ' 



DISgBRTATIO GENERALIS. ex^ 

jdane percipiend^: ex academitsenimAngliae, quasi 
ex fontibuSy aqaae emissee profluunt, que in variaa 
provincias ninnt, et, sive salutiferae, sive pestifaree, 
cursu indies crescente totam nationem pervagantar« 
In bis rebus, quae, quatenus ad Universitatem 
spectant, maximi sunt momenti, et quatenus ad 
supremam istam potestatis visitatorise auctorita-* 
teai» summi officii, si longiuscule deerraverit nostra 
Dissertation veniam oramus lectores: ea qui- 
dem veraata fuit in quibusdam anguatiis et re- 
rum discrimiuibus. Quid enim si ingenni isti 
juvenes, jam dicti, * supremam illam visitatoriam 
potestatem, (quam penes est, nihil dubitamus, kaec 
gravamina penttus abolere,) supplicassent ? Nonne 
qiiidam de academic^ discipline nimis soliciti^.recla- 
nsasseoAy eosdem jam statutis et auctoritati Univer- 
aitatis, qoibos ipsi se jam subjecerant, dimmitten- 
doa cMe ? Add9« praeterea, quod, si qiembra duo, 
▼el viginti duo, qua^am corpora^ionis bujus acade- 
mics^ similiter vei ad curias regias, vel ad banc ipsam 
aummam potestdtem appelUyissent, viri, Ic^is ci* 
vilis aogustiis versati, institissent, duo, vel viginti 
duo, non esse ipsam corporationemp et Universitatem ^ 
9gere posse tantqm per Syndicum. f Hisce igitur 
dubiis et arduis jite perpeosis, ut verum fateamur, 
ex lis snmos, qui ob rerum difficultates ad banc 

♦ Supra, p. 78. 

f Si munioeps Tel alkjua Utfiyereitas ad agendumi det |ic« 
toram, non erit agandnm qua^i a pluribus datum, sic haberi; 
bic eaim pro Republioa, vel Univeraitate intervenit, non pro 
sincolit. Dig«^ Lib. iii7 TiU 4. 9. p. 108. In Corp, Juris 
CivOia, Edit Ootho&sdi. 

h 2 



cxvi DISfiERTATIO GENBBALIS. 

supremftm potestatem, quasi ad refugti cmtatem^ 
se recepissetit. ♦ 

In hoc ar^mento de suprema visitatoris a«ctori- 
tate, lit etiam oliin jam dubia queBdam orta esse vi- 
dentnr, sic eiiani apud nonnuiios hodieTorsan ma- 
Tieant ; et inter alias questiones dwce moveantwr j 
utruni, heec aiictoritas penes Regetn mere re^iqm 
sit sine Pariiamento, an penes regem cum ParUa- 
mento. Quod ad istas catenas in academicds pri- 
mum a Rege sine Pariiamento vinctas/edto Pwlia^ 
mentum 6tiam sine Rege posse revdtere, a<; jam- 
dudum debuisse, nihil dohitamus. ' . 

Blackistonius, ut omnes bene noruut academiet^ 
umtilta de Corporationibus, et de UniversitatiiHia» 
qtisedam de vtsitationibus, dissemit: etquam la- 
cide, quam eleganter, quam eopiose, quaai dovte 
de Legis Anglicee Theoria- eommentatns fqerit, -non 
nostrum est praedicare. Hie vero fuit Praefleetor 
Academicusy et, non adhuc judex^ jurisconsultos; 
non reformatory neque inTestigatbr istius peeuKaris 
moneris, quod nomiha^ivius Suptero} Visitato* 
ris. Pro oerto hie non itiit exitos, quern sibi 

* Opus celebre^ *' Liberae et CaiididaB Disqtiiiiitiones/' edit. a. 
1756(cujus aactorumlioihiDa hod apparent) Cbnvocafitbntdbdicatain 
fuity ut qiiod ad Ecklesiae Hefermationem et Canonica graiwuiiiiia 
peftbfebtt. EpifltolaTero <* QlerioorDra PetidoDaxioniiii»" a. 1771, 
formata fuerat sub auspiciis Rob. Plumptre, S. T. P. Regio. Coll. 
PraBsidie. Hujusce Petitionis autographum, xti fallimur^ adhuc 
festat fft CimeHii Bibliothecse istius CoDegii : in hoe, i^^reiite nd 
quasdam civiKfty et, ut graTiasimi ilH viri judionveraiit, iDegitina^ 
adParliamentaiA (trt itli existiraaverunt) rhe appeUabant ' Sknili^ 
tor Bdw. Miller, Trm. Coll. Legum 6err. qoi a. 1717; de49tal«tk 
et Subscriptionibus conquerebatur, Buas qumtarOliti Piiilui' 
menuciis dedicavit. 



DISB£RTATiO 6£NEKALIS. ^*^" 

proposuit yir doctus, ncqae erat fortes^e mi. n^ 
aeris. Aures tali ratione dicendi mtnas delect 
tari soIent; et, cum Black^tooius e9set quasi m 
pr6e.senti4 Matrix sa® aimeet satins ei visam eat, 
d4»cii*maai ^yaa'adourari, qaatn;nu>rtma statnta re<- 
(uaeitaM^'Ot privilqgM; impugDare. 

Veram cnimyero. Jkuic disseptatiunculaiii anan 
lo qaasdam ernees incidimtis, et in angustiis at 
tenebris loci coerciti samus : aileo at <yuasi ia la^ 
cem prodine necesse sit, at spiritum Hberiim haiu 
riamus, et ore paoca promamus pleaiori. . 

Quaestio pittasBS son pertinety itf jam adnaimus, 
ad priralonim Colie^ioram V^itatoraai affieia, frive 
localJB autiordiadLriiy stTO speoialis, fundatoris vice 
Ibngentia^ lijve metropolitani ; nee senatiis, nee 
magistroram et DoctoFUin, aactoritateni) in noii'- 
tiallis novis statutis daodis^ et id aliis interpretan- 
dis, ..impugnare, akit in dnbitim vocare, audeat. 
'Sua; curia, sua auctoritas, sua jarisdiclio, est vi- 
silj^tortkiis^ et) ^axuaa proviswhalU^m exceptis, saoch- 
uiatia est el fiaalis, ut quae a fundatoribos donata, 
et legis auctoritate concessa. Differ! tero potestas 
arbitraria ista condusiva per legem a pbtestate 
contra legem : -et est ubi Rex, omnibus iocaltbas, 
aut special ibuirvisitaloribM preeemioens, solus agit, 
comCtoGiK»v<>kHtBupreaiaS^gni potestasvtsitatoyia. 

• De Vi^itsstovispotestate mnltum comuientati sunt 

Oxonienses,* Oantabrigienses minus.f At ^uidein 

•II 

* Vrynnius, JohnstoDUS, Jtlackstonius jam citatl. A. de Wood 
de his rebus silet ; sed in '* Antique et praBsenti Statu UniT. Oxon,** 
per J. Ayliflfe, LL.Di multa hue spcctantla videnda maneot. 
Vol. i. Pars. 4. Cap. 3. 

t Notat tamen Archiepisc. Parkerus (olim e S. Benedicti Coll. 



cxviii DISSERT ATIO -GENERALIS. 

lit earum rerum satis demonstration is sappedita* 
runt, quse supremi irisitatoris interposttionem obti- 
nnerant ; et hie liber Privilegiorom sappeditat ex« 
empla ejusdem exercitse et exercendte. 

Yeremnr, nt jam diximus, ne in bis argatiis eno* 
dandis nimium morati fuerimus, et a canm jtiati 
sermonis aberrasse videamur. At ntmiram hoc 
ftiit in proposito, nobismet mnnifestum reddere, 
qnanti valerent academicorum multorum querela, 
et, )Bi qua fata sinerent, ubi posita sint justa et 
legiti ma remedia. 

Et, etiam si remediorura usus sit tardus, si pene 
desperandus, tamen quiddam erit, argumehtum sic 
investigasse, ut, qoicquid alii de nobis sentirent, non 
videremur nobismet levitatiset vaniloquentise studio 
potitts dncti, quam veritatis et benevolentiae^ 

Et revera nobis tandem visum est, queedam 
oltm jam extitisse, ac manere hodie, et etiam alia 
jam dicta, academica gravamina, (neque adeo 
academica, ut non sint simul natfonalia,) quse pe- 
lunt auxllium et levamen a summa* hac visitatorift 
potestate, et vix alibi, si morbo gravescenti unquam 
nanandum sit, posse pati remedium. 

« Horum gravaminum multi testes extitenint ; 

(hoc iterum atque itemm asserimus) academici, 

cum Oxonienses, turn Gantabrigienses ; et etiam 

juvenes, si olira, msgis curiosi^ quam prudentes^ has 

res exploraverint, bsec aegre tulemnt 

Nos quasi eequor tantum verrimusi alii se in 

Cantab^) ^uas Vwitationes Provincis Cantabri|;ien8ifl9 et Aca- 
ifbmis. Illas vero eraot jure suo Metropolilano, et sub Papatu. 
^AJCtiq. Britann. Eccles. pp* 298. 411. Tales vero ouiuc aunt 
rxnllm, sine regik auctoritate« 



DISSERT ATIO : GiBNSR ALISi 

pelago exerceant : decribant^ et t]e{ilorent, collegi- 
oram privatoram statuta, ut crassa et.lurida, et 
qoodaDSmodo labrica, ^irautia cum mores nunc 

m 

ohsoletoa, tam religioDem, quae utcimque antiquitas 
valereot, nunc resUtit mira rubigine obacurata, 
tameo jam nunc acoipieiida viris academicis, ac 
»i maxime idcnea; com recentioris pevi multa 
neglecta jacent, • quasi antiqqos tautum homines 
respioerent; — ;in partes et propo^itiones singula- 
tim hsBO ipsa ooUegiata iidem dividaat, et distribu* 
anty quse etiam sub Elizabethee Reformatione, no- 
vissime sunfe coofeota : barum rerum exempla ante 
ocnloft ponant : '^ Plane demoestreat ne vel unum 
esse stattttum in ^eollegiOf cui non inest una 
vel altera clausula^ quie aot non observairi .potest, 
antquR rerera observatur/' f ^^ hmio affirmationem, 
exemplia in ordme citatis, usque per quadraginta 
Statuta damonstrent, si possint, et placeat :'\ neque 
Bon obserrent, ** si statuta eollegiomm reformata ita 
laborenty statuta magis antiqua et papistica a mar 
jori facta fore obsolete, in desuetudinem ex necesse 
lapsa ; adeo ut si quis, de collegii disciplina usque 
ad scrupulnm solicitus,. iis obsequi velleU non 
posset" Talia de Collegiorum statutis edant, si 

malint. 

Edant alii (ut multi ex academicis, tam Oxonise, 
quam Cantobrigise commorantes, et gremrales, wetf- 
(ii«-i»^epffyo» ediderunt) quid sentiant de Stetutis Uni- 
versitatis. Nos hoc^ pro rei ipsius magnitudine 

♦ Trill, CoL CanUb. 

^ Miller, ad Legem Seir, De privatorum Collegioram Statu- 

tif. 



1 



^^ ' mSBBRT ATIO GE9^ER ALIBi 

nun boBi smntaft, n^quto oci^aslo rfM|iiirit: ad fl3t0 
festiDaoMM. 

InBtitotiones iste^ qufie niipG pene jkvrixwc' UtilTer* 

mtittes lrocfliitQr» nihil aliod sunt ab origiae^ qiiam 

SocietateH, qaibas seen adum Rotnanam tegetn chti* 

lem peirniissam ost, habiere reB comonuaesi arcam 

oominunemy et aetorem MTe Syndicatti) per qaeni^ 

^ lanqnam in repnblicA^ qtiod cdttltnoditter agi fiertqne 

oporteat, agatar, fiat;* atqae extiftde nominate sant 

Corporhtioneft. De istis ipsift siye so<>iata(iiiNi8» 

siYe oolbgfift} »ir^ (S^^t^perMionibiiBt vn umiin porpos 

auctia 6k colleetiBtet qM9 ntan^ qnltti pmprio ae pei- 

iculiari nomine Unif«i^l^i!le» appeHantUfi ptua alibi 

iconail BOmva^ Batis sitbidloei ncrtare^ taUs, utean- 

4^^ fflrinMoi eoiificftafis lAMabitibim^ et ^toi^ttiadtis wm- 

•MUa «kifi«entas( ad pluis IttaUda ^ atqae anperatitioiie, 

q^aui rxtiqnaii religfObe et jutstft airdoritatii valen*- 

iMy ift^nsiito Kttib. den^n: irreyisse. ¥tmUst enitn ^ciun 

-bei^e; team pt^piriaf^ attnlil religio fc fen) etai jncftba. 
tas, qirse omnk in tenebHs obvotocrat^ inter alia 
pHmaift originettl 1P^ivilegi<iyudi '6t Statatomm 
et Mnnernm Vniversitatniil 6biiettravei^ft>;t taniea 
liqneti privileg'ia nofttree eaniessa ^isse^ et Jtatota 
antiqna data, temporibns diversis, et distiMSbut, 

♦ Digest. Lib. III. Tit 4. 1. p. 108, rol. 1. in CorpoVe Juris 
Ciyrl]8. Edit. Oothofiredi. 

*f De Cantabrigianis, et Oxoifianis leque ac de Pftrniiiiiift di- 
cendum est ; " L'o'rigine des droits de rUniversit^ ae perd dans 
robscurite des Tarns." Hist, de 4' Unitersit^ de Paris. Par M. 
Crevier. 



DISSeRTATIO GGNERALIS. t%%% 

per Regeb, per Papiiif» pet Epi8copo9» et per CimceU 
larios* 

Maltiplicaia rant hiec oroilia in temporibuB mo* 
nasticis et tenthroiisj (ut vocantor,) qnibos artes ele« 
gantiores et philosopbia nmltum languebant^ cuoi 
etiam doctissatis erat decantUre/' Giracum est^oon in- 
telligtmfis ;*' cum eiviles etcanonics leges per curiaa 
et scholas vigebant ; donee Dun Scotin, DoctcHmm 
obscnrissimuB^ extkerit sommus theologna^ et Aris* 
totalM (vix Aristotelefi, adeo Latinizatus, mntitatui^ 
et covhiptus*) evaseiit sqmmnB Phik>flophu$. Ifisce 
Ibotibus dertvatee, doctrina et qofiedam pbiloM>(rfiia, 
ana cum Fri?ilegiis et Statutis connmUibo^adCan- 
thbrigiflrm deflnxerant, quae' academiarom aMXima 
atbi dein videbatar ; dutn per longnm'tempns pii'Ues* 
eeto,.et mormn dissimilitadiBem horreaeJBns, itta 
ilntiqua ncientia^ quasi corpora erassonebulanuk^inr 
terpoaMoy ledipsiii passa est. . NMm ^rfer^^'bai^ 
tenebras partkn dispillerunt c ^on.suetudinies adbtic 
veneratfe in desuetiidinein lapsse sant} et eitinde 
-statuta rebus existentibas magis accommoda re- 
^uirebantor: idaoque, nt acadeinioa statata, itaie- 
nebris obvoluta, et novis Uteris contra ria» deveoere 
'ad tempos boni adolescentis fidrardi sexti, sUtu- 
t|i ejns pnefationem recte snmpsertint declaranck^f 
antiqma statuta esse obseura, no» inteUigfeHday wmu 

^ TbomsB Baker, Antiquarii Cantab. Reflect, in Doctritiam. 
Cap. %nu Be Doctrin^ Scholastic^. 

t 

i Sub initio Stat. £dv. VI. . in Libr^ Stiitutorum AiAiquo- 
nun. 



cxxK DISBERTATIO -GENCIRALIS. 

harhara; et aliamagis intelligibiliByCum ad temporw 
conditionem, tarn ad literarum UHum novammy con- 
cinnata, exigi : et ab hoc justo et nataraK principio, 
^* moribas mutatis leges esse mutandas/'* innovation 
nes varife indacebantur in nostram academiam snb 
EdTafdoy sub Maria, sub Elizabetha ; et tandem iila 
statuta, quee sub hujus auspiciis aucta et repurgata, 
manentnune integre, et, nonnullissimal antiquorum 
retentis ant renovatis, erliis nonnuUis in ntbilum re- 
dactis, regi& auctoritate stabilita sunt et confirmata* 
Ex hoc prospectu, quanta sit res, videatar. 
Etenim in h4c Privilegiorom CoUectione Liber 
etiam Elizabetbes Statntorum, cum aliis omnibus 
aeademicis, quse in prasens auctoritatem retinent, 
exhibentur : eC exinde quaestiones non* paucfe, atqae 
non nullios momenti, inter multos doetos et probos 
academicos exortse sunt; dignse, ut existimftrunt, 
quee versarentur a summ4 Majestate: adeo at 
nobismet pene persuasum fuerit, banc nostram 
qualemcunque Dissertatiunculam aliis verbis exor- 
diri deboisse, et, pro tenuitate nostrd, qu&que par 
est reverenti&, supremse Reghi auctoritati submit- 
tendam esse. 

Res itaque tandem hike rediit. Si, ut dictam 
fiiit, sub Edvardi Regno, statuta academica dimft- 
tenda fuerint, ut quie, literis et consuetudinibas tunc 
temporis mutatis, ohscura^ vix intelligibilia^ et 
pene 6ar6ara; nonne eadem pene dicenda manent 
de Statutis, quae nunc sunt, ab Elizabeth^ datis ? 
Concedatur, multa in iis iuvenienda esse, quae prae 
oculis esse nunc debeant, et academicis sint utilia^ 

* Montesquieu, De l*£sprit des Loix. 



DISSERTATIO 6ENERALIS. 

ut quae sint in usu quotidiano, ac in negotiis exerci- 
tiisque publicis peragendis necessarian quod ad alia 
vero, quampkiriaia amit tenge oliter dtveraa. Nonne 
stadia nunc prosequenda^ libri nunc legendi, mores 
et coDsuetudines, una cam variis, qtiee ad formas, 
et tempora, et locos attinent, longe hudc diversa 
sant ab iis, quae in hoc libro Priirilegiomm profe- 
runtur — de Lectoribas publicis, de Temporibus 
JLectionum, de Libris proelegendi.*; — de.Publicaram 
licctionum auditoribus, de Ratione Studiorum, et 
de aliis quam plurimisP* Quid vero ? iidem iterum 
#eelamaot, — Nonne alia sunt vix intellig^bilia/ et 
seoandum miores hodiernos^f pene barbara? Quid 
|ilura? Sunt qui accusant fasec ipea statuta leri- 

* Et Umen in ipsia Statutis sub AdmiMidne Ineeptorum id Ar- 
bus legeodis sicatat seotentia: ** Siagulos iosuper qui hie gra- 
ilum aliquem subituri sunt astrictos et deyinctoe esse vo1uidus» 
ut Statuta ao totius Univenitatis probates consuetudines pro 
viribus obsenrent." Scfiptor Cantab, de toto boc ipso statuto 
notat; '* Hoc Jusjurandum ex novem paragrapbis constat, 
quos ne vel optimi possunt assequi, si duos, vel, ad maximum, 
tres, excipiaa.*' 

In eodem Statuto legitur (ut ab eodem Scnptore Cantab, 
citatum) " Decretum est, ut qui ad Magisterii Gradum ascensuri 
sint, Sacramento Juramenti teneantur, se quinque integros anoos 
Regentiam tenuisse." Subjnngit vir doctus, ** pauci vel nulli 
dignoacunt quid iHa verba significent Variae sunt conjecture, 
sed nihil prsBler ipsa verba vel in Chartis, vel in Institutis inveni- 
endum est^ 

f Hie, qui sequitur, Pangraphus, ait scriptor Oxoniensis, 
(Vicesimus Knox) est iste, quern puer matriculaodus legit; 
** Statutum est, quod Juniores Senioribus, id est, nondum Qra- 
duati Baccalauieia, Baccalaurei Artium Magiatria, Magiatri itidem 
Doctoribua debitam et congniam reverentiam turn in private 

1 



cxxiii 



cxxiv DISSERTATIO GfiNfiRALIS: 

tatts, iDteaipeskivitatis, immo crndelitatis, '^ laierw 
reqoirentia sine stramine/^ 

Sligitur (sic iili, qui^Unitcrsitates oortnuB refer- 

mari yellent, argaunt) Btetota^ista jam aotiqiiata 

aboleriy penitosque dissolvi nequeant, refici et re* 

porgari reqniraDt, ne anplius \e^ei pnstiDfle, at 

hcrbes noxiae ioter triticum^ mores hodiernoa op- 

pugneqt: date enim, quae benefieia ex bisoe 

insCrameotis sibi nostri propOTierent majores, at 

obtinuftse^ satis est et bene: iis vero absolutis, 

quid aoenlere minus opp6rtumMn: potest^ quid magii 

absurdom^ immio quid magis inrqnam, et demetttia 

pleotim, quain eadem exbiberey perpetnare, sancti* 

fieare? Mortapt aimit: conceditor. Anne placet 

tarn de rebus, quam-de hominibus, ista quae volgo 

aucctniwt, iterare, ^^ Mottua non con?itiafida; de 

moitiiis nil nisi bonum; .nam quum moiPtua noa 

mordent, iniquum t^i ut mordeantur?^ Frustra 

vero. 'iSteoim ista nnortua iteruai atque iteniin 

reviviscuot, et, ut occasio preebet, mordent,* De- 

4 

turn in publico exhibeant^ scilicet, ubi conveneriat, locum potio* 
rem ce^^odQ; ubi obvii venerintj de via decedendo, etadjuatum 
interYallum caput aperiendo, atque etiam revereDter. salutando et 
compellando.*' — Quod sec^uitur (ut notat Kbox) in Parenthesi 
locatur : (si vero aliqui secus se gesseriot (ai Juniores fuerint, et 
qui nondum aliquem gradum udepti iuerint) a Vice-Cancellario 
et Pjrocuratpri^i}?^ pro arbitry) corrigootur, vel pcen^ corporal! 
(si per aetatem congruat), vel suspendantur a Gradu,") &c. 

* E. CL ^tat , Captab. 45. . ut in> Causis virorum doctorum 
GuL Whiston, Profes. Mathemat. a 1^10, et Gulielmi Fread, 
A. M. Tutor. .ColL Jesu* 1793 ;—et D^cpetum Senatus, Jun. 9. 
1603,: quod,, elsi non in Libro Gratiarum, ideoque oon l^itimum 
slattitumi citatym fuit in inemorabili Causa ejuadom Gul. Frend, 



mSISfiKTATIO GENBRALIS. exxr 

ferenda igpitnr est querela regiae majestati et parlia- 
mento a probia viria, non de statutis violatis— - 
qaippe non Tiolari non possunt^—sed de non mu- 
tatis; non de infracttiosis, sed de pestiferts; non 
de inefficacibns, sed de accipiondi), approbandis^ 
Hubscribendis. 

Sic illi academici; ex .istis obsoletis ntmirum 
magnum elieiunt argumentafn^ graves cient que- 
relas : et quidem argumenta talia, quereles tales 
viros academieos deowti imtno est etiam ubi oppi- 
dani concpierantor : nos Tero non similiter talia 
nunc excniK»ant — nihil nunc morent. Mortna 
annt; et» st, diis placet, seterna pace quiescaHt. 
At tamen istas profanas articutorum Ffdei JBub- 
scriptiones, has memintss^ nos etkim piget, et quam 
acerbissime ; subsofibenda esse taKn, qua^, si noii 
omnino falsa, multum disputata sufit. Bine nostra 
argnmenta; et qvidin-HR^ prsMer veritatfs ^t reli- 
gionis ai^u Aientel P Hific Hostm querdae;' et 
quid in illis praeter queifelas- temporum? Hinc 
Dostftt laciirymte; etqiiid in Hlis praster lachkTmM 
nationis?. Hoc onus est qnerelcef n<»trafr;' hoc 
tiostraa lamentaitionis* Quid valet levia lamentari, 
et magrna patiP de honoriieis gloriari, et in de«- 
dacovosa redud ? de profanis (n. Classicts) nosmet 
coQgraftolari, etde sacris (n. Scripturis) tergiversari } 
Monstnnn est, quod fogimus; non reptilia prose- 
qoimur: venenam sub vioearam radtcibusttifhsum 
videmus; Mia qaaedam mueilenta, fructus htne 
et iHinc tabeaientes, fix e^nitnos. Dnm hoc mon- 
fltram spirat, Untversitates Britannicae vitescunt. 
Terftt est quasi liqttbfactib'. 'Hkie apnd nostrates 
ioridia, snspieiones; diisidia, anperbfik, privilegio- 



cu¥i DISSEBTATIO 6ENERAL1S. 

rum jactatio, et fratrum inimicitiae ; hinc, qaod 
ad graduuin nostroruiu coDditiones spectat^ apail 
exteros opprobrium et. maledicentia : et qaid 
diceremus de moribus, relig^ione, et bom roam 
conscientiis, qui debilitantur, opprimuntur, affli- 
guntur ? 

Cur ego peccarem, mea caitnina car macolarera, 

Qiidd Fidei ArticuU sua crimina nraltipliciriiit ? 

Pope, 

Sic res pravo ordine olim jam processerant; (uti- 
nam sane nunc melius!) et eas.qui veliot nugas ap- 
pelleat; at quidem — nihil plapius-— 4ul magna et 
seri^ bee nug^B ducuot; atque interest senatus 
academiciv at inprimis regiee majestatis, et Par- 
liamenti Britannici, ea pro gravitate sua ponde- 
rare, atque aptis ad reformationeni iMtrttmeaiiii 
seipsos infltruere. 

Propositionum subscribendarum veritate aut fal- 

sitate viz aliquid, ut apparebit, nilitur nostrum 

argumentum. Quid enim solicit! de literati^ 

gramfiMticalit vel theohgico articuloram novem 

triginta sensu confligeremus P Tota res pendet eit 

hoc, nempe^ propositionessubscribeodas esse intern* 

pestivasy subscribetitium conditionibus, et subscri* 

bendi occasionibus, non (ut schdla^tice dicamus) 

correlativas : aut quid diceremus de formulis ipsis 

accipiendis, cum, ut supra demonstravima^, utrum 

juremuSf.nos esse revera Ecclesise Anglicance mem* 

bra^ an ad Hegiarum literarum auctoritatem, an 

ad novem triginta articuloram veritatem, res. ad 

idemredit: distinctio est sine differentia: quocuoque 

nos animo et cogitatione convertamus, videamus, 

ne mentes juveniles a veritatis studio declinace 



DI^SeitTATIO GflNSRALIS. oxx«p 

potiua, qwm ad etam lesliiiare, concitemus; etenim, 
ut ID proverbiis, *^ puteus^ si hauriatur, muelior eva«- 
dit :"'—*<< aquee stationariae patrejscant :'' et sjmul vi* 
deamua, ne, generaliter^ Britannoram ingenia 
damno afficiamus; Britannoruniy qui libertatis 
inprimis avidi, non miaus in errores proai sunt; 
qaippe non absimilia sunt ingenia sua. regionibus) 
*^ 'Anglia, si non ventosa, venenata/' 

Hactenus de bi» ; ciua^ fnerunt quaestiones potias 
ad cecononoica attinent^s, qnam ad metaphysica 
ant Theologi.ca. Tacnen, etsi non expediat novem- 
triginta articulos (qui quidem in hoc Librc^ Privily- 
giorujin non qontinentur) in membra sua dividere 
minutatim^ et singulorum sensum perscnitari^ 
nihil prpbibet quo minus bepc sequentia subjunge- 
remus^ quae lectorum^ ut in .poemaitiis episod.iae, in- 
dulgentiam, ut ppinamur, obtinebunt. 

Dogmata, hisqe articulis iadusa^ sunt vel doc- 
trinalia vel discipliniiriay ecclesiasticit vel pplU 
ttca. . Ecclesia^ticorum ei politicorum sensus est 
perspicuus; neque doctrinalium quorundam est 
difficilis: dogmata quidem ipsa profunda sunt et 
ivir¥Ofrr»i articolorum verp sensus simplex est et 
unus. Simul tumen facile percipi potest, singulos 
supradictos^ in multiplices suas propositiones di- 
vises, recte inteUigere et fideliter subscribere, noq 
cttivi^ hpmitti contingeret, immo exquisitam scien^iie 
copjam^ promptain historiae cognitionem, . critic^ 
judicii acumen, severam conscientise exercitatio- 
nem, flagitaret. 

De nonnullis vero aliis articulis doctrinalibus ar- 
gumentom longe est diversum : de sensu ipso istorum 



entiii DISSKRTATIO GGNBRALtS. 

Idrticolorum magna egt contrcnrersia ; diun 4iiim alH 
liberam arbftrium ex its elioiunt, alii nil nisi abso* 
lutam pnBdestinatioiieiii in iisdem peroipere po»- 
Mint; aliiqoe hine atqoe illinc inclinantes, eo9 
sie interpretari solent, at liberam arbitrium com 
abfohita preadestinatione eommuniGare videatur} 
adeo ot illi, qui nunc apud theologieos Aruiifitani 
et Calviniani nominantur, iisdem formulis oblig^ri, 
et deiLtram conjungere dextrl, teneantur. 

Catp igitur in bftc contfoversi^ inter ae con- 
trarise tint subscribentium aententiee, et nonnollt 
tlocti, non ita pridem, ex utrftque parte dis- 
putantes, opiniones suas publici juris fecerint,* 
^liceat forsan, quee nos sentianius, lectori breriter 
-submittere ; et ad face tendont, nempe, quod, 
inter ea quae ad punctd quinqite^ (sic vocata) tftt 
five points^ spectant, praedestinatio adeo absolute 
declaratur, tit Uberuni arbttrium ex necesse exclu* 
datur ; f quod sic probamust: 

Arehiepiscopi I Bradwardini etWickltffii, RefDr- 
mationis prspcursoram Anglicanae, sccipta hoc dogma 
clare tradunt. murinia quidem, contra papae aucto- 
ritatem, indulgentias, transubstantiationem, et mo- 
naehorum fraudes, disputarnnt ; at sfmul absolutam 
suam preedesttnationem supra liberumPapistarum et 
Pelagianorum arbijtrium erexerant: et ex eorum 
foottbn.s ut bene nottim est, sues liortos nosCri 
rigaront Reformatores. Erant, pro certo, preedesti- 

* Refutatio Calvinismi per Episcopum Tomlioe.— 'Jiject in 
Divin. tradits Univer. Cantab, a J. Hey, S. [T. P. 1823, et Hist 
Doctr. Calvin. Eccles. Angl. ab A« Toplady. 

f Art Relig. a. 1662. Art. 17. De PraedeitiBatione et Elecdone. 

% A. 1S40. <« De Cauali Dei contra Pela^um." Bradvardinos. 



DISSERTATIO GBNERALIS. exxix 

narii. Hoc testatar Celebris ille catechismasy a 
Decano Ponet sab Edvardo sexto Anglice evulga-* 
tasy etRegis atque Praelatoram auctoritate sancitas } 
idemque, Latin6 versos, sob Elizabeth^ : hoc idem 
probat Concordia ilia, et Harmonia, (vel Corpus,) 
Confesswnum, ^ dogmatum nimirnm catena, quA 
ad fidei unitatem et uniforinitatem se invicem 
astringebant ecclesifle Reformatee: heec omnia et 
singnla spirant dogmata praedestinaria, et inter 
ea videndam est symbolam Anglicanum:t hoc 
insuper idem confifmaat scripta ipsa virorum, qui 
tarn sub Edvardo, quam Elizabeth^, pro orthodoxiae 
exempteribus recipiebantur; tales erant, ne nimis 
essemus, Ecclesiee Anglicanfe ista sub Edvardo 
columna, Episcopus Jeuel, j: et, sub Elizabeth^ 
malleus iste hsereticorum, tarn papisticorum, quam 
puritanicorum, Ricardus Hooker. Ne vel ipse 
Calvinus magis preedestinariorum more disseruit, 
quam Hooker concionatus est: § at qoidem quid ad 
alia (etsi alia multa preesto sunt) appellaremus ? 
Ipsi articulos novem triginta una com Calvini In* 
stitotionibus in manibus jam nunc terimus, et com- 
paratione fact&, ovum non ovo, ut nobis videtur, 
magis simile est. 

Humios, historiographus, in rebus theologicis pro 
certonnllis partibus addictus^ sponte, at nee re non 

» 

* Confessional. Cap. i. p. 11, 1% &c. SndsB Ed. 

f Ibid. 

t In sapradicU HarmamA Ccm/Mtottttm sunt eztracU « Jeu- 
elli Scriptis, qusB Symbolam Anglicannm constituunt. 

§ In Concionibus sub finem Eccle$. PolU. pnecipua in Cone. 

de Fidei Perpetaitate in Electis. 

« 
1 



c%%% dissg:rtatio oeneralir 

perpeoiifti confitettir, • Reforaiatores fulsse prsecl 
tinarios; ei recte qaidem ; nee minus recte Episco- 
pus Bnrnet. Hoc saile in Historic suit Reforma* 
tionis ; ^ alibi veiro idem praedicat, (erat enim vir li- 
beralis in^enii,^ inter dictps 39 articulos non recep* 
tarn esse, yd forsan redpiendamy Reprobationem. f 
At$ vir bone, quoinodo a B^eprobatione PreNiesti* 
n^tipkiem sejungeres? lit corpus sua comitatiir 
umbra, sic, ui fallimur, Reprobatio Prs^estihatid- 
i^em. Agnoscit hod ipse CaWinusi <* Ergo/' aft, 
'* si non possumus rationem assigAare, cor sues mise- 
ricordid dignetur Deua, nisi qnonfam ita illi placet, 
neque etiam in alils reprobandis aliud hab^bimos, 
quam. ejus voluntatem. Quum enim dicitur Deos 
vel indttifare, tel misericbrdift prosequi quern volu- 
erit, eo admobentur homines, nihil causse quserere 
extra ejus volnntatem/' | 

£t recte quidem, et simul prodenter, supplicaTit 
pauperculus ille Gonvillii et Caii CoUegii Socios, 
qui post concionem ad S. Mariee Tempiumseri^ 
habitami dogmata in e4 tradita cito renunciavit, 
inter alias ejus recantationes et pcsnitentialds don- 
fessiones ante Doctorum Oonsistorium declarans; 
<< Ejusdem sum mentis, et ejusdem fidei, quas Ec-^ 
olesia Anglieana tenet et docet, de dogmate Elec- 
tionis et Reprobationis, in Capite de Prtedestitia- 
tione in Libro Articulorum." § Atque ideo Docto- 

* Part. 2. L. 1. p. 113, 

+ 1a Loco, ExposU, Art. 39. 

% Institut. Lib. III. Cap. 23. 11. 

S Fttlleri Hist. Uniy. Cantab, p. 151. 



DISSERTATIO 6EN£RALI^. citkl 

rtim Consistorium t Collegio Ortbbdoxo non ex{iU* 
lit homuncionem. 

Noh est hujasde locii ut sdpra promulgaviihus, 
defendere nee oppugnare dogmata scholastica, et 
theologica, neque pervesrt;igare, utrdm Prsedesiina- 
tio et Reprobatio cum Soripturis Ghristi et Aposto-» 
lorum eJQs, et Patrum primitivee ficcle^iee, po^slnt 
reconciliari. Defensiones et Refutationes Cdvi- 
nismi aliis ultro nanc relinqueulus. Apage vero ilia 
arguments, quce, deducenda a Jacobi Regis tergi- 
versantis roluntate, ArehiepisCOpi Laud arbitrariSt 
decisione, et doctorum istius seeculi nimis proiiiptft 
] liter pretatidbef, absolutam ptsedestiDationem ab 
Anglicani^ Articulis vellicarent ! Qnicqtaid isti 
mallenty hoc plane ilibil sld tern. Articuli siibscri- 
bendi, et subscript!, stijlt articuli Reformafionis 
J 662, et lidem in literali et Grdinmaticati sensu, 
qui, si ex verbis sensum irahere liceat, sunt predes-> 
tinafii. Af^menta tgtfur e scriptoriblis setatis 
porteriorls dfiducenda; lit nobis videtaf ^ vauito^udi 
sont^ nee vitios^ nuce i^edimenda. 

Hfifec igitur (fas At h^t obserVlrir^) ttOn est qtnsi^ 
tie in se simplex, Ke« quie Itmites ifiter PhitbiO'^ 
phicm NeeeiHiaiisi qiwe vocata td, contitf etor t ^ 
preeter enim ilia multa philosophffif tOtinetsUii 
Tflribi^ue Id^itte noddsr, amplectitur argumenta, 
qaee proprio jure nominentur cruces theologicse^ 

r 

* <' Concursus Causarum Effectum producens^ quarum ultima; 
est intellect's Deliberatio et finale Judicium de Bono et Malo. ^ 
Hobbesii Malmesbur. de Necessitate Tractatus. 

i 2 



cxxxii DISSERTATIO GENERALIS. 

humanum ingeniam torqaentes, et fidem rationa- 
lem plane superantes. 

ZenOy et Stoici Fhilosophi, magnas dispa-^ 
tationes et . argumenti di£Bcultates de Fato 
induxerunty nebulas sane concitantes, quibus Plato 
ipse nee yoluerit se occulere, neque potuerit 
dirumpere. lUe quodammodo duo Fata defen- 
ditj quorum unum erat Anima Mundi, omnia io 
universo gubernans, Coelumque ipsum;* alterom. 
Lex ilia divina immutabilis, ad rerum omnium 
adroinistrationem data, qusedam vero. in nostrft 
relinquens potestate, et bumanum arbitrium non 
subjiciens necessitati. Artstoteles, vero Ccelum, ac 
etiam Hominem, pro naturU ejus, legibus necessa- 
riisf subjecisse visus est. Hi philosophi tales do- 
dorum implexus modo quiddam diverso divellere 
conati sunt. Cicero, magis Platonicus, mentem iU 

KivoviAtyoi^ \syo]froi (roUf x,»^ vo/MOjf aihoy rn; rou ttol^tq^ 
fva'id)^. De LegibuB Lib. x. De qao sic ampUus Nemesius : 

Tfi» ii unr ivtqyHmy %»r o\)v^»v fAtVf rfiv rov Tsrayro^ 4^vvii»' 
xari^tfynap it, iuov yo/Mov xfti anr^f«6«Tov' naXu it t^wtw 

NsMsaiUB de Natura Hominisy Cap. 37. 

+ E* roivvv tfi Tif xivficTK avruv x»r» fvff-^y, ctvayim rm 
ilAotituv x«» rtov xaV ixaroy wf of im ccfiif^a ^oirov vsraf- 

Xfif TTiF xmiTiv. De CoBlo, Lib. I. Cap. 8. compar. cum 
ejusdem tractatu de Animi. 



DISSERTATIO GENERALIS. «»xiii 

lam divinam, omnia gubernantem admiratus est, 
et simiil bominum libertatem defendit. * 

tsti pbilosopbi, qui in seecalo posteriori Platonis- 
mum cum Christianismo intermiscebant, multas 
distinctiones, et varietates argument!, non sine suis 
propriis di£BcuItatibu8, adhibuerunt ;— de Providen- 
tia et Fato, — de divind preescienti^ Dei et Homi- 
num libertate, — de justitid diving, et mali origine, 
de statu prsesenti piorum et impiornm ; quaestiones, 
** de quibus ut Boethius notat, '\ neque fas est honiini 
cunctas divini operis machinas vel ingenio compre- 
hendere, vel sermone explicare/^ % Isti vero Chris- 
,tiani, qui absolutam praedestinationem, quae Repro- 
bationem ex necesse secum trahit, induxeruiit, ve- 
remur, ne illi harum queestionum asperitates mire 
redupiicarint ; inter alia, Deum ipsom peccati 
simul auctorem, et erga peccatores supplicii dispen- 
satorem, constituentes; montes revera difficultatom 
non superandas, nisi ab iis, qui ** Dei Justitiam, 
fortasse 'misericordiam, '' in mundi damnatione, 

vindicent.§ 

Res fero sic se babet. Haec sane sunt dogmata, 
his scmpulis, et asperitatibus, atque Tiromm doc- 

* <* Similiter ad animorum motus voluntarios, non est reqoi- 
renda externa cansa. Motus nempe voluntarius earn nataram in 
se contiuet, ut sit in nostri potestate, nobisque pareat: nee id 
sine caus&: ejus enim rei causa, ipsa natura est." Db Fato, 

+ Nemesius de Natura Hominis. Cap. 31. n«fi ElfAMffAim, 
ad fin. Libri ; et Boethius de Consolatione Philosophia, Lib. 4 

et5. 

t De Consol. Philosoph. p, Ma. Edit, Variorum. 

% Conuioni est hie titulus, habitae apud Novam Angliaro, a 
4:elebri Prsdestinarioy Jonath. Edwards. 



I 
19 



^3fj?iy DIS^ERTATIO GENERALIS. 

tissimoriim dubitationibus ^ ac ' objectionibas ob- 
noxia, hsec sunt subscribenda ; at ob quas causas ? 
DiEnirumi pro admissione in Stadium Generate ac 
literariuni, pro adeptione graduum academicoratn, 
pro fruitione et admin istratione munium civilium; 
— et a quibus? Nimirum^ a juvcnibus ctulode. ian^ 
dem, et yix, relicto, a pueris adbuc pene imberbi- 
bus, ab Inceptoribus in Artibus, in Medicin^, in Lie- 
gibusy immo in Music^; ridiculum sane satis, si noa 

* De hoc dogmate varia9 seutentias ortas esse, a primis Ecclesiae 
CkrlsiiaiUBy notum est. CalfiDiis in iDslitadoDibus notat, '' Teta- 
res tameu omoe^^ (»xcepto Aug^stioo, sic in hkc re Taiiant, aut 
perplexe loqi^unti^r, ut certi fere nihil ex eonim scriptis referri 
iqueat." . Rectius forsan esset dixisse, veterrimos aliter locutos esse 
de hoc dogmata quam Augustinum. Dicesne, dogma verum eat, 
into igitur subscribendum ? Sed, quo sensu verum sit, quisnam 
judicabk? DtTersse de PrasdestinatiOQe opinio nes oris sunt em 
xiirersiinQdis S* PauU Epistois ad Romaoos interpreUtionibus, ia 
'quibus longe aliter se agunt Au^stinus et Pelagius. Calvinua (ut 
patet e^ Comment, ejus in Nov. Fcsdus) secutus est Augustinum; 
^.nglici Reformatores Augustiuum et Calvinuro, ut liquet a Jeu- 
«11i Scripturanim explicationibus, et a notis in Anglicam versionem 
Nor.^estamenti sub Elizabeth^.. E contra, Erasmus, Episcopius, 
Arcnmius, Grotius, (utpostea'Fratre6poloni)et Limborchu8,8ecuti 
«unt sensum Pelagianum ; ne dicamus de Qostris^ Hammoodo^ et 
Aliisy et prscipue Joanne Taylor, S. T. P. Noryicensi, qui novam 
^uaadam faciem huj/c epiatol^ ii^iuxit, Ubi igitur ProfesQores et 
GommeDtatores d^ptissimi in partes diversas ruunt, quare aovitios 
^t imperitos torques t 

SioiilUer de aliis mystew, qusB in quibusdam articulis subscri* 
hendis inviolvuntur, quaerenduni est— de Infinitate, Cos^rnitate, 
coessentialitate, a^oiwouo-**, ofAoiova-io^ itiUfxar^y KoiywiM^^ 
M si quid alia. Quam irrelativa haec omnia, et absona a jure- 
nibu8» legistisy et medicia, viris res suaa, et quam longtssiffle ro- 
moUsy tjcactantibus ! 



mSSERTATIO 6ENERALIS. exxxv 

luagis monstrpsum! Cur non Music^e Professor 
suum qtdmonet Inceptorem, novem istos triginta i^r- 
ticulos modis doctis potius solicitare (mious irrelati« 
vum et absurdum e$3et) quam subscribere? 

^^ At, quidein (ut ia adagio) arcus nimiji tensus 
ruinpUiir :" aut forsan quis potius dicat, sagittas nos-\ 
traj» ultra metam tendere, ex supradictrs con4:lu- 
ddQSi DOS booores academicosy nempe gradus/ satis 
admirari, ioimo supra dignitateoi et pretium 
eosdem a nobis eestimari. Pace igitur lectorum^. 
quid de his rebus sentiamus, breyiter expoaemu^ ; 
nempe, qaaotum boni ex ^is gradibu9 acade^ici^ 
expectandoqii sit. 

Quod bowntm opminamu^ bifaFiam est aecipien^ 
duui; est eoim bonum^ quod id se; et est bonuoi 
quod extrinsecus, et, ut dicitur, accidenter* Bonum 
in se, est virtus, scieutia, religio» bona coQsd^QJtia• 
Bonum quod extrinsecus, sunt, divitia^, honor, glo* 
ria, principatU9, et alia^ quae non sm% in nostrdi po^ 

testate.^ 

Quod ad Gradus istos attinet, de quibus adeo 
magna succinuntur, habere in se quiddam mixtse 
naturse, manifestum est. Sint forsan hguesta^ am^ 
bitionis stimuli, sint forsan ad parentes et cogniitos 
juvenum industriae testimonia ; (at seepe heec satis 
fallacia;) quod ad illos qui aetate provectA in Facul- 

* Tm o»T(ay rot, (Mtv tr^v «<P* ^V**'> ^* ^* ^^^ *^' ^f^^^' 
Xoytf, otra ifAirtfct ify*' oux i(p' ii>iv it, to o-a-/x,«, i xTU<rK, 
^ ^^ EpicUjU Epcftirid. 



J 



I 



cxxxvi DtSSERTATIO GENERALIS. 

tatibus (at dicitar) procedunt^ non multum exin 

oriri, praeter comnfodum aot delectationem prxH^^ 

deniiunif planum est. Flores sane sint apti et 

idonei ad coronam scientiee efformandam : at non 

raro habent juxta insitum Mandragoram* quen- 

daiD, qui vino mixtns facit somnolentianiy et herbam 

illam pestiferam, in vestibulo ex more positam^semper 

et indesinenter injectam, quam sine figurd vocamos 

— sabscriptionem— et fortasse hie antiquam de his 

opinionem in memoriam cito nimis nos in memo-- 

riam revocamiis^ nobismet ab adolescentia acriter 

infnsam, at non adeo antiquam, ut quibusdam ho- 

^liernis argumentis sustentari non possit : adeo, at 

vereamur, ne nos, propter istas inveteratas recorda- 

tiones, minus quam alii quidam, his dignitatibas 

istapeamus. 

Gradus Theologicos oppugnari, et pro antichrist 
liawUmi siffnis damnari, tarn a nostris, quam ab 
exteris, qui primi Reformationem a Papisticis pete- 
bant — ^hsec omnia omnibus bene nota sunt. Hsec 
demonstrant scripta Loliardarnm tam metrica, 
quam prosaica, et inter prima celeberrimi tbeologi 
Johannis Wickliffii, f qui et ipse fuit Doctor et 

Tfiv xct.T»f9((iv TOiff wivouo-iv, &c. Plutaich. de Aud. Po^tii. 

+ De Magiatria et Doctoribus hoc modo disserit Wickliffius : 
** Lioet in quibusdam studiis nomeo doiUoris sit excellentiua, cum 
ait ritus Gentilis ex jnultis honoribus et statibus aggregatua, Umea 
lA tazttt Apostoli sumitor aimpHcius, pro quocunque fideli, qui 



pISSfiRTATIO GENERALIS. cxxxvii 

Prolessor apud Oxonienses. Erasmus Roteroda- 
mus noster factus est, ut qui, pro formd, gradum 
apud Cantabrigiam suscepit, et professoriam ibi 
exercuit : sed quantuli oestimaret etiam septem 
scientias graduatornm, qn^m, nunc ludicre, nunc 
severe, tractaret eorum juramenta, liber iste jam 
citatas docebit. * De v4ro illo quid multa ? Alius 
ejusdem liber manifestum reddit, se nomina sim- 
plicia (quomodo iis Greeci, et antiqui Romani, nnk 
cum Hebrseis, et primis Christianis, uti soliti sunt) 
titnlis ineptis prsetulisse, nisi quod usus hodiernus, 
et mores Christianorum aliter sanxissent.f 

Aotabiliter docet Fidem Catholicum, et sic dicit nomen doctoris 
meritiim et laborem, et interimit superbiam, et status eminentiam 
quoad mundum." Tractat. in Matth. 33. Atqueiterum : ** Breyi- 
ter omnia secia, status^ (quo iiUeUigendum est gradtUf) vel operatio, 
quam Christus non approbat in suo Evangelio, est rationabiliter 
dimittenda : ideo cum Christus non approbat, sed reprobat |;en- 
tile magiBterium supra dictum, patet, qu6d est ex ecclesis dimit- 
tendum.*' Ibid. Et sic distinguitstattmm differentias ; ** nota, quod 
nomen qffUdi multum distat a nomine graduationis scholastice, 
gentiliter introducts." Id. in Concionem Chriati in Montem. 

* ^* Ezcute," exclamat Erasmus, '' juratos articulos, et videbis 
jurisjurandum non minus esse ludicrum, quam est eorum^ qui 
suscipiunt professionem septem Artium Liberalium, aut Juris, 
aut Theologie/* Supra jam cit ex Libro de Lingui. 

f <* Sed extra jocum (sicille) mihi probatur yeterum simplid* 
tas, quam utipam per nostra tempestatis corruptissimos mores 
ubiqne liceret iBmulari, ut nos inyicem nudis hominum titulis salu* 
taremus: Cains Plinius CaWo suo S. D."&c. Scatetjociset sali* 
hus Erasmi familiaris, Celebris ilieEpiMarvmObaourorum Ftro* 
Turn auctor, in Baccalauieos, Magistros, et Doctores in Artibus, 
ac Legibua, at pnedpue in Theologii; et Satyris metrice et 
prosaioe mordet Academiaa Lipsienaem, Wittenbergensem, Mo- 



cxxxviii DISSERT ATIO GENERALIS. 

Sed quod ad exteros Reformatores, et eorum de 
Gradibus Theologicis sententiaSi illi plane talia 
omnia Antichristianismum sapere, judic4runt.« 

Haec de Magisteriis et Doctoratibus theologicis 
olim viri Evangelici. Sed^ut Facultates humaMB^ et 
Gradus mere literarii, non per omnia theologicis et 
evangelicis assimilandi sunt, sic nee iisdem regulis 
sunt metiendi et cohibendi. Et de bis rebus audias 
Oxoniensem Historiographum, (etsivirum minus au- 
diendumde Historic etAntiquitatibus Oxoniss^qu^iu 
de Atbenis Oxoniensibus) qui nihil nonmagnum»mhil 
non celebre, nihil non antiquitatem redolens, de 
his Facultatibus et Dignitatibus enunciat.t Nee 
quidem nos aliquid a doctrina; pretio, vel dignitate 
doctorum, detrah.ere vellemua. Honos alit Artes et 

guntinaiD, Friburgensexn, Parisienseniy Nurimbergeasem, et quas 
non? 

* " Qui Oradus Academicos in se sumunt, et titulos iis consonos, 
yestibus et pbaleris mystici corporis Antichristi se ornant, qui est 
rex omDium superbisB liberonim, nempe Magistrorum etDoctorum 
in TheologiL'' Joan. Hus, de Regno Antichristi, c. 14. — Atque 
iterum ; ** Ac per hoc distinguuntur (nempe ut qui a Christo 
missi) a quibusdam aliunde coronatis, ut, M agistri, et Doctores, et 
Baccalaureiy necnon aliia trarii generis titulorum in simplici Sci- 
enlnk hujus mundi." — Similiter etiam Zuinglias: ** Audi's hie 
bnjusmodo titulos magistrorum et doctorum non ex Deo esse, sed, 
Christus hoc vetat." At ne plura— Martinus Lutherus, in Re- 
apODsione 8U& ad Ambrosium Catharioum, Viscaoem, de Anti- 
chriato (Dan. viii.) expooensaltimaoLAntiabifisti aetem, describit 
ipaas Uniyenitates, et Ghradua, adeo aspere et violenter (omnia 
sioAgara soliti auat Lutherns et CaWinus) uii /verba £§i» exwribere 
non audeamus. Rosponsh bac Anglice videnda est in Operibas 
3filecti8 Qui. DeU, (6. T. P.) plin 3ony. & Caii Ook Magislri. 
i Anu Woo4 Hist et Antjq. Oxon. lab. % £4it. Philfppi Bliss. 
S.T.P. 

1 



DISSERTATIO GENERALIS. cxxxix 

Scientias; et reverential soaque prsemiai cuilibet 
debentur, sive graduato, sive non graduatp, qui per 
bonas literas possit singulis opitulariy aut prodesse 
Reipublic^. 

At, pace tanti viri, multa, si non ab initio prava, 
in pravissima degeneraverunt, et formulae ineptee. 
locum sciential supplSrunt. Quis nescit ingenium 
avi scholasticif et quam facile argumentula 
ordinaria, et recitationes somnolentas, e\ Thom4 
Aquinate, Alberto, et Joanne Scoto, vel ex Parti-- 
bus Alexandri desumtas, (scholarum istam cramben 
repetitam) Graduaturi, alii post alios, resumse- 
rint, et Doctoratus atque Magisteria reportave- 
rint; dum poete, illorum temporutn censores, 
exclamarunt : 

*' Doctores et Magistri nihil sciunt?" * 

Pieeterita sunt ista tempora : at non ita pridepi, 
strifftnenta, quae vocata sunt, Sylloffismorum, ab uno 
ad alteram Graduaturorum, quadrata cucurrerunt, 
et mille viros iisdem disputandi formulis, memo- 
riter proferendis, suppeditarunt. f Et talia tunc 
temporis Doctoratus et Magisteria reportaverunt. 

Istis vero temporibus praeteritis, restant jam tem- 
pora, quibus, si modo nummi sint in loculis, et 

* Vir illustris Ulric de Hutten, " Obsci^roram Yirorum Epis* 
tolarum'' auctor, qui sub liteds renascenlibus Gradu.s sui temporis 
barbaro Latinismo ludibrio vertit, Don magis sails quam veritatis 
8ui»>jocis intermiscet, sive ad exteras, sive ad nostras tunc tem- 
poris, Academias referantur. 

f Hanim nngaram ampla exempla, ted non sine ju^ roprehen- 
siofie, soppeditant scripta Vicetixai Knox, S. T, P. olim Ozpn. 
jam dtati. 



cxl DISSERTATIO GENERALIS. 

Doctoratus et Magisteria obtinenda sint sine ulla vel 
iDgenii) Tel doctrinsey vel industriae adjumentis. 
Quia nescit qnot, et quales, et quantuli pretii Gra- 
das emantar ex Septentrionalibus Britannicis, et ab 
iisy qui matres suas almas Duuquam viderunt, nun- 
quam visuri sunt? Heec sane Diplomata itinera- 
ria, sive Septentrionalia, sive transmarina^ niira 
peragunt!^ Non sic, confitemur, omnia Oxonii et 
Cantabrigise venalia; non ex iis prodeunt ista iti- 
neraria Diplomata. Sed etiam apud nostras Aca- 
demias Gradus possint arripi ab iis, quorum prseci- 
puffi exercitationes sunt solutio quarundam peca- 
niarum, lucella officiaria, atque Subscriptiones et 
juramenta. 

Haec Tero non dicta sunt prae joco, aut ludibrio, 
prae ambitione aut invidi^k, prse severitate aut pro- 
tervitate; immo, cum summd reverentiA magnse 
istius coronee doctorum virorum, qui sive apud 
Academias ipsas commorantes, sive per provin- 
cias vitam agentes, has dignitates adept! fuerint, et 
plus quam meriti ; et qui, si quae meriti sint, obti- 
neant, plus forsan accipiant, quam quae Gradus 
isti possint dare. Sed videant lectores, quo tendat 
heec oratio. His Gradibus, nimirum ipsis, quos 
homines e triviis, preestigiatores et impostores pos- 
sint obtinere, si modo subscribant, ne vel optimus 
quis, ornatissimus, et eruditissimus, possit frui sine 
subscriptionibus et juramentis. 

Argnmentum porro hue inclinat. Haec Studia 
Generalia, vel Universitates, quae nunc per Legem 
Angliae Communem pro civilibus Institutionibus 
sumendoe sunt, et nationales esse debent, ut aliee 



DISSERTATIO 6ENERALTS. cxli 

Gorporationes, suam privatas leges stataendi habent 
potestatem, quae vero terree Legi, vel ejas spiritai, 
non debent repugnare. Privilegia saa, ut corpora- 
tiones aliee, rit<3 et jure accipiunt; istas vero uti- 
litates et commoda^ quae omnibus civibus commiinia 
sunt, non jure possunt adeo in se trahere, ut alio- 
rum absorbeant, ab aliis abstrahant. Oradus vero 
Academici, non in omnibus numeris absoluti, tales 
utilitates et commoda conferunt} at vel non debent 
conferre, aut debent ipsi 6radu3 omnibus civibus 
communes esse, sine partium distinctionibus, et 
irrelativis subscriptionibus : aliter ex sequali sta- 
terk res non pendent: et in eAdem proportione 
quft unam partem tollis, alteram deprimis. 

Commoda et utilitates et facilitates (preeter privi. 
legia proprie academica) talia sunt, quae ad varia 
vitse privates et publicae officia obeunda dant vim et 
efficaciam, et ideo civibus omnibus esse debent com? 
munia. Olim non alicui licuit scholas habere nisi 
Grammatistae Graduato ; et etiam hodie suas po- 
testates omnibus Faculiaiibus conferunt Gradus 
Academici. In Hospitium Dominorum Advocato- 
rum de Arcubus Londini nuUus admittitur Advo- 
catus nisi prius Academiae Oxoniensis vel Canta- 
brigiensis Graduatus. In Hospitiis Juris Com- 
munis, qui prius graduaverit in uno vel altero 
horura sua habet in Terminis numerandis privile- 
gia, quasdum exemptiones: vix in Collegium 
Regale Medicorum Londinensium Anglicos quis eli- 
gendus est, nisi similiter Graduatus. In ecclesi^ mira 
commoda confert Graduatio: etsi enim Gradus Aca- 



cxlii DiSSERTATIO GENERALtS. 

demici ndn absolute et necessario requiraDtur, sunt 
tam^n quslsi commendatitise Literae; et Candidatus 
raro adinittitur ad dacra officia adraibistranda, sine 
Gradu Academico. Gradus in Legibus duo Eccle- 
siastica Beneficia dat tenendi potestatem : et unas- 
quisque Gradus, ni fallimur, fert e^emptionem 
ab omni stipendio militari, et officiis parochialibus. 
tlis bene cognitis, qusenam sint ea^ quae viri 
priidentiores solent objicere, quare subscriptiones 
istae hoii sunt dimovendse ; quare ista vincula non 
penitus dirumpenda? Has et consimiles quaes- 
iiones nos, pro teniiitate nostra, alibi conati sumus 
discutere, et in eandem arenam descendere prae- 
senti occasion! non congroit: unam et alteram 
modo, cum pace lectorum, breviter hie notabi- 
mus. 

Anne ailiquis petit ab iis, qui hasce res oculis 
nimis Lynceis perscutari videantur, ut bene secum 
reputent, quam perdifficile sit, quam pericu« 
losum, immo quam pene impiura et profanum, 
antiquas Fundationes movere, vel etiam digito 
tantum tangere? et qUam segre ferrent Acade- 
mici pensum illud Fenelopeium, opus illud fere 
superogfttioni accedens, nempe, Donationes re- 
donare, Concessiones reconcedere, Frivilegiis se tib- 
dicare, et Subscriptiones penitus abolere? At 
vero, e contra, nonne petatur ab ipso petente, 
(dimiss^ simul quaestione, de Donationibus, et Be- 
nefactionibus et Beneficiis, quorum forsan eos jam 
dictos nullum tenet desiderium, nulla invidia) qua 
lege, quo jure Colle|riorum Fundatores et Benefac- 



DISSERTATIO GENEKALIS. cxliil 

tores quasi irruerint, etad saos appropriarint (salvis 
Priyilegiis proprie Academicis) eas utilitates et ea 
commoda, quae inter cives sunt communia ? Ag^te 
vero : ipsse Societates (stiidia Generalia antiquitus 
dicta) erant, pro tetnporum istorum statu, conditi- 
oner et opinion! bus, nationales : et quod ad dictas 
Subscriptiones, ex ipsis antiquis Statutis demon- 
stratum fuit, Fundatores nostros, et antiquam ma- 
trem almam, nnllas tales iroposuisse, quales nunc 
requiruntur. 

Et hie qusestio ilia inveterata forsan proponatur a 
quibusdam Academicis, quomodo illi ipsi sua tue- 
rentor sine Snbscriptionibus ? Si Oradus sine Sub^ 
scriptionibus conferrentur, nonne filii tarn Fratrnm 
Nonconformistarum, quam Catholidorum, et omni- 
genum Sectarum^ in Academias irruerent? Sic 
manet nunc opinio, atque ab ipso Subscriptionis 
imponendee primordio valuit At Tideamus, ne 
talis sententia nunc dierum prndentise magis sit, 
quam sapientiee. 

Et h)c quidem distinguendnm est. Quaestio 
enim, quee de SubscriptioH^ in perpetuum conti- 
nuand& agitari possit, quam longissime distat ab e&, 
quse sub plrimft ejus institutione agitnbatur.^ Rari 
qutppe sunt Fratres Dissentientes, qui filios suos 
mittunt ad Studia heec Generalia; et etiam si 
amoverentnr Subscriptiones et juramenta a gra- 
dnatione, noni ut nos opinamur, valde multipli- 
carentnr; eo quod horum dissentientium plurimis 



♦ Mor, et Polit. Philosoph. a Gul. Paley. S. T. P. Lib. 6, 
Cb. 10. 



czliv DISS£RTA1?10 GENERALia 

preces, et symbola, et formse, non magi^ arri* 
dent,^ quam Sabscriptiones, et Acadetnica jura- 
meota, Agite igitur. 

Hi sane ipsi Fratres DisHentientes apud se ha* 
buerunt viros, qui pbilosopbiam amant, bonas liieras 
colunt: habuerunt etiam academias celeberrimas ; 
ex iis vero qntedanit dum non essent coUegiatee et 
incorporatae, cum custodibus et tutoribus ocGubu- 
erunt, et penilas evanuerunt. Quid igitur, si 
Fratres isti Dissentientes (rari illi jam dicti) cu- 
perent filios suos admittendos in Collegia Brit- 
tanica, et in ordine per Gradus Academicoa 
procedere? Forsan talis intermixtio esset quasi 
(quod accidit arboribus interserendis) fructaam 
amelioratio: pro certo non obesset, sed potina 
prodessety Academiis Britannicis. 

An vero sunt, qui existimant, banc intermix* 
tionem factam fore potius quasi absorptionem, aat 
seductionem, quae, quod ad Ecclesiae Anglicanse 
membra stabilitae, auferret sua, Fratribusqae 
Dissentientibus transferret ? Res vero ipsa nobis, 
(si quod sentiamus, loquamur,) paulo aliter visa 
est. 

Fratres Dissentientes, qui ad Studia Geperalia 
Britannica prodire vellent, non sunt expauperibu^ 
ScholaribuSf qui ad almam matrem migrarent^ 
Sodalitiorum, Benefactionum, Beneficiorum desi-. 
derio capti : tales sane, pro suo quisque Fidef 
Sjrmbolo, ministerio Evangelico destinandi, in suis 

* Rob. Robinson Cantab. Lect, in principia Nonconformi- 
tatis. 




IJ^- 



DISSERTATIO 6ENERALIS. cxlv 

singulis academiis, quasi in Hospitiis^ recipiuntur^ 
et alienis sumptibus instruuntur, ac sustentan- 
tur. Constant potius ex filiis divitum, qui yhU 
losophise, bonarum literarum, et academicee discipli- 
nee studio, forsan alliciantur; quorum parentes, pro 
parte soboHs susBi nomen academicum, ad civiles Pro- 
fessiones quandam aptitudinem privilegiataro, et 
inclytae claritatis accessionem, quaerant: quippe, 
ut putent, academicse distinctiones habeant sua in 
Republic^ commoda; et, prseter hsec, res eorum 
familiares inter Generosos et Nobiles se et suos 
ponunt ; ideoque, cfini e^dem conditione nati sint, 
iisdem studiis, iisdem moribus, e&dem disciplin&y 
imbutos esse malint, quibus Generosi et Nobiles, 
socii et familiares sui, assuefacti fuerint. In hoc 
ordine, ni faltimur, res jam dicta progressa fuit, 
et progrederetur. 

Idem fere affirmandum sit, quod ad Catholicos. 
Rari quippe essent Catbolici, etiam si Subscrip- 
tiones et juramenta penitus aboleres, qui ad hsec 
STUDIA Generalia accederent. At simul valde 
rairandum est, (si modo auscultaremus) quid de hac 
re viri dixerint doctissimi. Mirantur sane, et forsan 
non sine caus&, homines, quorum commodis hae 
Academiae prius, et etiam ab initio, destinatae sunt, 
hos ipsos, per Subscriptiones nostras irrelativas et 
juramenta intempestiva, esse rejiciendos. 

In Studiis Generalibus lestimandis, haec prae- 
cipue consideranda sunt; esse, nimirum, quaedam 
commoda, quae inter cives sunt communia, et tamen 
homines religiosos (si modo sinceri) omnia reli- 
gioni postponenda ducere; ideoque sperare, tales 

k 



cxlvi DISSBRTATIO GBNERALIS. 

viros, commodorum tetnporaliam gratid^ a sais 
sacris abdicaturos, plane irritam esse, periculosum, 
et damnosum. Nulla religiosa aut eii^clesiastjca so-- 
cietas, nulla civilis, (cujus generis sunt Studia 
Generalia BritaDnise,) in sue proprio nominey et 
ad suum usum peculiarem, ista commoday et utili* 
tatesy et jura, quae inter cives sunt communiay 
posset trahere : si vero tale posset, si tale efficeret, 
societatum dictarum regnlae non facttt essent, quasi 
requisitiones exactissime poneudee, et rigtde exi- 
geudoe, sed quasi concessiones candide et voluntarie 
dandaB, accommodationes benevole et liberaliter 
condonandae, vel, potius, secundum leges severi- 
oris Justitiae conferendae. 

Cuncta undique observant! apparebit, Fratres 
Dissentientes nunc dierum divitiis abundare. £t 
annis non multis abhinc uni sectae erat in animo 
apud Cantabrigiam fund^sse Academiam vel Col- 
legium, (si liceat vocabulum hoc usurpare,) quod ex 
Custode, Tutoribus, et Studentihus constituere pro- 
ponebat: et, ut audivimus, alia secta nuperremis 
SU& parte similiter consultabat. Unde evenerit, 
istius consilium fieri irritum, et anne hujus proces- 
surum, nihil ad rem praesentem. Sed, quid? 
Sunt, quibus persuasum est, iidemque non ex Ra- 
dicaJinm (qui hodie vocantur) numero, liberalita- 
tem ex parte eorum, qui nunc Universitates sibi 
appropriant, fore ad suam amplitudinem, et ma- 
jestatem, simulque ipsius Ecclesiae Anglicanae in- 
tegritatem, atque etiam, (ne quid timeamus) ad 
principiorum et causae Dissent ientium decrementum 
et debilitatem. Quomodocunque vero haec res se 



mSSERTATfO GENERALIS. cxivii 

habitura esset, iidem isti homines pntant, qnod ve- 
rum et justum est faciendum esse, Universitates non 
debere portus quasi clausos habere, sed, ut mare, 
factas fore liberas; quippe '* divide, et impera/' 
esse tam philosophise, quam verae politicae, borta* 
mentum. 

Alii sunt e doctis, (et ipsi etiam Academici) qui 
argumenta ducunt ad liberaliUtem eliciendam a 
natur^ istarum Fundationum, et a donationum sibi 
largitarum qualitate conditionibusque. Quippe so- 
cietates ipsae originem suam et incrementum debeut 
partim pecuniae publicse, (nempe principum, nobi- 
lium, praelatorum abundantiis, qui vel vivi, vel 
morituri publicee utilitati consulebant) partim dis* 
solutorum monasteriorum spoliis ^ : multa debentur 

* De Donationibus, et Possessionibus, sive ecclesiasticis, sive 
sacularibns, privatorum Collegiorum, vel UniyerBitatis, pene 
reli§io fuit, aliquid hie movere. Sed forte Duper obtigit nobis 
Liber MS. omnia peculia et tenementa plene denarrans Em- 
man, Coll. Cantabrigiensis. Hie Liber a nobis ex BibliothecH viri 
Rev. H. Meen, ejusdem olim socii, pretio redemptus erat. Paucu- 
la, illinc deducenda, hie loci notantur, non ex prav^ quidam levi- 
tate, sed illustrandi gratis et confirmandi prssentis argumenti. 

Walterus Mildmay, Scaccarii Praeses, et unus e Consiliis 
BeginsB Elizabethae, Puritanns erat, et Collegium Emman. in 
Puritanorum commodum, ut bene intellexit Elizabetha, designa- 
vit Alia dedit Walterus ipse, alia frater ejus, Hen. Mildmay, 
Miles, alia qusedam Franciscus Walsinghamus, Miles, alia ipsa 
Elizabetha: et tria praecipua Beneficia Ecclesiastica, (quae et 
magni sunt pretii) condonata erant a nobili viro, Comite de Hunt- 
ingdon, qu8B a disAolutis monasteriis ad Coronam, a Coron^ ad 
Comitem, et a Comite ad Collegium Emmanuele devenenint: 
postea ArchiepiscopOB Sancroftius multa contulit; et alii alia: 
multaque ez dono civium privatorum accesserant. Quo jure 

k 2 



cxlviii BISSERTATIO-GENERALIS. 

privatorum civium beneficentifle, qui sua industri4 
cum ditescereut, literarum reipublicee favere vellent, 

igttur, ulla alia consuetude postea valuisset, quae diceret, Ovfetg 
Iluf 4T«k*xof «tf-iT«, vel T»g Ttjuac mi Axa^u^iaf XaQiTto } 

Quod ad ista Collegia, quae sub papistieis teroporibus erecta 
fuerant, ea proculdubio Catholicis consecrata sunt. Quo jure ea 
quasi alienaveris, vel, ut Catholici quaererent, profanaveris ? Qao 
jure proprio suo cursu aquas duxisti, et in privatis quasi cistemis 
iDclusisti? Statuta recentiora hoc effeceniat. 

At nee satis erit respondere, tarn Catholicos, quam Puritanoa, 
Episcopales prius ejecisse. Si Christianus es, non valet argu- 
m«Dtum. 

Semel itenim. Anglica Collegia mire locupletiora sunt caeteris 

Europaeis. Ips&, de Parisiensi M. Crevier narrat; J'ai dit que 

rUniversite est pauvre : pendant le cours d'une longue suite de 

siecles» elle n^a eu en commun d'autres possession que le Pre 

aux Clercs, ainsi appelle parce qu'une partie de la m^me etendue 

de prairies appartient i V abbaye de S. Germain, et se nominoit 

en consequence le prS aux Moines. L* Universite entendoit si 

peu tout ce qui a rapport aux int^rdst pecuniaire, qu^elle 

ne tiroit mSme aucun emolumens de son pre, qui ne servoit 

qu*aux amusemen8*at aux jeux de ses ecoliers. II a fallu^que 

la ville 8* aggrandit, et que les citoyens de I^aris vinsseat 

b&tir sur ce pr^, pour lui apprendre qu' il peuvoit lui etre utile. 

Encore n'y a t-elle consenti qu'a regret. Son indifference 4 

mettre son pr6 en valeur ne I'a pas neanmoins rendu negligente 

pour la possession du fond en lui m^me : et elle n'en a pas et6 

xnoins curieuse de se conserver cet ancien patrimoine, qu'elle se 

glorifie de tenir de la liberalite de nous rois." Qui plura velit de 

Parisensi (Economic, adeat Crevier Hist. Univ. Par. Vol. 7, 

p. 152. Unde vero, rogas, Professores, et Tutores Parisienses se 

sustentabant? Nempe mercede rite tribute a Studentibus Natio* 

nalibus, " et d'une multitude jeunes gens curieuse de s' instruire, 

qui accouroit a Paris de toutes les parties de T Europe." Uni- 

versitas const itisse videtur ex Rectore, Procuratoribus, Professori- 

bus, Tutoribus, et StudentibUs: et nulla est mentio sociorum, 

(qui vocantur) fruget t&utum consumere natorum. 



DISSERTATIO 6ENERALI8. dxix 

tt post mortem inter benefactores publicos recen- 
seri forsan non nollent. Quidni ? Quidni aliis 
eccleftiis, eeqne ac Anglicanee stabilitfe, permitta- 
tnr, suee seetee favere, simulqae, sive in vitd, 
sive sub mortem, reipablicse consulere? 

CruZy quae in praedictA theori4 preecipua, sic se 
erigit, ut nonnullis forsan Academicis insuperabilis 
esse videatur, ut nobis apparet, oriri non debet in 
membrorum animis Ecclesite stabilitae, qui sectas 
alias ad suorum commodorum participationem ad* 
mittere vellent; sed potins in scrupulis ipsarum 
sectarum, quae suos privilegiorum quorundum aca- 
demicornm participes fieri cuperent; nempe qui jure 
putarenty Liturgiam illam, per quam omnes stu- 
dentes et Graduati sua sacra peragunt, non esse 
secundum suas conscientias. At quidem haec crux 
revera non debet existere. Tn quibusdam exteris 
Universitatibus, ut jam memoravimus, non existit; 
non existit in Scoticis. 

Ne dicas igitur, banc esse quasi machinam mere 
Sectariam, (quippe Sectarismo toto ccelo distat) aut 
Utopiam quandam, quae nuUibi extat, nisi in nubi- 
bus, aut poeticam Carpa^^o/Muo/Adtp^idd^, videlicet parvu- 
lorum de parvis contentionem : quippe, ut jam 
commonstratum est, res vera agitur, et plane vi- 

Male accidit, ut nostrsB Universitates, eo minus sint liberales, 
quo magis locupletes. Quippe res vix recte se habet, dum 
uni tantum sectse, ecclesias nempe Anglicans, Scholariis, Sodali- 
tiisy et aliis academicis beneficiis frui permittitnr; caeteras rero 
omnes a philosophic, bonis literis, gradibus Academicis, et com- 
modis, quae cum iis conjungi solent, ejecisse, minus sapit libera- 
litatem. Talis vero est effectus Subscriptionum et juramentorum, 
nunc existentium. 



cl DISSERTATIO GENERALIS; 

ilenda tam foris, quam etiam domi, et ad mauimt 
ducit. Et, ut audivimas, in SeptentrioDe Hiber-* 
nisB ^ est Academia Literaria (quocunque nomine 
vocaveris earn) Regid Concessume honestata, hoc 
ipso consilio, ut suam quisque religionem conser^ 
varet, et simul pbilosophiee bonarumque literaram 
fructibus quiete ibi fraeretur. 

At quidem sunt qai putant, banc cracem posse 
facile removeri, si modo Academici justi essent 
sibimet et reipublicae. Circumspicienti Yillam Can- 
tabrigise videbitur, plurimas sectas ibi sibi pro- 
prias capellas habere. Independentes, Baptistse, 
Methodistse, numero sunt abundantiores, et nu- 
perrime nova quaedam secta suam capellam edifi- 
cavit. Quakeri, qui vocantur, suam tenent Domom^ 
quanquam nunc desertam» nisi sub annuis suis visi* 
tationibus. Meminimus etiam, cum Judeei parvam 
suam synagogam in private domo tenuerunt. 

Adeo uty cuilibet academico Christiano sua ca- 
pell&i et suo simul coUegio pro educatione aut con* 
scienti& su& frui permitteretur; neque rejicerentar 
cives ex civilibus privilgiis^ etiamsi non Christiani.f 

Res non longe alitor se habet apud Oxoniam. 
Independentes, Baptistee, Methodistse abundant, et 
Catholici capell^ su^ nunc fruuntur non contem* 
nend&. 

At quo tandem ferimur ? Qu^nam expectatione 
impellimur ? Aut quare rerum quibusdam fallaciis 
nosmet torquemus? Quid argumentum ad non- 
expedientiam vertimus, cum id ad expedientiam, 

* BelfasU 

+ Hartleii Ob3er?all. in Horn, secundo vol. §• 9. Prop. 76. 



' DISSERTATIO G£N£RALIS. cU 

ut multi existimanti vix, et ne vix^ nunc dierum 
apparet? Aut quid de externis, nempe Sectariis^ 
querelas et expostulationes ciemus, cum, quod ad 
iiiternosi ad membra Ecclesioe stabilities ad Aca* 
demicos ejusdem ecclesiae, argumeDtorum, ut 
jamjam commonstratum est, seges sit amplis- 
sima ? 

Sedapage, exclametaliquis, a nobis somnia, spes 
vanas et fugaces ! Quid nostree questiunculae va* 
leant, cum virorum spectatissimorum et humanis* 
simorum defecerint ? — Si nos aliquid erraverimus, 
ponatur potius credulitati, qu4m audaci confidentiae, 
aut procaci cuidam libertati sermonis : nimis forsan 
capti fuimus temporum facie, rerum opportunitate, 
et liberis virorum ingenuorum consiliis, qui, quan- 
tum valerent, prodesse reipublicsB vellent. 

Quod ad praesentem rerum faciem spectat, cuncta 
undique circumspicienti apparebit, varios status, 
ofRcia, et rerum administrandaram conditiones, an- 
nos intra triginta superiores ad Lydium lapi- 
dem exactas fuisse ; omnia loca explorata. In 
bonas rei literarisB fruges qusedam, quee plus semel 
nos preedicavimus, et qusB omnibus in ore sunt, 
effecerunt academic! : multa et in reipublicee com- 
modom conati sunt, et etiam report&runt, Legisla- 
tores : Tabulae public® Regni, magnum istud opus, 
in ordinem redactse sunt : militares, et navales Disci- 
plinsB examinatse snat; Fisci public! reditus cecono- 
mm magis snbjecti sunt : publicorum officiorum 
secreta revelata sunt; taxationum onera quiddam re- 
levata et diminutasunt : loci paupertate, miseriis, et 
criminibus pleni, (carceres, ergastula, nosocomia. 



I 



clii DISSEHTATIO 6ENERALIS. 

orphanotrophia, lanaticorum asyla) inspecti, et quid«- 
dam emendati sunt; curiae ipsae Jastitia^, muDtis 
siimmoruin magistratuum non prsetermisais, ex- 
ploratae sunt; immo Parliamenti lubrici et inde- 
terminati oursus, in quaestionibns, petitionibos, 
argumentatioDibusy orationibus, iteruin atque ite- 
rum expositi sunt. Quid non ? Omnia, quae refor- 
mationem videreritur requirere, et earn, intra It- 
mites Britannicae Constitutionis, admittere, om- 
nia missa sunt.aut sub examinatione gravi,autcertft 
emendatione. 

Quid igitnr? Yisi sumus iis temporibns in.- 
cidisse, quae, si moles molestiarumy et turbas abu- 
suum exhibuerinty simul exhibuerunt homines un- 
dique cinctos, et, pro viribus suis, rempublicam 
reparare et restaurare paratos. Yix igitur aliter 
accidere posset, quin nos, cum cursu tempornm 
collapsi, in eum tandem campum, quo nunc sta- 
musy devenissemus, donee vocem illam cL Lockii, 
undique repetitam^, de reformandis ipsis universi- 
tatibus audire nobismet videremur. 

Subiit, praeterea, in mentem tumultuaria, tnrbu- 
lentissima, et calamitosissima conditio, per multos 
annos, Nationum Europeearum, (quibus nostra quo- 
que, non etiam sine magnis periculis accessit, et 
cum magnis detriments, magnis injuriis, magnis 
doloribus exierat) dictumque illud solenne, '^ Gum 
judicia tua, Jehova, in terra palam sunt, incolae 
justitiam edocebunt." Neque non audivimus cen- 

* *' Nisi vestra Majestas Universitates reforma verity omnia r«* 
troreum ibunt.*' 



IJISSERTATIO GENERALIS. cliii 

Bores et reformatores temporutn de privatis et publi- 
CIS moribus conquerentes Britanniss, gentis olim fe- 
licissimee, florentissitnee, et bonestissimae, ac si ea, 
quie quondam optima fnisset, nnnc corrapta, facta 
esset pessima; (quod vero an verum an falsum, penes 
ipsos sit reformatores) nobis saltemtalia revolventi- 
bus rediit in mentem memorabile illud Machiavellii 
hortamentnm, quod sic loquitur : *' Princeps, qui 
famse monumentum sempiterufe sibi erigere velit, 
eevam miseriis et corruptelts seligeret, ut, ubi morbi 
gravescant, remedia suppeditet." 

Tilt jam hactenus Dissertatio haec nostra Gene- 
ralise in qak effingendA, multa libere dicta; nulla, 
ut speramusy illiberalia. Pauca queedam ex nostris 
meditationibus hausimus, plura vero ex aliorum, 
ac preecipue Academicorum et Cantabrigiensium ; 
hoc sane, si verum fateamur, proposito, ut que- 
relse nostrse effluxisse, non ex nobis solis, sed ex 
viris academicis ortas esse, et argumentum ex 
just4 et legitime auctoritate pependisse, videantur. 

His igitur, ut aliis nonnullis, quee prcecesserunt, 
adjungimus, quasi pro scuto, nomina quorundani, 
qui nostro argumento in his rebus favere videantur, 
Academicorum, quos inter sunt plures magni 
nominis. Nee nos lateat, quam rari quippe magni, ^ 

qui, vel ob ecclesiasticam disciplinam, vel ob dog- 
matnm stabilitarum diflScultatem, vel ob conscien- 
tiee casiitatem, vel ob ingenii sanitatem et vigo* 
rem, vel, denique, ob libertatem, subscriptionibus 
violatam, has formulas ex totis cordibus adamare 
potnerint. At quidem nos soli preesidium petimus; 
causa se luebitur. 

Liquet ex prima hujus Libri paging, quid Ha- 



^Hv DISSERT ATIO GENERALIS. 

rios, qui eum compilavit, cum suis, de prsBseutibu» 
subscriptionibuSy si vixisset sub Jacobo^ ex ne* 
cesse putavisset ; et quid iiie alter Antiquarias Can* 
tabrigiensis, Thomas Baker, re vera sentiret, non 
ex iis tantom principiis, ob quee factus est socius 
gectuSf sed magis geoeralibus, quee io qoibus* 
dam annotationibus, su& manu scriptis, se preebent. 

Quod ad Puritanos spectat — ** omnes doctiores 
ID Anglic eorum vi«s primum vel strenu6 iucubae* 
runt, vel in animis inclin&runt.'** Quare ex iis alii 
postea declinarunt, nihil ad rem. Quid alii,, qni in 
eorum discipline perse verarint, putarint, manifest* 
iim est : et, cum Miltonus asseruit, (erat quidem sub 
ipso tempore tarn ad dogma Trinitatis,quam ad alias 
opiniones, quod dictum est, orthodoxus,) '* se nolle 
subscribere, quia nollet subscrihere servum^* docto- 
rum multorum sui temporis edidit sententiam. De 
Bacono vix aliquid in b&c re clarius afBrmare- 
mus, quam qu6d Jacobi fuerit adulator, et forsan 
expedienlise nimis fautor, quam qui libere et aper- 
tins diceret; adeo ut a profunditate principiorum 
ejus potius, quam a luce declarationum, si quid 
colligere liceat, colligendum sit : et simul admil> 
tendum sit, multos nostrarum Academiarum de- 
fectus agnovisse Baconum ipsum, cujus ad auctori* 
tatem cito jam appellabimusi 

Quid Newtonus declararet in hac qucestiene, 
nihil opus investigare; quid de symbolis (atque 
ideo de articulis novem triginta) nostris, ex necesse 
sentiret, qui se profiteretur Unitarium in sensa 

* Geo. Craamcri ad Ric. Ilookerum Epistola, ad Eocles. 
^ PoHticam praefixa : edit, 172(5, 



DISSERTATIO GENERALIS. cU 

Sociniano, (pace dixerim Episcopi Horgleii^) luce 
clarius. Similiter qaid Clarkius, cum suis Arianis, 
non minus patet. Qnam parum faerit cordi Whis- 
toni Subscription adbuc adolescentis, apparet in 
** Wik ejusy a seipso, confectti/' ^t q^i^l ^^ toto hoc 
apparatn articulorum postea sentiret, sua scripta 
ex abundanti^ testantui*. Jortinus, Harius, Sykes- 
iiiSy Middletonusi cum multis doctis circa idem 
tempns similis ingenii, <fa\d sentirent de his sub- 
scriptioQibuSy facile est diviuare, nee difficile esset 
indicare. 

Lockius Oxoniensis, qui adyta ipsa Humani In- 
telleetus' quasi penetravit, ottinibus istis vinculis, 
quibus eum vexare et coercere solent homines in-* 
quisitoriiy callidi magis, quam sapienteSnTiriliter(qui 
aliter se posset genere ?) se obstitit. Quid de tor- 
mentis hujusmodi judicarit, *^ Epistolae ejos de To- 
leranti&*' satis indicant. Ex ejus schol^ prodierunt 
multi Cantabrigienses, viri magni judicii, qui ejus 
vestigiis insistentes, subscriptionibus oppugnave- 
runt: inter hos numerandi sunt, Hartleius^f Epis- 
copus Lawus, Paleius, ^ Jebbus, § et Robertus Tyr* 
wbittusH, quorum ultimus, ut jam descripsimus, 

♦ Episc. HorsleTus (in Edit. Oper. Newtoni, Vol. III. p, 60,) 
refutatur ab ipso Newtono: Pnefat. ad H. Hayoesii Tract, in 
Exist. & Attrib. Dei. 

+ Obsenrat in Hominem, p. 511. Pistorii Edit. 

% Lawi Bespons, ad Randolphuia Ozon. qui sabscriptionem 
defenderat; et Defensio Lawi a Paleio scripta; (Tract, anon. 
1774) nihil moramur istud cap. 10, c. 6, de mor. et Polit. Phi- 
losopbia. Oh! tantam rem tarn — ) Paleius plane, si non li- 
quido, veriUUem vidit^ 

§ Opera, passim. H A. 1771. 



clvi DISSERTATIO 

Gratiam ad Senatum de Subscripttone in teinpor# 
graduationis penitus abolendee proponeDdam et ceo- 
firmandam volaisset*. 

Neque prsetereunda est juvenum ingenuorum ista 
sabgradaatoruoi corona, qui Senatum A^ademicum 
circa idenai tempus accinxerunt supplices — noo 
raptim quasi ad Subscriptioues festinandum esse, 
prius, quam de iis, quibus requiriretur dure fidem, 
serio deliberatum ; non quia fidei articulos rejicisi- 
sent prse infidelitate, sed quia vix satis essei vel 
otii, vel doctrinee, vel experientiee, eorundem poD« 
dus et argumenta trutinare. 

Neque nos effugerunt isti clericorum et laicorum 
yeoerabiles concursus, qui, diversis temporibus, 
de oneribus sibi impositis sublevandis Parliamen- 
tum Britannicum suppiicarunt f ; nee Domus ipsa 
Britannici FarliatDenti;];, apud quam multi, olim 
academic!, eandem causam strenue sustentabant: — > 
et pro certo quod viri docti, et clericales, pro kc pe* 
terent, juvenibus, etviris laicis, ac civilibus non de* 
negassent. — Ex hoc numero erat Edm. Law, S.T.P. 
Domus Petri Magister, cum pluribus sociis, et 
Cancellario tunc temporls ipso, Duce de Grafton, 
olim hujus CoUegii; Robertus Plumptre, S. T. P., 
Reginse Coll. Praeses, cum omnibus, ni fallimnr, 
Sociis; Petrus Peckardus, S. T, P,, Magd. Col. 
Magister; Gulielmus Elliston, S.T.P., Magister 
Sidn. Col. cum multis aliis, quos inter numerandi 

* Sup. p. 99. j 

f Libera et Candida Disquisiliones, p. 163. Lapsis prope 
▼iginti annis (n, a. 1771) Clerici Putitores. 
t Parliament. Debate 1771. 



- •> ' 



DISSERTATIO 6ENERALIS. ^ clvii 

sant, qui postea episcopi erant, Watsonas, Por- 
teuflus, et York i us. * 

Neque ex nostra recordatione transierunt mul- 
torura doctoruin nomina, quorum alii sunt recentio- 
ris memories, Francisci Blackburnii, Cath. Aul. 
Capel Lofti, S, Petri, Theophili Londseii, S. Jo- 
haanis, Edwardi Evansoni, Emman. Jacobi Lam- 

« 

bert, Trin. Coll. Thomte Edwardsi, Aul. Trin., 
Fisbe Palmeri, Regin. Johannis Disneii, Dom. 
Petri ; Gilbert! Wakefield, Jes. Thomae Jonesii, 
Trin., Gulielmi Frendi, Jes. Ricardi Porsoni, 
Trin., Johannis Hammondi, Regin., Rob. Edv. 
Gamham/ Trin., Dav. Simpsoni, S. Job. f His 
etiam adderes alios, qui, ut andivimus, e nostris 
secedentes, apud Fratres Noncouformistas locum 
sibi proprium elegerunt, non quia '^ quinque illos 
articulos,'' (qui nominantur the Jive points) pro ni- 
hilo, sed quia fidem suam Christianam, et Christi 
Auctoritatem atque mandata, pro majori, sestima- 
rent. 

Et bic sane notari debet, qu6d viri preecedentes, 
etsi non eadem argumenta prosecuti fuerint, tamen 
eidem causae libertatis steterint; alii quidem banc 
rem contemplantes, ut Philosopbi et Metapby* 
sici, vel fortasse, in parte, ut Critici, alii ut po- 
litic!, et alii simpliciter, ut Christiani. Eorum 
Tero omnes se quasi viae comites nobis preebent, tt 

* Libera et Candida Dia^isitionei magnum obtinaeruDt famam, 
aed auctorum nomina omuino latuerant 

t Omnes, yel in suia Operibua ; vel aliia Tealimoniia. 



clviii DISSBRTATIO GBNERALIg. 

ad eosdem, ut testes veritatis, labentissime provoca- 
mus. 

BacoQQs (ipse etiam Cantabrigiensis) erat satis 
prudentise, pbilosophas forsan nimis politicus, qaam 
qui inter testes supra citatos tuto numerandus 
esset : erat tamen vir magni intellectus : et jadi- 
eium ejus de statu academiarum antiquarum com- 
mode coQSulatur, quippe, ut supra diximas, non 
minus preesenti earuui condition! se aptet, quam 
superior! • 

Restaurator igitur ille (qui vocatur) phiiosophia?, ' 
Baconusy sic loquitur: *^ Defectus etiamnum nobis 
observandus est (magni certe raomenti) in Acade- 
miarum Rectoribus, consultationum ; in Reg-ibus 
sive Superioribus, visitationuin ; in bunc finem, ut 
diligenter consideretur, et perpenderetur, utrnm 
praelectiones, disputationes, aliaque exercitia scbo- 
lastica, antiquitus instituta, continuare fuerit ex usu, 
vel potius antiquare, aliaqiie meb'ora snbstituere :** 
immo, haec memorabilia Jacobi regis felicius expo- 
nit, qui inter canones suos heec Terba prudentis- 
sima protulit: ** In omni vel consuetudine, vel ex- 
emplo, iempora specianda sunt, quando primum res 
ccepia, in quibtis, si confusio regnaverit, vel in- 
seiefaia, derogat illud i$nprimis authoritati rerum, 
atque omnia redditsuspecta.^' "Quamobrem (adjicit 
Baconus) cum Academiarum Instituta plerumque 
originem traxerint a temporibus hisce nostris pauio 
obsGurioribus, et indoctioribuis, eo magis convenit, 
utexamini denuosnbjicerentur."* Hsec verba riri 

* De Augm. Scientiarum. Lib. 3. 



DIS8£RTATI0 6ENERALIS. elis 

magni referri nunc debent ad barbara ilia in- 
novata^ subscriptiones, eeque ac ad alia jam anti- 
quata: silent Charta^ antiquse de Subscriptioni- 
bus ; silent Cbartee Elizabetbae. £t perpendat ali- 
quisstatuta — nilmoramur ista antiquiora^jam dicta, 
in quibusy ut commonstraviniuSyBe verbumunum de 
juristarum, vel de medicorum, yel de logistarnm^ 
vel de Metapbysicornm, vel de Mathematistarnni 
subjectione ad theologicas subscriptiones inrenies— 
etiam statnta Eiizabethse silent. l>icesne de anti- 
quis statutis, quod cnm primuni collegia iitndata 
assent, valeret apud dos Catkolicismus? Concedi- 
iur. At simul concedendum est^ earn fuisse na- 
tionalem, et religionem non^ ut nunc, in sectas ysi- 
rios divisam esse» Quid vero dices de statutis 
ipsis Elizabetbanis ? Anne etiam ilhe subserip- 
tiones imposuere ? 

At qnidem quod ad rem, in qak nostra qunestio 
versata fuit, ubi cbartss et statata silent, cur nos cla^ 
mitamus? Non possumus non suspicari, Regem 
Jacobam et Senatooft Acaderaicum tpansgressos 
fuisse justos suos limites, cum has Gratias, has 
liiteras, (qnottunque nomine vocaveris) confinx- 
erunt, et, ut que humanum intellectum ebrurunt, 
inter elves commufiM distrahuat^ et Britannicas 
CoDstitiitiom ac Cbristianismo pepngnent, simul- 
que antiquorum Fund^torum propositis minime fa- 
vent, suspicamur certe, talia fuisse omnino ille- 
gitima. Quas enim institutiones erat in animis 
Fundatoramy et Benefaatocum constituere nation- 
ales et greaerales, ems nos posteri fecimus particu- 
lares et sectarias : vincula, quse ilK ne in somniis 

2 



cU DISSERTATIO GENERALIS. 

videriotv imposuimas; sioialqae statuta nee «Dtj'- 
qaa^ neqne Elizabethas, sequimur* Veremiiry ut 
jara nostra praedicata, (itt res nunc se habent,) siot 
in toto; ut, si stataeretur de Universitatibus^ sicat 
de aliis Corporationibus, in consimili c^nditioue^ 
salva sint Privilegia Cantabrigie. 

At pro certOy quod ad rem, de quiL nostra qaaea- 
tio prcecipue versator, magis confidenter affiraiaii- 
dum estt quae Jacobus^ rex nimis regius, sine 
parliamentOy statuerit, ea yel Senatnni Academicam 
per se posse abrogare, vel certo certios, Regem 
vera regiam, nempe cum Farliamento, vel Parlia- 
mentam ipsum; etetiam sine ull4 severitate, immo 
cum maxim& bumanitate. * 

Panca ad hoc magnum commodum prodncen- 
dum sufficerent. Non requireretur a principe, vel 
summi regni auctoritate, grandis.qusedam epistola, 
neque rhetorica argumentation nee altisona oratio; 
ilte duse tantum voculse, '< sic volumus/' tyrannice 
adeo S8Bpe sonatee, satis essent; sub justft enim 
auctoritate bellaa ista. Subscription decideret. At 
Eire hec emancipatio a senatu Academico, sive a 
Rege, sive a Parliamento^ interveniret, omnes hu- 

* lata hoTiA fide Subscriptio Bacalaureorum Cantabrigienaiumy 
idem est ac Subscriptio ad novem triginta articulos,— disdiiciio» 
ut moDstraTimuSn sino diflferentUL — Bacalaurei Oxon. revera sub- 
ecribunt istos articulos: omnes item Magistri Cantab* eos sub- 
scribunt; pauci vero dignoscere possunt. Res nempe ita se 
habet. Magistraturi inter quaedam lucella officiaria solrenda, 
instanter sua nomina in Libro scribunt, inscii plenimquey esse in 
superiori paginsB parte scriptam declarationem, se fidem in noTena 
triginta articulos professos esse. Neceasarium, ut res pateat, 
musy hflsc tantilla denarrare. 



DISSfiRTATIO GENERALISE dxi 

matei inteHectus faiitores^ omnes libertatis assertores, 
ointtes bonarum literaram cultores, plauderent et 
exultarent. Hsc de Sabscriptionibus. 

Ipsis de Chartis Academke 'poblicis satis su« 
perqiie diximus supra ; et qos dicta faerint, apolo- 
giam for^an reqairere videantur: in quibusdam 
Tineta nostra ipsi csedisse sperabamus ; sed hoc 
proliibuit ^n prsesens tain festinatio operis diu mo- 
rati, quam instramentornoi qnorandam, nempe no- 
tatariim emendntionum, absentia, qnas pro tempore 
saltern amisitnuH. Haec si in lucem prodierint, 
et ad opuscalum alind confingendum, quod medita- 
mur, vita et salus sappetere^nt^ suani sedem ibi 
invenire queant. Interea, in quoscanque errores 
n6s inciderimns, de falsitate antiquissimarum ista* 
rtim cbartarcrm nulla est nobis dabitatio, et de lis 
quod diximus, diximus; minim6 canimus palino- 
diatti. Hsec de Cbartis Cantabrigienstbhs. 

^< Hoc gloriae Universitati Oxoniensi pona* 
Mr/ qo6d in Archivis stfis vix unioa Charta sparia 
legenda manet^et quee se offert, cOntra jnraUniyerri- 
tatisconfectafnttyet iong^ post tempore, ab amico ali- 
qtlo inter ciniielia ibi reposita/'^ Sic vir doctos Oxo- 
lliensisy cni, ex gratiipaucis concessA, Claves Archi- 
Tomm per multos amios mntno datae erant. At vero 
jpsis O^cooiensibos lentius feslinandum est, quippe 
qu6d9 ex ipso bajusce viri testimonio, qncedixerit, ad 
pnblicas et futidatorito Cbartas debeant referri: 
multas privatas Chartas, Donaiiones^ et si qu£l 
alia, quae spectant ad Aulam Universitatisy ad 
Antiqoitates Mertonensinm, et Baliolensiom, sunt, 

* AonaM Uaivonit Col. Oxon. Attctore J. Sinitb, 17tt. 

1 



^i^ DISSBRTATIO 6ENERALIS. 

qfiso luce cUriofl demoDstrante, faba et faclituu 
Atfine peregrink potiusrqitain proprik, messe noetrMtt 
carinam oaerare videamur, talia praetmnitt^nd^ 
wnt. ' Nor vei^o a re nostrft erit aliteuiDf libinin 
jam citatum, librum fortasse rariorem, Hermn ci- 
tar^:- nobis nou contigit eum vidisse donee noncy 
dam Dostree pag^ibse in finem trahuntor : vir Dobi* 
lis et bonestissimus, olim Univer. Oxon» ^auuia 
nobis eum nuper cemmodavit. Scriptor supra dic-< 
tns quasdem quaestiones ad Cancellarium, Ma^r^ 
tros, et Scbolares UniTersitatis Oxon. propoQeiia,r 
sic loquitur* * 

^^ Quarum prima de fundatione Aulse Uni¥er8itB«* 
tis» (non ita pridem, Magnae Aute Uni versitatist vqU 
gariter nuncupatse) tractabit ; indobiisq. evinoet ur^ 
gtimentis, Magistrum Willielmum de Dunfelaiiay 
primum, verum» unicumque ejusdem Ftuidatoreia 
fuisse. Altera versabituf in Aifredi Magni rnqnifi- 
centift inyestigandfi ; nempe an Rex ille doctus et 
pitts, et eruditionis fautor insignis, Aulas aliquaa 
Oxooiie fundaverit, salaria Scholaribus ex Scac* 
cario sblvenda decreverit, eaque usq. ad adventom 
Nofmantu>rum continuo duraveriht. Haec anteia^ 
omnia licet vera esse conced6rentur, nulk) moda. 
inde Bbqueretur, Alfredum Regctm faojus CoUsgii 
fundator^m faisse ; de tedifictis' yero istis Oxonim 

^ 

; <t-;AjDjftal. UoiversitaUs CoUegiiy Demonstrantus, GbilieljnQin da 
Durham faisse veram Fundatorem. Per Gul. Smith, plus ouatn 
per duodecem annos ejusdem Collegii Soc« sea. — Novocast super 
Tyne. 17^8. Recte, ut percipimus, Smithum id hkc v\k itecu- 
tus est Alex. Chalmere; in aliis quibusdam ab eodem oecedif* 
A. Chalflosni Hkt. Univers.OzC Vol. L B. 33. A. 1810. • 
4 



BliSSSRTATIO GEiNERALia «:l;ciU 

fif>^tisy aiit salariis solutifit nihil qoicquaoi ap44 
^fOtiquissimos Historicos vel aaditum vel spriptum 
li^gitur; nova soot haec otpniay nee ante annum 
a morte Alfredi^qaadringcntesimum ficta vel propa* 
irata faerunt. 

'VQaaeq. narrantur de Pririlegiiisi per eundem 
Begem a Pontifice Romano impetratis, ^t. Stddio 
Oxoniensi concessis, tandemq. longo t^mporis ior 
tervailo. demortois^ mera sunt somnia; ludunt(|. 
operam qui talia fabulantur, hasq. nugas tanquam 
fide dign^ orbi obtrudere conati sunt. 

^'Agnoscoequidem, Antonium kWood Historicum^ 
Oxoniensemdolentem queri^ tarn antiqua Fontificum 
Bomanorum Indulta, quam Cbartas nostrorum 
Regum olim deperdita et amissa f uisse ; sed h«c 
queremonia non Kolum cassa, sed iniqua mihi vide- 
tur; utpote quae hisce rebus minus versatis per<- 
suasum vellet, aliqua Privilegia Oxoniensi Studip 
donata fuisset antiquiora illis omnibus quae in Ar* 
cbivis Universitatis jam reperiri possunt. Sed « 
fallax haec et falsa sententia (nisi de Autographic 
ipsb intelligatur) vel inde refutabitur, H^^d 
omnea et Bullae Paparum, et Cbartae Regum^ 



* Hist. €t Aatiq* Univeiyiti^t Oxooientia, p. ljB»..et jdeiaoeps^ 
Notabit Lector, citationes in nostris yoluminibus ex Hisi, e| 
Antiq. UnivertitaHs Oxon, et Athenis Oxon. facias, citari se- 
cundum pagg. editionum fol. Ozod. 16^4, et Lond. et 1721, 
qose editiones nos pneoccapaverant Novam editionem vera 
Athbn. Oxoh. publici joris nupemme fecit P1ii1ip[ias Bfiw, 
digniasioroa BibliothecflB Bodl. Librarius, valde exoptataniy et 
oomfnandatam, lU quae multa additamenta continet i 4 roL foL 
Load. 1813. . 

■ • 

1 2 



clxi? DISSERTATIO OVNBRALI». 

in tres libros Statatoraai, scilieet CanceU«rii 
duornm Procoratoram exscripta sint^ ob haite 
eausam, ut ad maiius baberentur, qaoties eoram 
opos esset. Cum ergo BfiUse Romaase Henrkx^ 
octavo, ita requirenti, traditae eratiti exemplaria 
eorum omnia in istis codicibas tribus remanebant, 
et in Turre Scholaram adhac extant. Quod ai 
vero aliquis fabnlari cnpit, aut Oxoniam t«mpoi^ 
Regum Saxonicorum Privilegiis eonfirmatum faimie 
commentator, qnee causa erat, cur nee SaxonioBe 
istae Charts in Anglia reperiantur, nee ex regiatrk 
Romants exemplificentur ?*' 

Bed epistolae nostne heec nunc tandem erit clafi« 
sula, ut Lectorem, si quis erit, oremus, quod jam 
ab initio plus semel oravimus, ne temer6, ne ni- 
mis rigid6, vel de nostris consiliis et conatibus, 
vel de conditionibus et officiis academicoram, 
concludatur. Commcmstratum fuit a nobis jam 
ante, quam inconsulto et pen6 inconscii in hoc 
cursu primum invecti fuerimus; et quanto studio, 
quanto labore, immo quantis periculis, et sumpti* 
bus, eum nunc prosequimur, recensere nihil opus. 
In scopulos (et sub malis astris) incidinms ; at si 
nosmet naufragium pateremur, sit sine damnis 
aliorum! sed quidem banc viam semel ingressj, 
veritatis investigatione, libertatis ardore— at non 
sine benevolentift comite— quiM^^i Necessitate impuisi 
ess^ yidemun Res quippe hujqsmodi investjgant^ 
hhc iMc ab inednte aetate deerravinius, forsan non 
sine juvenili quondam imprudentift, at simul non 
sine quorundam probatissimorum academicorom 
probations Et, si nulla laus nunc vel debeator 



DISSBRTATIO GENERALIS. ckv 

▼«1 speretnr, indalgentia qtittdam ab lis concede* 
tor, <]Qi secum repatant, qu&m penitas opiniones 
cum oelatis provectioris gravitate se immiscere 
soleant ; atqae rata, quibus anni reentiores imbuan-* 
tor, si tempus non omnino mutaverit aat deleverit, 
mag^s invetereascant : qaippe esperieatia, si non 
dedoceat, confirniat; et confirmando novo calore 
inceiidit 

Cailibet res academiee antiquissimas et recen- 
tiores com bodiernis disciplinis conferenti liquebit, 
nos in aliis majorum nostrorum institotionibas satis 
perseverftsse, ex aliis qniddam declinftsse, in aliis 
Bonnallis in pejus rnisse; et bsec adeo manifesta 
apparent, ut non modo nos in nostram sententiam 
corroborent, sed etiam pene persnadeant, ab ek aca- 
demicos ipsos non longe dissentire. Similiter, 
sensuB ipsis articulis a viris liberalis ingenii nunc 
impositus, etsi, ut nobis videtur, distat ab illo nimis 
rigide primum injoncto, demonstrat tamen, qo6d, 
ex eorum jodicio, sckbscriptio, si ulla deman- 
danda esset, qniddam diversa, et rei natures magis 
consentanea exigi debeat : at interea sunt (quorum 
nos partes sumus, ut antea diximus) qui nostrates 
propterea non incusant: non asserunt, academi- 
cos se male egisse, sed tempera non processesse, 
exteram et tyrannicam vim innovationes indux- 
isse, Yisitatores non commode advenisse, nee 
Academic succurrisse. 

Et quidem, cum nobismet revolvimus, loogum 
annomm lapsum, ex quo ad nos hae venerint in* 
stitntiones, et quas spes Fnndatores et Benefac'- 
tores nostri, etiam si superstitiosi, in propositis suis 



elxfi DISSGRTATIO QSNBaUUbia 

induberint, simulque> ma^aum ' temporis Hklervri* 
latn, ex qao Univeniit^te^ fuoriDt, eteK ^cte tantooi^ 
reformatef simulque (beologicas rixas ^c poliUoM 
motuft^qai delude ^cuti suot^ et sub quibas^lirae ist» 
innovationes^ Dempe Sabficriptionest ad Imidc dien 
continaatee, induete faerant, atqqe etiam preesentif 
8dtatis c(HiditioDem» magis ut speramusi qoirtiun 
et liberaleni, et, denique^Jucem ampliorem teonpon 
ram recentiam» et graviores DeceasitateB-MWa tplia 
saepe et moltum Qobiscam cogitamusy soleoiaB mU 
rari, unde evenerit, res non melius votis sammonmi 
et optimorum virorum congruere, quorum foeraoti 
ut sunt hodie) multi, qui existimaverunt et exr 
ifltimaDt, tempos adesse, vel adesse debeve^ iga^ 
hortamentum illud memorabile Baconi^ ante re* 
citatum, in promptam recordationom rediret, et 
in legitime constitutione enitesceret. 

!Q!x t^rtimonio enim, ut vidimus, yirorum.probatisf 
simornro, Angliicis Universitibus qnssdam bserent ma^ 
cuk^, quaedebeot abstergi, quarum, utputant, pra^seiir 
tes Sttbscffiptiones spnt maximse. lidem bene simul 
intelligunt, Britannps esse quasi a naturit libertati 
propensioresy et sipgolos in rc^bua ad cooscientiam 
attinentibus, privati judicii jus sibi vindica^« lode 
evenit, (ut vident) quod geos nostra in varias divi- 
datur sectas, quarum Ecclesia Anglica, (qu8e voca- 
tur) una est, et una tantum inter multas : ad« 
das prseterea, qn6d, percipiunt (et noo possuot 
satis mirari) hi viri^ Anglicas Univenutates nni 
tantum favere, alteris cunctis quasi pro nibilo 
sesiimatis. Quid igitar? Conclamant isti pro? 
batissimi, Universitates ip^as £ictas esse nunc sec* 



DISS£RTATIO 6BNERALIB. clxvii 

tarifts, Qon^ (ut a primordio constitaebantar) natio* 
nates» AeceperniitiaBiiper«utJ8mrepeti¥ioM»,tamex 
earns l^s Brftaanioss, ^am ex 4ine et cbnMnsugm* 
▼Mimorifm jorisKsoiifirQliaraai, has institiitiones ha* 
bendas '^i^^ none dierum pro civtiibw Institatienu • 

biia^ non pro ecclesiasticis ; et tamen isti iidem bene 
norant^ Subscriptionefl ecdesiasticsas per omnes 
haram eetebrium Inatitutiotiom cooditioaes et gra<- 
dua, jare qoaai quodam sacerdotity procedere. Talia 
igiUir, (at illi existimant) non recte procedant: 
hoee tarn divema non posBaot, ex eorum sententi^ 
inter se jotta harmoDiA coDJongi. Sic currant 
baram argfOfinenta^ Tentanda igitur via fsset (sic 
exiatimant) qaft rea in melius restitoantar : vincula, 
qwi ingienaos animos irritant^ vexatit^ et libertatein 
iotellectaaleoi' sabroendo, Gontarbaot et^isti^hQiiti 
ab academicis imprimis et penitua esse rejieiehdti, 
et ad vespertitiones, aot ad servos (si velint ac- 
cipere) dimittenda. • 

Et nunc tandem post multas severas cogitationes, 
et multas curas turbnlentas, mens ad proprium snum 
locum reversa est, et quiescit sub libertaie. Redit 
etiam in memoriam multornm Academicorum re- 
cordatio gratissima, doctrin& et virtute praedito- 
rum, quorum benevolentia per longam annorum 
seriem variis beneficiis nos sibi devinxerat: quo- 
rum alii breve vitee aurriculum jam finierunt, alii 
per provincias Britanniee nunc sparsi sunt, alii 
Cantabrigise etOxonise restant ad hunc usque diem. 
Talium virorum benevolentiee recordatio est ju- 
cundissima, cui acceptas debemus opportunitates 
tam privatorum Collegiorumy quam Universita- 



clzviii DISSERTATIO 6ENERAL18. 

turn Bibliotheca^ a^eandi, librm et codices 
consulendi, et qutedam arcana risendi, qoae noa 
cuivis hamini contigit adiisse; benelicia aane 
ad banc qualemcunque farraginem oampiogendam, 
et ad alia apera exequenda^ qoibas olioiivereati ao* 
nias» et jaminnnc versamar, commodissima. Magna 
quidem .accepimus, par?a rependimus. Hoc Tero 
qualecanque opuscalum partim in sepidcbra niiilto- 
rum bonoruniy monumentum quasi Maaibns aacmnii 
ponendum volumiis; et partim pro amicitraa et 
grati animi inviros doetos nunc viventes testimoiiio 
relinquendom ; .non sine prectbus ad Deam O.M. 
ut quee privatae amicitiffi oliai debeanaaSy ea pab* 
lico jcommodo qniddam nunc possint snbministraxe. 
Quod ad alios, qaicquid illi de nobis sentiaaty bo»- 
tnim est, Gantabrigias et Oxoniee, et Retpiiblice 
Britannice^, bona precari. 



•^ .• » 



I • 

t 



SUPPLEMENT 



TO TBB 



HISTORY OF THE UNIFERSITY AND COLLEGES 



or 



CAMBRIDGE. 



BY THE AVTHOJL 



J^OME apology was made for mistakes In the Preface and 
Introduction to the History; and, if all circumstances are 
duly considered^ it will, I hope, be found reasonable. The 
variety of the subjects, the extent of the materials, the 
crossings and clashings of matters insignificant and minute 
with others of more liberal research, and serious meditation, 
(each class requiring almost different faculties, and propelling 
in different directions) the derangement of papers during a 
long illness, occasional distance from, registers, by which I 
might have re-examined dlites, together with extreme nar- 
rowness and confusedness of sight ; these untoward circum- 

♦a 



J SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

stances will, I flatter myself, be apologies for some inadver- 
tencies : several errors, indeed, are merely those of the press ; 
others oversights, so obvious as to correct themselves, f 
incline to believe, too, that readers of discernment and 
imagination will acknowledge — ^what they cannot but have 
• experienced — ^that to combine a work of science with some- 
thing of fancy, and to make critical remark keep pace with 
biographical and chronological precision, is an undertaking 
not to be made without hazard ; and they must be reminded, 
that such an attempt was made in the History of Cainbridge. 
Yet, mere confessions will not satisfy reasonable minds. 
Emendation is the only proper atonement for enoii nor 
will addition, in a case like the present, be considered a work 
of supererogation. Additions will, indeed, form the greater 
part of this Supplement, and they rise out of human 
necessity. No mind can grasp every fact ; no imagination 
can reach through dl times ; no memoiry can retain every 
name ; so that omissions are unavoidable, and to supply 
them becomes matter of duty. What concerns our aca- 
demical institutions is in part obscured by the remoteness 
of antiquity, and, in part, is liable to perpetual vicissitudes, 
to regular change : and as, in what is past, we may fre- 
quently overlook what ought to have been recorded, so will 
the mortality of man be always furnishing new materials for 
successive memorials. 

Si quia perpetuus nuUi datur usus, et hsres 
Haeredem alterius, velut uoda super renlt uhdam. 



HOIAT^ 



With respect to such errors, a^ such omissioBS, rapid 
readers, 1 am aware, are not always the most candid inter* 
preters ; and 1 must add, diat superficial observers may not 
be the most competent critics. A fault, which lies on the 
surface of a work, they may readily perceive, and their 
vanity may be gratified with the dbcoveiy, and yet, vnthoQt 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE, 

the pains of ioventigatioD^ or any predominaiit love of 
truth: 

* 

* x»» friri Tflt eroifAOi [A^k^iov rfe^rrovrai, 

ThUCYDID£8. 

It 18 OUT duty, spmetimes, to acknowledge our errors, even 
Alfrbere there is no ground - to expect the most favourable 
hearing; but that duty is made a pleasure, wheit made 
before men of enlightened understandings, and upright 
consciences : for they do not read without knowledge ; they 
will not judge without discrimination; nor can they con- 
demn without justice. And works of any thought and 
investigation may be more indebted to the animadversions 
of competent and honourable judges, than even to the 
approbation of rapid readers, and superficial observers. 

A Table of Errata would have been subjoined to the 
work, on its publication, but for indisposition, and distance 
from University and College Registers, the work being printed 
10 Loadov. It became necessary, too, from the length of 
time it had been aunounced, to expedite it through the 
press. It was iu vain to talk of further delay. The festi- 
natio operis became indispensable. 

Lengthened attention has necessarily furnished me vrith 
fresh materials : and looking into matters of antiquity, 
together with perusing, and frequently criticising, numerous 
writers, are not the works of a day. Since the publication 
of the History, I have paid two x>r three visits to Cambridge, 
during the vacations ; at which times, I found considerable 
employment in examining registers and books of admbsion : 
readers must not always expect such minute attentions, as 
a regard to admissions may seem to imply : but as such 
opportunities fell regularly in my way, I did not fail to avail 
myself of them, more particularly in cases which concerned 
some embent men, or where I might have been misled by 

• •a « 



SUPPLEMENT, 8tc. 

doubtful authorities : and as my Supplement will be mucdi 
indebted to such documents, I am bound to acknowledge 
my obligations to Dr. Barnes and Mr. Perne, of Peter- 
House; to Dr. Pearce, of Jesus College; to Mr. Wood 
and Mr. Aspland, of Pembroke Hall; and to Dr. Coiy, 
and Mr. Pemberton, the University-Registrar, of ^Emma- 
uuel College, for the facilities of access, and kind accommo- 
dations, which they rendered me. 

With respect to the work, as it was published, I have 
carefully examined nearly all my references ; and though 
there may still be some errors, they will, I hope, be found 
very few: and should any oversights be still nodced by 
others, I shall be more willing to receive, than they can be 
to communicate them. In one work (Dr. Parris's MS. Index 
to Hare's Collections) it was not necessary to be very parti- 
cular, because I only possess it ; but I have been no less 
particular in that, for my own satisfaction* In two or three 
cases the references are made to the distinct CoUectioDS 
themselves, that are in the possession of the Vice-Chancellor 
and University-Registrar : and I might deem it an improper 
liberty often to solicit aH exammation of what is infended for 
their private use : — nor, indeed, was it necessary, as I could 
safely rely on the correctness of Dr. Parris, whose references 
are made to them — though I have not found those gentlemeo 
wanting in civilities. 

Acknowledgments will be duly made to others, as tbet 
fall in my way. 

Ktu X^*^^ it^QTifff X/»C*' iXxvo-w, «y««g of f XX«. 

J. Bametii, Bvxa^icn^in. 



V 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 



VOLUME L 

XN Preface, p.129>l. 8, ztter fires, add inverted commas. 
Introduction, p. 5, 1. 16, for walnut, mulberry, 
P. 7, 1. 18, dele a biographical sketch of, and account of, 
P. 9, 1. U at History, insert as a note, These fragments of 
CollegC'^istory are, however, defective ; partly, from negli- 
gence in registering names, till about the time of Queen 
Elizabeth, and partly from the rule followed by some of the 
writers of these historiettes. — ^Thus Sherman, the writer of 
MS. Jes. has not entered the fellows from l643 to 1660, 
nor yet the masters (except so far as accounting for not 
inserting them goes), " because," he says, " they were not * 
admitted according to the statutes." Whether they were or 
not, this is not the place to inquire. Such a rul^^ however, 
(for it is followed by some other writers) leaves an hiatus in 
these historiettes, and will acconnt for the mistakes and 
omissions into which some who have written of those times 
have fallen. 

P. 9, i. 20, Hare's Collection is called Magnum Registrum 
novum. 



• ( 



• SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

P. 11, 1. 9, for these two volumes, the two volumes 

TRANSCRIBED. 

P. 12, on Dr. Newcome,' insert this note : " Since writiiig 
the above, I have perused an interleaved copy of the Cam- 
bridge Guide of Mr. George Ashby's, a well-known felJow 
of St. John's College. It contains some observations on 
what I have said hi Cantabrigiana, in the Monthly 
Magazine. It does not object to much: but he doubts, 
whether Dr. NewcoiAe ever forbad the publication of diis 
History : ^^ but,'' he adds, ^^ I once mentioned such a thing 
to Dr. Powel, and he did not approve, and thought there 
were some things in it, that had better remain unpublished." 
Mr. Ashby, who was well acquainted both- with Dr. New- 
come and Dr. Powel, will therefore* be allowed to be 
correct. 

P. 17^ I* 15, for List, Catalogue, and insert this note: 
Since writing the aboDCy I huve spent some time in re^pc 
rusing Dr. Richardson'* s Catalogtie^ in the possession of 
the Registrar of the University^ and of another Catalogue 
of Dr. R.% in Emmanuel College Library y since brought 
to light. The latter contains a list of the Masters and 
Fellows of Michael- Houscy of King's Hally of Trinity 
College from the foundation, of St. John's, and Emmanuel. 
This is still mere pioneering ; all, indeed, 'Oery useful, but 
nothing like any planning of an Athena Cantabrigienses. 

P. 18, in notes, 1. 3, after 1781, insert, Dr. C.*s List 
begins at 1639. It was completed, t. e. brought down to 
1800, by Mr. George Borlase, of Peter-House. Of Mr. 
B/s Catalogue there are two editions ; the first comes down 
to 1787, the last to 1800^ like Dr. Richardson^ it is a mere 
siring of figures, without a word of preface, or explanation, 
except as being E Libris SuBscRipxioNtTM desumptus, 
ATQ. ORDiNE Alpiiabetico coMPosiTus ; and, therefore, 
it is of authority. 

Ibid, notes, 1. 5i for pars I, Lib. IL 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 

P. 18, notes, 1. 6, after 77> vide etiam Giit. Jntiq. 
Cantab. Lib. i. p. 30, 

Ibid. 1. 8> after reign, but he had studied also at Cam* 
bridge. 

P. 19, notes,]. 1, for Historian, Hisioria. jibp. Parker oddly 
enough prefixes to bis Acad. Hist. Cantab^ Catalogus Can- 
cellariorumj &c. and to his Catal. Cancel., &c. Academias 
Hist. Cantabrigiensis. 

P. 20, notes, 1. 2, after 1571, add, so reads the title, 
though the Catalogue comprehends 1672, and 1573. 

P. 121, 1. ], after benefactors, add, bishops educated there. 

Ibid. I. % for much, some. 

Ibid. 1. M, for four, three. 

p. 23, 1. 23, after and, add, Kttk more than. 

P. 24, 1. 10, for Harrowden, read Baldery, 

P. 25, notes, last line but one, before 168, insert Book II. 

P. 26, 1. 7, after Baker, add, from M M. 

Ibid. 1. 13, after regret, insert, may he the greater , if we 
consider. 

Ibid. 1. 2I9 instead of remotely, &c. to history, read, and 
savouring too much of the spirit of party. 

P. 30, 1. 4, for constant residents, much resident. 

P. 35, 1. 25, for Goseham, Gorham. 

P. 45, last line, at 1229, add : This, with respect to tlie 
University, is correct, the Charter is in the Tower of 
London : but let what I have been kindly favoured with by 
I>r. Pearce, Master of Jesus College, Cambridge, be added. 
*' This Charter (of Nigellus's) seems to have been granted 
before the Nunnery (of St. Radegund) assumed any distinct 
name, and is therefore older than any of tlie Charters now 
extant. Nigeilus was Bishop of Ely from A. D. 1 133, 34 
Henry I., to II69, Id Henry II. Hollingshed : — the date 
of this Charter is somewhere between 1133 to 1152."— 
This, however, as it is very evident, relates exclusively 
to a religious house in Cambridge. A royal Charter had 



8 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

been given to the town before. See Blomefield's Collec- 
tanea^ p. 2,9.1, aiid Vol. I. p. 58, of this History. 

P. 47, notes, 1. 4, after History, for p. 76, Book II. p. 77. 

P. 51, notes, 1. 2, after 174, add, p. 119, 231, et passim. 

P. 50, last line, for Madwaystown, Medweystorgm. 

P. 51, 1. 16, for a, read sive. 

Ibid, notes, 1. £5, by, i do not mean Maidstone, I meant 
the Maidstone mentioned a few line's back^ recollecting that 
Maidstone is by some made out of Meganstane, a strong 
stone, according to Lambarde, from the quarry there : and 
that the river itself was called Egle, or Eyle, till it comes to 
Maidstone. I thought, too, there was another town of tbat 
name (in another county), but, as I cannot find that is the 
case, and as, according to Cambden, this Maidstone yras 
called Caer Megwad, for Medway, dele / do not. 

P. 53, 1. 10. for tuum, tuam. 

P. 56, 1. 5, after ecclesiastical, add, so far as confirmations 
and certain privileges went, ^ 

P. 59, 1. 23, for 1231, read 1268. 

P. 60, 1. 1 7, after and, insert, those of. 

P. 61, 1. 20, for having broke, read breaking. 

P. 63, L 6, for Avantura, Ananturas. 

Ibid, last line, after houses, insert were. 

P. 64, 1. 8, dele a, the note a belonging to p. 65 ; and 
after exempted, insert in various cases. 

Ibid, notes, 1. 9> for fuerent, fuerint. 

Ibid. 1. 10, for exeunt, exeant. 

P. 64, 1. 12, for though, as what. 

P. 67, 1. 22, before 21, insert N^- 

P. 68, 1, 9, after of, insert those. 

Ibid. 1. 16, after as, insert afterwards more fully stated* 

Ibid. 1. 19, before the Assize, insert in Richard II's 
reign, 

P. 69, 1. 10, dele present. 

Ibid, note, last line, for 57^ 47* 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 

P. 69> last liney for is, fs>ere. 

P. 71^ 1. 11, insert in a note, under papacy The Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury acted in tliis character, through a le- 
gantine power derived from the Pope. See Qlackstone's 
Comment. Vol. I. Book L Chap. II. 

P. 70, 1. 5, after 1318, 1320, 1324. 

Ibid. 1. 10, for six years*after, read 1324. 

P. 70,1. 17^ dele all. 

P. 72, notes, 1. 6, after 3, insert Num, 

P. 73, 1. 1, after Henry, insert IV. 

Ibid. l. 3, instead of the principal Charters of Edward II. 
and Letters Patent of Edward III., read, the Charters and 
Letters Patent of Edward IL. 

Ibid, notes, last line, after 24, insert jippendixp 

P. 76, 1. 21, after reign, insert, as a new paragraph: 
Henry F/., bdng a very pious prince^ paid great attention 
to our Universities^ and issued severed Letters Patent for 
their more ample provision. Accordingly^ there is a Letter 
Missive^ from the' University j addressed to this king. It 
contains an Order concerning the mode of praying for him 
during his lifcy and for his soul after his death : and it was 
decreed^ that this Order should be inserted in the Register >, 
with the Statutes. Hare's MS. Index. 

P. 79^ 1. 11, dele there were na less than thirty hostels^ 
and six religious houses in this place. Vid. p. 63. 

Ibid. 1. 22, for Avantura, Avanturte. On comparing pp. 
7d, 79^ BO, with pp. 63, 64, 05, the reader is requested to 
forgive something of tautology, accounted for in the preface. 

P. 80, 1. 8, after Alma, insert Mater. 

P. 82, 1. 5, for public visitor, read the king's general 
visitor and vicegerent. 

P. 83, 1. 25, after length, insert within five years. 

P. 84, 1. 20, for some, one. 

Ibid. 1. 21, 22, whether Catholic or Protestant, as suited 
his lust; and in note ^ dele Sir Thomas More. 

P. 49| last line, in notes, dele Antis. 

5 



10 ' SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

P. 60, notes, 1. 5, for 46, 47. 

P. 61, notes, for d6 Antiq. Cantab. Hist. Cantab. Acarf. 

P. 78, dele note ». 

P. £48^ notes, 1. 2, for II. I. 

* 

P. 87, 1. 14> for polity, policy. 

P, 88, 1. 29, after personalium, insert tarn Debiiorum.^ 

P. 88, 1. 20, at appeal, insert 'note b: And so Serjeatd 
Miller states it^ Hist, of Univ. of Camb. Chap. II. But 
take Blackstone^s limitation; he is speaking of Oxford 
University : from his (the Vice-chancellor's) sentence, an 
appeal lies to delegates appointed by the Congregation / 
from thence to other delegates of the House of Convocation : 
and^ if they all concur in the same sentence^ it isjinal^ — {d 
least by the statutes of the University^ according to the rule 
of the civilJaw. But, if there be any discordance or varia- 
tion in any of the three sentences^ an appeal lies^ in the last 
resort^ to judged s delegates^ appointed by the cromn^ under 
the great seal in Chancery. Comment. Book IIL 
Chap. 6, 10. 

P. 97, 1- IS, for Chatterton, Chadderfon. 

P. 99, 1. 2> for this University, the Universities. 
^ P. 100, 1. 7, dele vmkr his OTcn hand, and delivered. 

P. 102, notes, 1. 3, for Vol. V. p. 572, Jameses reign. 

Ibid. n6tes, 1. 17, after 64, add, beginning the sixteenth 
year of King James. ' 

« 

P. 106, 1. 13^ tcnless what relates to scholars^ engaging 
themselves in marriage to any zeoman residing in the townj 
without the consent of those who have the guardicmce and 
tuition of them ^ be deemed of that kind. 

P. Ill, 1. 15, before preachers, insert against. 

P. 117, 1. 19, after devils, as a new paragraph, inser*^ 
In Edward III.'s reign, viz. in 1329, 1330, and 1331, 
there were violent disputes between a scholar, William de 
Wyvelingham^ and Henry de Ilarvedon^ the Chancellor^ 
and others (nempe Rectores), in the course of whieh^ 
Wyvelingham was imprisoned^ and the Chancellor too. In 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 11 

Harems 3/S. are various papers, modus procedendi coram * 
justiciariisy and Kings* Briefs on this subjecL 

P. 1 19, 1. Hy dele the first ike. 

P. 120, 1. ly at Ejectus, insert this note : And his brother-- 
antiquarj/j Hearne, of Oxford^ Dr. Hickes, and a few 
other learned men, wilting to suffer for conscience sake, who 
could say. Bona igitur fama (ad quam omnes pervenire 
vehementer expetunt) non in opibus out in magisiraiibus^ 
principumve aulis quasrenda est, sed a rectis cogitationibusj 
honestis laboribus, studioq. et exercitatione revera expe* 
tenda. Heamii Prcefat. ad Joannis Xossi Hist. Reg. 
Angl. Many, indeed, were disposed to be clamorous, and 
many had gagged themselves : so that even at the rebellion, 
in 1745, Archbishop Herring had reason enough fern his 
%eal against perjury. 

P. 121, \. 12, after doctrine, insert inverted commas, and 
dele inverted commas, 1. 13. 

P. 124, 1. 17, for related, connected. 

P. 121, notes, Mr. H. H. was the intimate friend of Sir 
Isaac Newton. 

P. 125, notes, 1. 7^ for St.* David's, Llandaff. 

P. 127^ 1- 21, 22, dele ejection from his tutorship in 
College. 

P. 133, notes, 1.7, for 9, 91. 

Ibid, notes, 1. 16, for 33, 35. 

Ibid, notes, last line, for 156, 456. 

P. l.*:5, notes, I. 12, for 301, S6l. 

Ibid. 1. 1 1, after Galba, insert A, 

P. 136, last line, dele (the fashionable studies of that age.) 

P. 138, 1. 6, after mathematics, add, and the Ordo Chori 
was the same in both. 

Ibid, notes, 1. 5, after Reve's Tale, add, Prima quidem 
scripta ante annum 1364, droersis temporibus confecta, sed 
ilia Custodem omntm designant. Ipsa Domina f^ndatrix 
A. 1348, talem formam prima init; and again, ceierum 
Oallici cum scriberent dictus ^est le GMRDi£Ny quod idem 



12 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

sonat atq. custos ; nan ita tamen^ ut inde unquam dicerctur 
Anglict Warden^ quod alibi nuncJU^ inter Oxoniknsks, 
TBS WardeNj the Keeper^ excepto Statuto Parliam. 
Hen. VI* Bishop Wren, de Custodibus et Scolaribus 
Pembroch. MS. Yet, in this Cambridge poem, the Reve's 
Tale, written at the very time alluded to, Chaucer, we see, 
uses both Warden and Fellow, several times. 

P. 138, notes, 1. 5, after 4, add 5, and after 28, see fur- 
thery Leges Walltjb, p. 128. 

P. 131, notes, 1. 1, for 1,2. 

P. 133, notes, last line, for 156, 456. 

P. 146, notes, last line, dele men. 

P. 149, notes, for Portiferum„Por((/bnttm. 

P. 151, notes, 1. 1, after Hist, insert CriL 

P. 153, notes, last line, for III. II. 

Ibid. 1. 5, dele there. 

P. 154, 1. 23, after kingdom, add, ofttie. 

P. 156, 1. 3, for words, letters. 

P. 157, 1. 17, dele distinguished. 

P. 159, 1. 18, for are, fV. 

P_. 160, 1, 6, after the, insert follozcing. 

Ibid, notes, 1. 7, after edition, add, Since writing the 
above^ a new edition, I perceive^ of Pierce Ploughman's 
Visions has been published. 

Ibid, notes, 1. 10, for Wickliffe, Bradwarden. . 

P. l6l, notes, 1. 6, for 25, 230. Bellarmine (de Script. 
Eccles. p. 230), , I perceive, has not noticed among Bede's 
works, his Translation of any part of the Scriptures into 
Saxon, nor, indeed, Bede himself, in the list of his works, 
at the end of his History. But Bede lived to a great age. 
His account of himself comes down only to his fifty-ninth 
year; and Bellarmine adds, aliqua opera postea scripsit. 
Concerning his Saxon Transition of some parts of Scripture, 
therefore, see Mareschalli Observat* in Versionem Anglo- 
sax, p. 492. 

P, 163, notes, 1. 10, dele Worcester Cathedral, and insert, in 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 15 

the CoUegiaie Church of Wesiburi/y in the Diocese of 
Worcester. 

P. 161, notes, 1. 15, after TranslatioD, add, of the New 
Testament. 
P. 165, 1. 13, for degrees, degree. 
P. 175, notes, 1. 15, prioret, jpmrw. 
P. 182, 1, 12, before tutor, insert a. * 
P. 186, notes, 1. 2, for Vol. II. Vol. I. 

P. 187, note the first.^-QuiGK's Stnodicon (printed in 
1692), relates to the Synods, Confessions of Faith, Canons^ 
8cc. of the French Protestants, and I referred to its authority, 
to illustrate points, to which it was immediately applicable^ 
in a book Written by me in 1792. In the present case, I 
confess, I borrowed its testimony from my former work, 
without re-examination for the purpose of this. Still, it 
illustrates the present subject. For diese Confessions of 
Faith are Calvinisdc : one of them was drawn up by Calvin 
himself; and the Canons of the Synod of Dort were incor- 
porated with those of the French Protestants. Quick's 
Synodicon, therefore (so far as Confessions go), is professedly 
Calvinistic ; holding out the same principles as appear in 
the Harmony of Confessions of Faiths &c. ; the Syntagma 
Confessionum, of which a Translation was printed at 
Cambridge, in 1686 : the Corpus Confessionum was printed 
at Geneva, 1654. These books are extremely rare; but I 
have carefully examined both. 

P. 192, notes, 1. 5, for forty volumes, nearly four hundred 
writings. ^ 

Ibid, notes, 1. 12, for /tAira t«v f u<ri)c«v, t«v /uht« f uo-ixot. 

P. 199, notes, for Monastixofv, Asceticwv. 

P. 200, notes, for Vol. Edit. , 

'P. 202, 1. 8, for Woolsthorpe, Woolstrope. 

P. 208, notes, 1. 2, for XIII, XVIII. 

P. 209, notes, 1. 3, after modems, add. Part III. 

P. 213, notes, 1. 3, Greek scholars will please to recollect, 



U SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

tke quotation is in a peculiar (the Locrian) Dialect : «^ifOf f , 

however^ is a false print ; read ocyyotiv. 

P. 214| 1. 2, dele, which the old Schoolmen. 

P. 215, 1. 9, for Thomas, Henry. 

P. 216, 1. 27, for three, eighi. 

P. 225, notes, 1. 5. for tsroirortiTo^f TsrovoTnrciu 

Ibid. 1. 6, for XS^^^^^^ X?*'^**'* 

Ibid. 1. 8, for tjjv, rtjf. 

P. 246, notes, 1. ], for occasionally, introduced. 

P. 248, 1. 22, I have particularly noticed the authority of 
Archbishop Parker there, because I perceive a different date 
for commencing the building of the Schools, is given in the 
Cambridge Guides. 

Ibid, notes, 1. 1, for Lib. II, Lib. I. 
, P. 258, 1. 8, after word, add, and Letters expressive of 

Degrees. 

Ibid, last line, the word used byi Budaeus is asserere, 

P. 259, 1. 7, for ^*»xok«, SusLMnoL. 

P. 260, L 7, 1 am opposing only those etymologists, who 
derive the word Bachelor, from the Laurus Apollinaris. 
I do xiQt mean, that Mastership or Doctorship, in early 
times^ was on no occasion crowned with the laurel ; so the 
Word always may read, originally. I have, indeed, said, 
generally y that I never heard of a laureated A. B., and I 
meet with nothing like it in Selden's Titles of Ho- 
nour. I perceive, however, I have our Cambridge-His« 
torian somewhat against me ; for what Dr. Caius says, had 
been customary, viz. for hacchalaurei to have serta triumpha- 
lia (in Comitiis) ex lauro (unde dicehantur). Hist". Cantab. 
Acad. Lib. \\. p. 122; and, that mos fuit, nobis adbuc, 
juvenibus, &c. may seem to stand against my authorities on 
this subject. But, qu. do not my audiorities prove against 
Br. Caius ? If the Bacchalaurei, at, or liefore, Di:. Gaius's 
time, had their serta ex lauro, the custom of crowning with 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 15 

laurel originated id other^ and more ancient, times, and other 
places, and the etymologj/ is evidently of Norman-French. 
So that the practice alluded to by Gains, must have flowed 
from the word, not the word from the custom. — But let the 
authoiities in the text be compared. 

Indeed, if such a custom existed at, or before, Caius's 
tinie^ the word always, in the text, must be altered down 
to anciently, or originally, and then every thing is right : 
and, ** I have not heard of a laureated A. B.," must be 
deled. 

P. 262, 1. 12, the word incipient is not here, used in 
the strict academical sense: but as the best to convey 
niy meaning. Incipient, in an academical sense, is synoni- 
nious with Inceptor. 

P. 263, notes, 1. 1, for 176, ilQ^. 
P. 265, 1. 15, for there, about that time. 
P. 266, 1. 6, for seldom, not always. 
-Ibid. 1. 7, and instead of immediately proceeding, and 
being create^* 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 



VOLUME II. 



PETER-HOUSE. 

X^AGE 3, notes, 1. 23, after D, add, Vol. I. 

P. 5, notes, 1. 15, after Oxon^ insert Lib. II. 

P. 12, 1. 12, add, a. 

P« 15, 1. 12, for there is little or nothing, has nothing 
remarkable. 

P. 17, after 1. 18; add: 

John Holbroke, D.D. one of the chaplains of Henry VI, 
is said to have distinguished himself as a mathematician, and 
to have died about 1436. 

William Buckmaster, D.D. Vice-Chancellor in 1530 and 
1539. Vid. Archbishop Parker's Catal. Cancel., &c. p. 51, 
52. He was Prebendary of Hereford and St. Paul's^ and 
wrote something concerning the University. 

P. 1 7, notes, 1. 9, dele Geo. 

P. 18, 1. 18, It was Tyndal's New Testament, that was 
published by Joye, and at Antzeerp, in 1534, with corrections 
hjf Joye. Besides what is mentioned in notes, Joye 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. ' J7 

translated Esay into English, published at Strasburgh. The 
Psalms and Primer were professedly translated from the 
Ijatin of Frier Felix, of 1515. It is not meant (in the 
notes), to say that Joye's translations, which bear his name, 
were done by Tindal, but only his Edition of die New 
Testament, printed at Antwerp* Some parts of the Old 
rTestament never were translated by I'^ndal. After re-exa* 
mining, and comparing, the two editions of Lewis's History 
of Translations, 8cc. amidst some differences, I do not find 
they differ in what regards Tyndal and Joye. Bu^ in my 
text, p. 18, V. 2, for, he is also said to have translated a part of 
Tindal's Bible, read, ke aho edited, with corrections, Tyn* 
dal's New Testament, at Antwerp : it is most probable <I 
should think), that the PiHUs, at least, mentioned as being 
at the end (for I have not seen the book itself) were translated 
by Joye. 

P. ig, John Whitgift was D.D. 1567, and John Penry, 
A.B. 1683. He never proceeded, as I can see, A.M. 

Ibid, insert after last line : 

Robert Soame, first Fellow of Queen^s, and afterwards 
Master of this College, in 1589, was a zealous writer for 
the Church, against the Puritans ; author of a ** Re- 
futation of Martin Mar-Prelate,^' the work ascribed to Mr.. 
Penry. He proceeded D.D. in 1580, and died l608. 

George Ackworth, Dr. of Civil Law, and, according to 
R. Smyth, Master of the Faculties in Ireland. He was $m, 
antiquary, and wrote, libri Duo de Visibili Monarchia 
contra Nicholanm Saunders in Monarchiam. He is said ta 
have assisted Archbiahop Parker in his Antiq. Britan. 
Eccles. See Vol. II. p. 124, of our History of die Univer- 
Hty and Colleges of Cambridge^ and Masters's History of 
Bene^t College, p. 97. 

Ibid, last line, for Pearcii, PiercU, and dele eft. 

P. W, 1. 1, Fynes Morrison, Esq. proceeded A.M. 1587r 
and Dr. Bar^, Lady Margaret's Professor, S.T.P. 157&' 

Ibid. 1. Qy after Predestinarians^ insert t 



t§ SUPPLEMENT TO ttifi 

Indrcw WiUct, D.D* 1601, was author of t^o latgtf 
Tolumes of Commentaries and Annoiations on different partd 
of the Old and New iTestailiMits. He also wrote a Treatise 
«f Christ's Descent into Hell. He was first Fellow of this^r 
afbsrwards Fellow of Christ's. He was Prebendary of Ely. 
See Benthsm*0 History of Ely. Mr R. Smyth also mentions 
an^dier Freliendary of Ely, Anthony Aucher, first of Trinity 
College, afterwitfds (March, 1636), admitted Fellow-Corn- 
moner of this. He wrote the Arraignment of Rebellion 
during die time of Cromwell, and a piece against the 
Engagement. 

P, 20, Granger tras A.M. of Pete^-House, 1605. — ^The 
only Robert Sprackling in Dr. Richardson's Catalc^ue of 
Graduates, is entered of Bene't, A^B. 1651. 

Ibid. Rev. Christ. Cartwright, (admitted on Mr. Raymont*s 
foundation, June, 1617, A.M. 1624), and David Stokes, were 
eminent linguists, and annotators on the Bible. Sir Robert 
VPiseman, Dean of the Arche^, and author of a Treatise on 
the Excellency of the Civil Law, is mentioned by R. Smyth 
as of this Colleg^/ He appears in Richardson's Catalogue, 
L,D. 1639, and of Trinity Hall. 

Ibid, last line, for LL.D. 1688, A.M. 1623, D.D. 

1639. 

P. 21^1. 5, for Thomas, read Jokft. Cosins, D.D. accord-' 
kg to Dr. Richardson's Caulogue, wad A.B. from Caius, 
1613/ proceeded D.D/ in 1630^ 

Ibid, notes, L 4, after &c^ add, part 2, and for 60, 58. 

P. 22, 1. 7, after of, add, si^ U; and after Temple^ 
for or^ read of. — There is a curious account <rf Crashaw by 
Anthony Wood (Fast. Oxo^.). He says he was incorpo* 
rated also of Oxford: which he observes, however, after 
those, who knew him to be living at Oxford in 1641 • 
But it seems his nadie does not appear in th^ Public Register 
of Oxford. He was first A«B< of Pembroke-Half, and, 
according to Richardson's List of Graduates, proceeded 
A«M. from Peter-House, in 1638. 



History of Cambridge. 19 



P. id. Dn Beaumont was admitted April 15^ ]631| and 
proceeded D.D. from Peter- House, I66O. 

Of his poem called Psyche, a second edition was published 
IB 1702, in a folio of 370 pages, two columus in eacti page^ 
rather closely printed, so that according to the modern style 
of printing, it might make a folio of about 600 pages. It 
was composed during his ejectment '^ for the avoiding of 
mere idleness, ]^hen the turbulence of the times deprived him 
of wonted accommodations of study •" 

Dr. B. was, I doubt not, a pious man, but his dedication 
is a singularity: ''To the most sacred Treasury of the 
Praise and Glory of Incarnate God, the world's 
most merciful Redeemer, the uuworthiest of his Majestie's 
creatures, in all pos$ible veneration, b^s leave to cast this his 
dedicated mite.'' This poem has been sometimes incorrectly 
given to Beaumont, the dramatist. Charles, the son of Dr. 
Beaumont, A.M. and Fellow, was editor of this poem^ after 
bb father's death: and having built the Lodge, (in 1701,) 
and given it to the College, he is entitled to a place in our 
catalogue. There is a portrait of Charles Beaumont in the 
Lodge. 

John Bargrave was admitted of Peter-House, March 10, 
16S6, and D.D. at Oxford, in 1661. With respect to 
Puritans mentioned pp. 24, S5, the names of Dr. Seaman 
and Mr. Cawdiy, I do not find in the Admission Book; 
but Francis Talents, (a Derbyshire man) was admitted May 
14, 1636, and Colonel Hutchinson, Feb. 29, 1631-3. 

P. 125, 1. 18, add, Rev. £. Simeon, according to Smyth, 
distinguiflihed himself as a writer in favour of Charles 1., 
and was instrumental in getting Bixoyv Bao-iXixvi printed, of 
which more under Dr. Gauden. 

Andrew Bing, B.D. 1601, D.D. 1606. Fellow, and 
Hebrew Professor, was one of the translators of King 
James's Bible : as was also John Richardson, D»D. first 
Fellow of Emmanuel, then admitted Master of this, and 

♦ b 2 



20 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

May 3t 1615^ appcHOted by the King, Master of Trinity 
Collie. 

Samuel Thomas^ (of Somersetshire^) was admitted of this 
House^ June 18, 1645, and afterwards Fellow of St. John's, 
Oxford. In Cromwell's time, he was with the Presbyterians, 
but becomii^ afterwards zealous for the Church, wrote The 
Presbyterian unmasked. He was deprived, at the revolution, 
for not talcing the State Oaths, and died in iGgS, 

P. 26, Dr. Garth l[ofIlurham) had been admitted bible clerk, 
on the foundation of Dr. Cosyns, May 29, 1676, having been 
admitted two days before 'Pensioner, being then in his 17 th 
year. 

P. 27> Jeremiah Markland, (of Lancashire,) was admitted 
Jan. 3, 17 18-— 19; in October following, he came for exa- 
mination. 

P. 28, notes, 1. % for gesset, read gessii. 

Thomas Gray, (of Middlesex,) was admitted Pensioner of 
Peter-House,- July 4, 1734, and October following came to 
reside, being admitted Bible Clerk, on the foundation of Dr. 
CosyaSy bishop of Durham ; the admission book says, in 
want of a candidate from the proper schools. P. 30. 

Note9, John Randall was, fromKing^s, 1744, made IVo- 
^ssor, 1765, and proceeded Mus. D. 1756, died March 18, 
1799, aged 83. 

P. 30, notes, L 10, for Saxonii, Saxonunij and for Curiie^ 
Vurtii. 

P. 31, 1. 10, dele Dr. Waring, and the late Judge Wilson; 
and 1. 1 1^ dele both, and after College, insert and Dr. George 
WoUaston, of Sidney. 

P. 31, 1. 18. It was Stephanus's Latin (not Greek) Thesau- 
rus, in 4 vols, folio, 1734, in which Bp. Law was concerned* 

P. 32. Judge Wilson must not be mentioned as coadjutor 
in the Escerpta ; but he wrote a pamphlet in the dispute be« 
tween Dr. Waring and Or. Powel, relating to the Mathe^^ 
matical Professorship, (being himself a good mathematician) 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. gl 

and ro0e to be a judge. Of course, too, 1. 9, another must 
be dele'd. Dr. Thorpe's Commentary on Newton should 
be, ttn English Translation. Dr. Jebb's Works, &c. by Dr. 
Disney. 1. 14, George Borlase, B.D. 1780, and Tutor, com- 
pleted Dr. Richardson's and Dr. Caryl's Catalogue of 
Graduates, as far as it comes down, and published it. Thei« 
are two editions of this work, the first coming down to 1787, 
the last to 1800.' I am not aware he publisjied any thing 
else.] P. 32, 1. 17, after /yerso/i, add, who after soon yean 
towards the latter part of his life wtis. 

The names ot a few persons eminent for rank may be 
subjoined. William de Whittlesey, Decretal Doctor in the 
Roman Court, and in England he became General and 
OflScial to the Archbishop, Dean of the Arqbes, and Arch- 
deacon of Huntingdon. He was, also, in successioo, Bishop 
of Rochester, Worcester, and in 1369, Archbishop of Can- 
terbury. In his time, the rights of the English Chui^ were 
argued against the claims of die Roman Pontiff, and be ob« 
taiiied for the University of Oxford privileges simihur to whai 
Hugh de. Balsham procured for Cambridge, exemption ftom 
the Bishop of Lincoln's jurisdiction. Thus frr Archbiriiop 
Parker, Antiq. Brit. Eccles. p. 379 ; bat be lesvea unnoticed 
his having been Master of this College ; he, however, was, 
in ld49> ^ shewn in the notes to Bishop Godwin, Prsesul. 
Ang. p. 11 6. Hugh de B alsham has already been men- 
tioned as a liberal benefactor. He was consecrated Bishop ■ 
of Rochester, July, 1401 ; but, says Godwin, (p. 53$) £c- 
clesiam suam Cathedralem nunquam vidit, for he died the 
beginning of the follovnng year: he had been Master of this , 
House. Bishop Godwin claims the famous Cardinal Beau- 
fort, son of John of Gaunt, Duke of Labcaater, for Oxford : 
and dMre he certainly obtained part of his education : but, 
says Dr. Richardson in tfie notes, (de Prseul. Ang.) Canta* 
brigisB Uteris ineubmt in Domo D. Petri: ibi anno 1388 
solvit viginti solidos pro penaione Camerss. Ita in MS. 
Wren« He died,. Apiil 1 1> 1447. To the«o may^ be added^ 



29 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

Dr. Maw, consecrated Bishop of Bath and Wells, iii 1628. 
He was some time Master of this, and afterwards Master of. 
Trinity College. He died before the end of the year in 
which he was consecrated. He was succeeded by William 
Curie, who afterwards went to Winchester, to which he was 
• translated in 1630, and died about 1632. He had been 
Fellow of this College, thougli it is unnoticed by Bishop 
Godwin. Edm. Scambler, Bishop of Norwich, 1584, was 
first Scholar here, after Fellow of Queen's. Isaac Barrow, 
Bishop of St. Asaph, 1669, uncle of the famous Dr. Barrow, 
was Fellow ; Richard Osbaldiston, Bishop of Carlisle, and 
afterwards of London; and Edmund Keene, Bishop of 
Chester, aud afterwards of Ely, was Master, being the S4tb, 
from the beginning. Concerning him, see Mr. Benihani's 
History of Ely. 

A few more bishops might 6e mentioned ; but I shall close 
with two or three laymen, eminent for rank. John Lord 
Cavendish, second son of the Duke of Devonshire, pro- 
ceeded A.M* 1753. Sir James Lowther, Earl of LonsK 
dale. Sir Clement Wearge, Bernard Hale, Esq. (A.M. 

1702,) and Reynolds, Esq. Barons of the ExchequeCi 

and Sir Bernard James. 



CLARE HALL. 

P. 33, notes, 1. 7y for Monastic^y, Ascetimn. 

Ibid. * There are many spurious writings ascribed to Cy- 
prian, and, not to do the author^ of Asceticuv injustice, I 
confess, the works I had in my thoughts were <' Treatises de 
Cardinalibus Christi Operibus^" so (*) dele Cipriani Epist. ; at 
the same time, this author is not sparing of other spurious 
books on the subject alluded to ; such as, Ignatii Epist ad 

2 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 29 

TarsenseSy et Philippenses, JoaoDes Chrysostom : in Mat- 
thaeuiD, et Arnobius id Psalmos. Nor, further, must I be 
understood to say, that Attaserra, the author of AscetidSn, 
maintains, the wt^rds, Monastery and Nunnery, or Monkery, 
as reduced to a regular system, were known in what is called 
the Apostolic Age — he asserts the contrary in this very chap* 
ter quoted above, and more largely, Lib. I. C. 1) 2, where he 
shews, that it was reduced into a system in Egypt. — All I 
mean to say, is, that Attaserra, to Qountenance principles 
favourable to his system, quotes writings that are not genuine: 
still less do I mean to say, that monastic writers alone quota 
spurious books ; but nothing is better known than that, when 
monkery was subjected to rules, many had little else to do, 
than to write and invent; and to what extent spurious writings 
were carried, would not be very easily ascertained! Under 
these limitations, the page may stand ; for, by 2)uni/i*«T« rwir 
ir«p(fv»v, nothing short of Christian Nunneries can be under* 
stood. 

P. 45, h 15, the basement of Clare Hall Chapel is, I 
perceive, unarchitecturally ealled a rustic basement ; what is 
called the rustic, is in a different style. 

P. 45, notes, 1. S. I have perused a copy, in which, if I 
recollect right, it was written onfy 25, (the Latin edition, I 

mean.) ^ 

Dr. Branthwaite was A.B. from Clare Hall, 1582, IPellow 
Emman. 1586; and Nicholas Farrar was A.M. 161S. 

P. 47. Geo. Jollyffe, proceeded M.D. 1652 ; and Hen. 
JoUyffe, A.M. 1426. 

P. 47. Oley, (Mr. Barnabas,) was Archdeacon of £ly, 
and Prebendary of the Cathedral Church of Worcester. For 
some account of him, see Mr. Aubrey's Original Letters from 
Bodl. MSS. Vol. lU. p. 81, and Nash's History of Wor. 
cestershire. 

P. 49. David Clarksom was A.B. of Tr. Col. 1644 ; pro* 

eeeded B.D. from this House. 
Vf 38. For Join Freemixn, read WiHiam Butter never 



24 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

took his Doctor's degree ; hence the lines of some humourist 
(Butler was a great hamoiuist himselfi) 



Here lies Williftm, who nerer was Doctor, 

Who died in the year when the Devil was Proctor. 

Aubkit's Letteu, &c. Vol. III. p. 27. 



I am reminded, too, that Aubrey says^ Vol. III. {k 27) that 
Samuel Butler, author of Hudibras, was of no Uniyersity, 
and Aubrey was intimate with him ; so that what some say, 
without any authority, of his being of Cambridge, must stand 
lor nothing. He may, perhaps, have been confounded with 
the aboTe-mentioned' Butler. 

P. 49* The Dr. Gunning there mentioned, is he, the too 
favourable accotmt of whom has been made ui objection to 
Baker's M.S. Hist. John's. 

P. 54, notes. For Ecclesiastices, Ecclesiasticis. 

Thomas Edwards, Clare Hall, Fellow, 1 766, wrote a Latin 
Dissertation, in Defence of Bishop Hare's system of metres^ 
applied to David's Psalms. He, also, in 1768, wrote Dis« 
aertationes Duas ; one defiending the system of Honbigant 
and Kennicott in regard to the corruptions and false readings 
of the Old Testament ; the other opposing Calvin's notion 
of. Predestination, parUculaily Lib. 3, c. 21, | 5, 7, c^ 22, 
§ 1 1, which carries absolute predestination to its utmost point, 
called, therefore, by some divines, Calvini Decretum Hor- 
rendum. Dr. E. aims to shew, that Paul's doctrine relates to 
gospel privileges, and he adopts Dr. Taylor's theory of a 
twofold justification* He/ also published, Selecta qussdam 
Theoeriti Idyllia, Gr. and Lat Cantab. 1779* 

P. 58. Samuel Disney, LL.B. I76l, Vicar of Halstead, 
in Essex, author of a volume of Sermons, published since 
Us 4eath, subjoined to which, is, a valuable Treatise against 
Pluralities ; he himself having conscientiously declined some 
additional and valuable idmxck jireferinen^, when offered to 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 25 

^m* Prefixed, are Memoirs by bis relation, the Hev, Dr. 
Disney ; and by a Prologue to the Padlock, introduced as a 
specimen, it is evident he had a very elegant talent for poetic 
composition* * 



JESUS COLLEGE. 

P. 60, last line, dele plenty of, and the 4 following-lines of 
notes in next page. 

P. 61, notes, 1. 14. For ob, oL 

P. 6&, L 8. For Croyland, Barnwell. 

P. 63, notes, h 4. For Lib. II. Cap. XL, Ub. III. Cap. 
11. 

P. 64, 1. 7. Instead of Most Holy Trinity, the Blessed 
Viigin, and St Radegundis, read The Blessed rirgin Mary, 
Si. John ike Evangelist, and the Glorious Virgin St. Rade» 
gun£s. 

P. 64, notes, last line. For dicatas, dicato. 

P. 65, notes, 1. 1. For p. 329y read 269* 

P. 66, 1. 1. For bishop, king. 

Ibid. 1. £?• For owl, awl. 

P. 67, note a, and p. 68, were made up from hints copied 
in part from Bishop Stanley's and West's Statutes, and in 
part from Sherman's MS. at different times, and into different 
books. Distance prevents my rectifying some contradiction. 
To leave the passages clear of all responsibility, dele, in p, 
67) the whole of note a ; and in p. 79> note a ; and for note 
a, p. 67> add what follows, (which will ilhistrate the text :) 
Archbishop Parker, Catal. Cancel. 8{c. p. 26, has it, (speak- 
ing of Alcock,) ex magistro, sex sociis, atq. sex pueris coi^ 
stare ordinavit: Bishop Godwin, (p. 270,) sex socios, et 
scholariumnumemm mihi tncpinpertem; eXtotidem Bthohresp 



^ 



2« SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

adds Dr. Richardson. Sherman^ the writer of MS. after 
quoting the Statutes first given, (Bishop Stanley's,) says^ 
in coUegio per nos erecto pusillani gregem constituimus ex 
sex personis, magistro uno, et quinque sociis. Other fellow- 
^ships, at least, and scholarships were afterwards added. 
Among these latter, according to Sherman, were those for 
eight boys, to be instructed in grammar, and analectics, one 
of whom was called Organista, a second Sacrista, a third 
Bibliotista, the fourth Janitor; the four other boys were to be 
instructed in singing, as Choristas ; and these, according to 
Sherman, made the number of Fellows and Scholars even 
till the time of Elizabeth. I'he above particulars will shew 
some of the college economy of those early times. 

On the above eight scholars, &c. Sherman observes^ Hunc 
octonarium numerum confirmat Nicholaus (West) Statutorum 
capite nono, quibus duos Andreas Roystonus custos ante 
tempora Eliz. addidit, adeo ut Scholarium et sacrorum no- 
merus erat tunc temporis eequalis: verum praadictse Eliz. 
visitatores eodem statuto supra citato discipulorum numemm 
ad 15 reduxeriint, quibus autem accedunt tres postea fundati, 
quibus unum Dom. Marshall, duos Domina^ Joannas Price 
tribuiraus. 
^ Adeo ut Collegium lesu Magistnim sive Custodem, 16 

socios, et 18 scholares a fundatione alat MS. Jes. p. SS^ 34. 

P. 68, I. 4. Dr. Richardson (notes on Godwin) calls 
Bishop Stanley the sixth son ; which if right is a matter of little 
. consequence ; he was son of Thomas Stanley, created first 
Earl of Derby, in 1485. 

P.. 68, 1. 14. After Diocese^ add, it went also to support a 
preceptor of grammar and hostiary. 

Bishop Stanley first gaVe Statutes, which, together with the 
•Foundation of the College, were confirmed by the authority 
of Pope Julius II. ; Nicholas West, the 31st bishop of Ely,' 
revised Stanley's Statutes, changed some, and improved 
others, and these Statutes thus repaired, arc now the propen 
Statutes : a copy of 4626, Sherman says, is incorrect. 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 27 

P. Go, I. 18. Before advowsoD, add perpetual, and dele 
ai his death bequeathed the fourth part of his estate. • 

Ibid. 1. £1. For rectories, rectory. 

P. 70,1. 15. It does not appear,* that Mr. Tobias Rastat 
(at least the benefactor) was of this College. He does not 
appear in the book of admissions ; but he was created A.M. 
by Rojal Mandate in 1675. 

Ibid. 1.6, for 1587, 1687. 

Ibid. 1. 16, for Chuffes, read Jubbs^ and after Chubb, (notes) 
add, and StubVs, as Mqjor^ the Scotch Historian does ; 
(Hist, de Gest. Scat. p. 9^) and Isaacson the Chronologer 
follows his erroTy A.D. 149£* Isaacson (according to MS., 
Jes.) dates the year too incorrectly/; Chubbs was a native of 
Whiibi/ in Yorkshire^ first of Pembroke-HalL Wren's 
MS. de Custod. Sfc. Pemb. 

Ibid. 1. 2^ Goodrich, or Godrick, was Proctor in 1515. 

P. 70, notes, 1. «. For 333, read 272, 

P. 7K For Arslecton, Aslecton; and wherever Arslecton 
occurs elsewhere, read Jstecton. 

P. 73, 1. 18. Bale proceeded A.M. 1634. Some other 
bishops of this period are incidently mentioned elsewhere. 

Christopher Lord Hatton, first Vice-Chamberlain, and 
shortly afterwards Lord Chancellor to Queen Elizabeth. 
IL-Smyth notices him as the reputed author of a CoUec- 
^n of the Psalms, with titles. It is giyen by some to 
Bishop Tayl<9r, who dedicates to Lord Hatton some of his 
theological works in the highest strains of eulogium. He 
was a man of great capacity and prudence, of whom it was 
, said, ^* the Chancellorship was above his law, but not his 
parts ; so pregnant and comprehensive^^ that he could com-i . 
mand other men's knowledge to as good purpose as his own." 
Statesmen and Favourites of England. 

P. 74. Some mentioned as ejected by Calamy, were from 
livings, not from College. Mr. JohQ Dod could not have 
been mentioned by him as ejected by the Act of Uniformity, 
for he died in 1645, before th^t A^t. Sut he does mention 



38 • SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

him incrdeotallj, as vicar of Fawsley, Northampt.^ and as 
^ther of Mr. Timothy Dod. Dr. YouDg, too, was ejected 
for not taking the engagement, prior to the Restoration. Dr. 
Sterne ha'd been ejected, (but was restored Aug. 3, 166$}) con» 
sequently on tfiat Dr. Worthington was put out, and not by, 
but before, the Act of Uniformity ; so that Dr. Ca|amj is 
acquitted of inaccuracy in those particulars. 

P. 74/1. 23. Add as .a note, A John Dod was admitted of 
^ this College June 29, 1627' But all the Dods mentioned in 
MS. Jes. except the first mentioned in text, kept their pre- 
^ ferments, consequently could not be the Dods mentioned by 
Calamy, nor, indeed, does he say they were. There are^ 
besides, several other John Dods, (subsequent to J. Dod 
mentioned in text above, of Fawsley,) in Dr. Richardson's 
Catal. of Graduates. Calamy observes of Timothy Dod 
(Eject. Min. Vol. 4, p. 640,) at what University be was 
educated, I cannot say. Speaking from imperfect recollec- 
tion, I have said (in text) there was a Timothy Dod of this 
College ; but on re-examination, I do not at least find his 
name mentioned in MS. Jes. The only Timothy Dod in 
Richardson's Catal. Grad. is put down of Emman. A.B. 
161^, A.M. 1619- 

P. 75, add as follows : 

Dr. Nalson, according to R. Smyth, was author of CoU 
lections, entitled. Impartial Collections of the Great Affiurs 

of State, from the Scotch Rebellion in 1639, *tp the King's 

« 

Murtber in 1648. This was written, it seems, to expose the 
mistakes of Rushworth's Collections. But this work itself 
may be suspected to savour more of party than Rushworth's, 
. as well from what it professes, as from the title of another of 
his books, '' The Principles and Practices of the Dissenters.*^ 
But how far Dr. Nalson's Collections may be able for im- 
partiality to cope with Rushworth's Historical CoUectionS| 
which professes to give specimens, letters, transactions, aad 
facts on both sides, is mote than I undertake to say. Dr. 
Nalson also wrote A Discourse ot^ the Onginal, Antiquily, 

5 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 29 

and Excellency of Monftrchy. He also translated «Mani- 
buiigh's History of the Crusades. He was a Prebendary of ' 
Eiy^ and died 1685. 

P. 75, 1- 4. For 1706, read l606. 

This Geoffiy Watts, younger son of Sir John Watts, was 
at first admitted Fell. Coip. of Emman., afterwards in ]606, ' 
made Fellow of this, by a mandate of James I. MS. Jes. 

■ 

He wrote a book against the Anabaptists, a frightful sect in 
those days. He died, I diink, in 166S. See further, p. 

370- 

Roger Andrews, D.D. was, at first. Fellow of Pembroke 
Hall, and afterwards (in 1618) the fourteenth Master of thb 
College. He was one of the translators of King James's 
Bible, and brother to the famous Bbhop Andrews. What 
entitles him to particular notice here, is, he was die first 
person, who made a register to this College, (MS. Jes.) He 
survived his brother, and made a voluntary resignation of his 
mastership in 163^. 

P. 76. The difficulty mentioned p. 76, may, I apprehend, ^ 
be solved thus. The living of Stowmarket does not belong 
to Jesus Coyege, so, 1. 12, could not be given by it to Young ; 
and as Storer obtained the living by private patronage, and 
did not come into* it, according to Dr. Calamy till 1660, 
Young had left it. I have occasionally made use of Mr. 
Palmer's edition of Dr. (Jalamy, as I have in the. text of the 
above pa^e: inCalamy's own edition of 1713, it is Vol. IL 
p. 659. 

P. 76. 1. 18, 19. Read by transposing, He was the ISth 
Masigr of thit Coffege, whkh office he held till 1660, for I 
do not mean to say he held the office of Vice-Chancellor all 
that time. Dr. Worthington, besides editing, published some 
original dieological pieces of his own. He was. admitted 
Master, May 1, l660, and resigned to Dr. Hichard (not ZjaW" 
rence,,p. 77,) Sterne. 

P. 77, 1* 2 1 • After legacy, add, Mr. Petty had been first a 
student of Christ's College, but became afterwards a tutor of 



80 SlJPPLEMfiNT To THfi 

considerable note here. As to the Arundelian Marble^^ 
* '* Lautam hanc supellectilem illustrissimus Arundellifle conies 
tlowardus, A^C. 1624^ ex veterum Grascise et Asita urbium 
ruderibus, operi doctissiilii viri Gulielmi Petteet, impensis 
sommis o^nquisivit.^' Accounts of the Arundelian Marbles 
are pven by different writers, Selden, Prideaux, Maittairei 
Chandler, Roberts. The above extract' is from Roberts' 
pref. to Manaor. Oxon. 1791* 
P. 78, Leonard Twelles was a Nottinghamfthire man, and enter- 
ed here, (according to the book of admissions) Sept. 27, 1700. 
His '^ CHtical Examination/' &c. was |mnted in 1 7.31. * My 
business being Only with Twelles and his examination^ rather 
than the book examined, I cast my eye too hastily on 
Lewis'iB Hist, (the folio edition,) of the Engl. Translations/ 
where finding Narys^s version, and this, on the saitie page> 
I hastily put down Narys's name ; a great isrror un()uestion^ 
ably. But I have since perused, with some attention, both 
Twelles's examination, and the book itself. It has no name^ 
^ but is entitled, << The New Testament, in Greek and La^n, 
containing the Original Text, corrected from the authority of 
the most authentic MS8. and a new Version formed agreeably 
to illustrations of the most learned commentators and critics^ 
with notes and various readings^ 17^.^' * It is accompanied 
with a dedication to Lord Chancellor King. Lewis (Hist. 
of Bug Translations, 8cc.) treats it with great contempt ; 
bat, as he speaks in a general Way, whether with proper 
knowledge of the subject, I will not say. Twelles was 
evidently a man of learning, and an orthodox man ; in the 
version^ dierefore, of a man who was evidently not so, he 
would^ no doubt, be prepared to find all the errors he could. 
'He criticises, more particularly, those parts which relate to 
the controversies between the Unitarians and Trinitarians ; 
such as, the Doxabgy in the Baptismal fdrmy the three 
heaoenlj/ Witnesses, &c. (I John, 5, 7.) On the latter 
there is a long note by the translator, who leaves it out, on 
the authority of MSS., and a still longer examination by 



• 9 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 5i 

Mr. Twelles; vh<> advocates it. Mr. Porson slightly referi 
to these parts in the two authors : '' The Greek- English 
editor/' says he, "dfthe New Testament, 1729, thre\y tlife 
Terse out of hisJtezt, and subjoined a long note to the place, 
which is apparently written with great labpur. — ^Twellei 
refuted this editor ufier his manner!^ Preface to Lettefs 
to Archdeacon Travers, p. 7< The learned Greisbach, 
(a Trinitarian, it seems,) besides hi$ account of th^ MSS* 
that relate to this passage (in loco), gives a Diatribe at thfe 
end of his Greek Testament, being a summary of MSS. 
Greek and Latin, versions and editions, with Greek and 
Latin fathers, that admit or reject this celebrated clause ; so 
that inquirers may henceforth be saved the labour of much 
learned research : and he distinctly notices the above Greek- 
English version (Grsco-Anglicana Mac it, p. 7), and Mr. 
Dibdin (Introduction to Greek and Latin Classics, p. Ixv.) 
on the autliority of Masch, gives it tg Dr. Macey: but 
both that and Twelles'd Examination are so es^tremely 
sAce, that Dr. Marsh confesses, he hud never seen Dn 
Macey's work, and refers^ for an account of it, to Memoirs 
of a Library, in Halle, Vol. IV. p. 418, and 419* See 
Marsh's Translation of Michaelis's Introduction to the New 
Testament, Vol. IL p. 463. He adds, p. 464, that he had 
never been able to procure a copy even of Twelles's Exa« 
mination. 

I am obliged to the judicious Mr. Tyrwhitt, of Jesus 
College, for pointing out my ridiculous mistake ; and I have 
takensthe more pains in rectifying it, both on account of the 
rarky of these two books^ and byway of making the amende 
honorable^ 

P. 77, I. ^f John Elliot was A.B. 1625, but, I believe, I 
was n&ialed by Sherman : for from Richardson's Catalogue 
of Graduates, it does not appear Elliot proceeded A.M. i-^ 
there is a Life of him by Cotton Mather. The Sir Thomas 
Ellyot (the same page) wrote also a Commentary de Rebus 
Memoralulibus Anglisp. Anthony Wood speaks of him as 



Sa SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

being of St. Mary Hall^ Oxford. But MS. Jes. has him 
among the knights and baronets of this College. His Die* 
tionary was afterwards enlarged by another band* 

Foreman (same page) was first from Magdalen College^ 
Oxford: but, according to Richardson's Catalogue, wms 
A.B. here, A. 1588. He died 1611; dele, therefore^ 

1545. 

P. 78, I. 3, after 1644, add, he was^ however, entered 
Fellow-Commoner here in l6£3. 

Ibid. Dr. Legge wrote the, Destruction of Jerusalem, and 
Life of King Richard HI. The latter, says. Smyth, was 
.acted here with great applause. 

Ibid. Dr. North's edition (second edition, Cambridge, 
1683) is entitled, Platonis de Rebus Diionis, being only on 
theological topics. . It is without notes, but has a sensible 
preface. No parts of Plato (there had been abundance of 
Aristotle in parts) ^ere prmted before this edition. Dr. N* 
was entered Fellow-Commoner of this CoU^^, Februaijr 
25, 1660; was admitted Fellow of this, and in 1677^ MiAer 
of Trinity College. He died 1683. 

Ibid. The JEIon; Roger North was author of an historical 
woriJL against Dr. Kennet, and wrote the Lives of his two 
brothers, Francis, Lord Guilford, Keeper, and Sir Dudley 
North, Knight. Roger was entered here, October 30^ 
1667. 

Ibid. Dr. Pearson was Lady Margaret's Professor. 

P* 79y 1* 7i after Dodwell, insert this paragraph : 

Dr. Saywell, first Fellow of St. John's, iifter Prebendaiy 
of the Church of Ely, and Chancellor of the Church of 
Chichester, was admitted Master of this CoUege, 1679* 
He wrote the Original of all the Plots in Christendom, with 
the Dan|;er and Remedy of Schism, and Evangelical and 
Catholic Unity maintained in the Church of England, also 
an Apology for its Government and Litiu^ : it was cfirected 
fmncipally against Mr. Baxter, and Dr. Owen, and eads in 
a vindication of Dr. Gunning. 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. SS 

P. 79, 1. 8,* for Joseph, John ; see p. 22. 
Ibid. Flamstead entered, Dec. 21, 1670. 
Ibid- Hughes was entered, Oct. 10, 1667. 
Ibid. Ockley's name not in the Admission Book of Jesus 
College. 

Thomas Herring was admitted Pensioner of Jesus Col- 
lege, June 21, 1710, though afterwards (July, 1714) removed 
io Bene't College. In 1728 he proceeded D.D. In 1737 
he was consecrated Bishop of Bangor, and in 1743 was 
. translated to York, and in 1747 to Canterbuiy. In his life- 
time he printed seven Sermons, remarkable not for any 
metaphysical disquisitions, which he always profess^ to 
avoid, but dieir manly style. They were preached on public 
occasions, and collected into a volume after hb death with 
memoirs prefixed. The most remarkable for their zeal 
though not die best written, are those preached at the 
Cathedral Church of York, September 22, 1746, on occasion 
of die Rebellion in Scodand, and at Kensington, January 
7, 1748, die day appomted for a public fcst. He also pub- 
lished, in one of the weekly papers, some short strictures on 
Gay's Beggar's Opera. 

Archbishop Herring's name stands more immediately 
connected widi die Rebellion in 1745. He was die first 
who gave the alarm : and, by his spirited Address on Sep- 
tember 24, 1746, a subacription of £40,000 was raised by 
die nobility, cleiigy, and gentry of Yorkshire, for die defence 
of die county ; and his Address to the Duke of Cumberland 
July 23, 1746, after bis victoiy at Cullpden, is vwy masterly. 
It is said by some, diat he headed the troops in his own 
countiy : which, whedier true or not, there is a ludicrous ^ 

print of him, habited pardy as a biikop, and pardy as a 
soldier, under the tide of the Military Champion, or the 
Church-Militant : and the wags of the time called him, Tb« • 
Red Herring. He died in 1757. 

Ma^w Hutton, D.D* should be mentiouc^ t^ugh it 

•o 



34 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

were only for a pdculiarily. F6r lie Mms ftdmilted Penioiier 
of this College, ode day after Herring (Jiuie W, 1710), and 
succeeded to hifti immediately m the AfoyMshopric of 

Canterbury. 

P. 81, Dr. Styau Thirlby, defended also the CatboHc 
doctrine of the Trmky against Mr, Whiston. 

P. 88, Mr. John Jackson jpublished «variott8 works teaidea 
hsB -Chron. Atitiq^ a work in chi«iee volumes, Sw, 175fi. 

P. 88, i. 7, lAer Caryl, add, entered Oct. 96, 1788, was 
registrar of the University, a ^'rbper gentleman to co mbiw 
and continue, &Cc. 

Ibid. 1. .10, instead of Ashtoti, Yonge, Bishop of BnsloL 
Ibid. 1. 17, after Cohithus, add, Mr. Fawkea wasa Yoric« 
shireman, entered of this College, Marcli 16,, 1787^ and 
died 1777. 

*Ibid. Mr. Thomaa Netille, Fellow, was iidniitted, iufy 
90, 1758, abd !pr04ieedidd A.M. 1769, and Mr. Bania 
Hartley wasadinitted, April SI, 1799, and FeRow, 1797. 
P. 84, Sterue was admitted, July 6, 1733. 
' P. 85, 1. I, before contemporary, add, nearly; and 1. 10, 

after of, add, a controversial piece, against Dr, Priestley cm 
the Lord-s Supper, and a short Memoir of tlie {mtriotic Sir 
John Barnard (to whoid, dariag his HMfyondty, he was dmp* 
Iain). 
P. 84, notes, 1. 1, after think, add, ib its full exterit 
IbidI 1. 19, after editions, add, he Wbs tidMtted of this 
College, Aug. «4, 1748. 
* Samuel Berdraore, Fellow, mraa ^aidmicted here in 1755^ 

and proceeded S.T.P., thou^iie only stande^as AIM., 176Sy 
in the List of Graduates. He became Head-Master of tbe 
Charter-House school *flfnd tied in 1809. I am not 'aware 
of anything written by him, exofifpt a Tract on Bishop Hurd'a 
Piece on Poetic Imitation, hi whicfh be demes its claim to 
originality, and maintains that it is borrowed fram a-Frenob 
audior. (Catrou). It is caU^, Literary ResemblaBeea. 

{ 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 8fi 

P. 85, Gilbert Wakefield vas admitted, April 22, 177?. 
P. 86, 1. 13, after subscriptions, 'add : 
To the names of persons of rank, incidentally introduced^ 
m9j be added the following: Edmond Scambler, Bishop of 
Peterborough; William Hughes, Bishop of St. Asaph; 
Hugo Bellot, Bishop of Bangor, Fellow; Sir Edward 
Loftus, Lord Chancellor of Jreland, Justiciary of the Court 
pf Common Pleas, in the reign of Elizabeth ; Sir John 
3ranipton, Knight, Chief Justice of England ; Sir Richard 
Hutton, Knight, Justice in the Court of Common Pleas; 
Sb William Boswell, Ambassador to the United States pf 
Holland ; )?ith many others. 

P. 87, 1. 17, after pther, add, this court was raised par^y ■ 
from contributions from noblemen and gentlemen, most of 
.whom had been educated in the College, and partly from .the 
Masters apd Fellows, who appropriated towards the building 
the fourth part of their yearly dividends. 
P. 88^ for Radegund, read Radegundh. 
p. 89, notes, 1. 5, ,after cooperuit, dele the remaining part 
of the page, and read as follows : 

Might not then the above stone (as Blomefield inclines to 
think. Collectanea, p. 143) have been brought, perhaps^ ^ 
when the chapel was renovated, and the cloisters rebuilt by 
Sir John Ripley ? The other stone (of Berta Rosata) clearly 
belongf^ to the Chapel of the Nunnery ; and the author of 
MS. Jes. gives his reasons, and very probable ones, for 
l)ei|ie.ving that ^he nun was buriid here a little before the 
dissolution of the Nunnery. If the former stone was not 
brought here, as before supposed, the difficulty is/ to account 
for a Paior*s being buried in a chapel of nuns. Now k 
may be just observed, that abbesses and prioresses could not 
confess and give absolution, excommunicate, nor even 
preach, because they had not ''the power of the keys;'' 
Item Abbatissa non potest benedicere seu velare Virgines, 
earum confessiones audire, ea^demq. mbtolvere, neq. £va»- 

#c 2 



S6 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

gelium prttdicaroy quia non habet potestatem clavium. Con- 

cfl. Paris VI. Can. 43, (ut Asceticw*', p. US.) So that they 
necessarily admitted among them monks. Some nunneries 
bad their Vicariiy aut Rectores Monialium, who were caDed 
Spiritual Fathers, and all their confessors, Confessores or« 
dinarii. These were sometimes their Presbyteri, but never, 
as I find, Priores, or Priors. If Mr. Wakefield has given a 
correct date of this stone (for the comer is battered off) 
1007, its date is a considerable time before the foundation of 
the Nunnery of St. Rhadegundis: (6r Nigellus's Charter, 
given just after the foundation, (though without date) must 
have been between IISS and 1134, as stated by Dr. Pearce, 
who kindly favoured me with a perusal of it, copied from the 
Archives of Jesus College. Still, should the date be correct, 
I do not perceive, that the difficulty of Prior hujus loci 
would be removed. Por, if I mistake not, the Cell, prior to 
the Nunnery, was a Cell of Sanctimonialium, monialium, of 
nuns, not Monachorum, of monks, who could, therefore, 
have no Prior in the House, though called Prioratus. See 
p. 6 1 of this volume, note K 

In the MS. Jes. are the names, offices, mode of electing 
the Abbess, &c. collected from the Archives of Jesus Col- 
lege. It is here clearly seen, that this was not a mixt 
monastery of nuns and monks, but consisted wholly of nuns : 
so that whatever I might be disposed to think (p. 90),^ fact» 
would be against it. 

P. 91 f Dr. Gascoicme was admitted of ^is House in 1594, 
and is described in MS. Jes. as Yir in deducendis Genealo- 
giis peritissimus. 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. S7 



PEMBROKE HALL. 

P. 95, 1. 25, after instruetors, add, the members wer^ 
called Gustos, et Scholares. Its foundation is dated 1343. 
MS. Wren, de Custod. 8cc. 

• P. 97, L 5, dele Rectory ; and after Margaret, 1. 7, add, 
of Isleham. 

Ibid. Tindman was fourth Master. 

P. 98, 1. 17, after College, add, (MS. Wren.) 

Ibid, notes, last line. Bishop Bale says, Lindwood wrote 
nothing but his Provinciales : hardly probable: Bishop 
Godwin says, inter muUa quse* scripsit, &c. 

Ibid, after last line, add : 

George Folbury, S.T.P. is mentioned by Carter as Poet 
Liauceat ; on what authority I know not : MS. Wren only 
speaks of him as Master (as the I5th, 1537), and as one of 
the Vniversiiy Preachers, with Oranmer. Vid. Balapum in 
Cent. %, cap. 27, Pitsasum ^tat. 16, 936. 

P. 99, Ridley in 1521 had been also Fellow of University 
College, Oxford. Wood's Hist. Antiq. Oxf. L. 2, p. 62. 

Ibid. Rogers suffered Feb. 4, 1554. 

Ibid. 1. 22, for 1547, 1549. Bradford suffered 1555. 

Ibid. Carter mentions Thomas Lupest (Lupset, he means) 
one of the revivers of literature. He translated into English 
two of St. Chrysostom's and Cyprian's Treatises, and also 
wrote several Latin Epistles and Sermons. Smyth says, it 
is not clear he was of this College, and his name does not 
occur in Richardson's Catalogue, nor Wren's MS. ; so that, 
at least, he was not Fellow. Wood says, utrum ad banc an 
Cantabrig. Acad, se contulerit, baud compertum est, Lib. 
II. p. 233. 

Ibid. Nicholas Carre, (of Northumberland) M.D. 1558, 
Greek Professor, another of the revivers of literature. 



38 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

translated part of the Orations of Demosthenes, and was Fel- 
low. In a List of Fallows of Trinity College, copied by Dr. 
Richardson, be appears as Fellow there. It is further said, 
be wrote to Cheeke an account of Bucer's Funeral, yet ap* 
peared as one of the Jury (Juratorum) in burning his bones. 

Thomas Newce, Nuce, or Newes, A B. elected Fellow 
1562, translated Seneca's Octavia, published by Thomas 
Newton, 1581. He also wrote two poems, one Latin, the 
other English, prefixed to the Agamemnon of Seneca, 
edited by John Studley, 1566. He was Chancellor of 
Norwich, and died l6l7. Atwood^s MS. 

Dr. Turtier published a piece on the New Learning, 
the Hunting the Fox and Wolf against the Papists, a Trea- 
tise on Baths, and also poetry. According to Richardson'a 
Catalogue, he proceeded A.M. at Cambridge, 1529. He 
died 1568« Vid. Balseum. 

P. 100. In saying Dr. Young was admitted Master by 
royal mandate, I follow Wren's MS. Smyth speaks of him 
as author of Notes upon the Book of Henry Nicholas on 
the Family of Loue, entitled Evangelium Regni : this is not 
mentioned, however, in Wren's MS. But he could not 
baveJbeen Rector of. LandbeaCh, as mentioned by Carter, 
as the living belonged to Bene't. Young was imprisoned 
by Elizabeth, and, I think, died in prison. 

John Thaxtill, A.B. 1619> described by Cains as. Homo 
singularis eruditionis, nostrS memoria, MS. Wren. He 
proceeded D.D. 1537, and is entitled PniEDiCATOti AcA- 
DEMIJE, and was of great authority in those early times, in 
the schools. He was chosen Fellow, 1515. 

Ibid. Francis Anthony proceeded M.D. here, 1608. 

Ibid. The William Framlingham mentioned by Carter, 

« 

does not appear in the List of Fellows, nor in Richardsonis 
Catalogue. 

Ibid, insert, John Bridges (Bishop of Oxford), a ^liter 

who distinguished himself in defence of the rights of the 

w Churchy Summ&^ licet iirita, industri& ad recuperanduin 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 59 

Ecclei. viokt» jura conapicuus ob. March ^^ I6l8. ^H^ 
wood*s MS. 

P. 101 y Archbishop Whitgift was admitted Muster faere^ 
April %\y 1567. 

P. 102, Spenser was matriculated May 20, liSQ, pro- 
ceeded A.M. 1576. Besides bis poetry, he wrote in prose, 
the History of |he Affairs of Ireland ; an^l prefixed to an 
edition of the Shepherd's Calendar, republished with 
Bathurst's Latin translation, as I have mentioned in the text, 
may be seen a catalogue of Spenser's unpublished poems. 

P. 102, notes, 1. 3, for ibid. p. 100, read Wr€n*$ MS. 

Ibid. Gabriel Harvey was LL.D. Mr. Carter notices 
him again under Trinity-Hall, while Mr. R. Smyth says, 
they were different persons. Yet Gabriel Harvey (according 
to Attwood's MS.) was admitted Fellow here, November 
Sy 1570, and he adds, postea Soc. Aul. Trin. and L.D., 
and Df. Richardson's Catalogue makes him L.D. from 
Trinity-Hall ; so it appears they were the same person : and 
it is improbable there should have been two Gabriel Har« 
veys, L.D. at the same time* He wrote English Hexa* 
meters, and t^atin Iambics. There is a short account of 
him, and his English poetical pieces, in Ritsoa's Bibliotheca 
Poetica, p. 238. He also published Oratio de Naturfi, 
Arte, et Exercitatione Rhetorici. 

Ibid. 1. 13, for Ralph, read Theodore. Bathwrst incepit 
in Art. 1609, proceeded D.D. 1628. Attwood's MS. His 
Ladn Translation of the Shepherd's Calendar was first 
printed in 1655. In the elegant Latin life, in the edition of 
1732, three errors are corrected relating fo Spenser: 1st a 
date of his birth (in 1510), whereas, ealcuiatiog from the 
University Register, it must have been about 1553; 2d, 
Camden's date of his death (de Mouimentis Wcstm.), 1508, 
whereas, according to the English inscription on his monu« 
menc, it was 1596; and 3d, Dr. Fuller's and Winstauley*s, 
who confound the prose Elogium with an Epitaph. 



40 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

P. 102, Ralph Rowley, according to Richardson's Cata- 
logue of Graduates, proceeded A.M. 1586. 

Ibid, after last line, add, Dr. Fenton, Dean of St. PauFsy 
wrote agunst Dr. Alabaster's Motives of Conversion to 
Popery, 8lc. and Sermons. He died 1615. — Drugo-Cres- 
aener, D.D, and Fellow, afterwards Prebendary of Ely, 
wrote a Demonstration of Protestant Principles against the 
Papists. 

P. 108, 1. 7, add : 

Richard Attwood should not be passed without notice in 
a history of Pembroke Hall. For he continued Bishop 
Wren's book de Custod. &c. Pemb. to his own time : and 
though I did but glance my eye over it rapidly, I am some- 
what indebted to it in this Supplement ; I perceived, too, in 
it a liberality, which is not always found in works of this 
kind. He was, beside, not only Fellow of this House, but 
a benefactor to it : for, if I am rightly informed (as I doubt 
not I am) by Mr. Aspland, the whole of the stone casing, 
which fronts the street, condkiued from the chapel, was 
raised at Mr. Attwood*s expence. He was A.B. 1699, and 
A.M. 1703. 

P. 103, insert: 

Matthew Hutton, Master, 156^; Archbishop of York, 
1594; wrote on Election and Reprohiition. Wren's MS. 

Sir Robert Dallington, Knight, Scholar, was Master of 
the Charter-House, author of a Survey of 'Tuscany; a 
Method of Travel, from a Survey of France in 1598; and 
of Aphorisms, Civil and Military, from Tacitus. 
V Walter Balcanquall, D.D. 1620, was sent by James to 

the Synod of Dort, and published Letters concerning it, and 
Sermons; also King Charles's Declaration concerning the 
Tumults in Scotland. 

Eleazor Duncan, D,.D1 Fellow, 1625; author of a Trea- 
tise on Humility. Attwood (MS.) says, he was Prebendary 
of Winchester. 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 41 

P. 108, 1. 3, add : 

Richard *Greenhain, A.B. 1563, A.M. 1567, admitted 
Fellow, 1563; was Rector of Dry-Dray ton, 1570. His 
writings were held in great estimation by the Puritans, and 
kave been often reprinted. A stout Non-Conformist, it 
seems, he was ; for (according to Attwood^s MS.) he would 
neither subscribe nor resign : but, • according to Fuller, 
(Church History, p. £20) he resigned, and ** lived a planet- 
ary life," till he Jixed at Christ Church, in London, ^here 
he died. His moat famous work was on the LorJTs Day, 
wldch is said to have given birth to the Sabbatarians. Fuller 
speaks of him in the highest terms. All his works were 
edited by H. Holland. He died in 159£. 

Benjamin Canfield, Rector of Ayleston, Lincolnshire, was 
author of the Examination of the Independents' Catechism, 
^.and Discourses on Confirmation. He proceeded A.M. 
1636. 

Dr. Laney, Master, 1630, wrote against Hobbes's book 
on Liberty and Necessity: he was Bishop of Ely, 1667, 
and died 1674-5. See Bentham's History of Ely, p. 202, 
first edition. 

P. 103, Pocklington, B.D. 1621 ; no D.D. in Richard- 
son's Catalogue. He was chaplain to Charles I. 

Ibid, the account of the devastations at Exeter Cathedral ' 

may be seen, according to reference, in Mercurius Ru!>ticus ; 
but Brownrig's reply to Cromwell, in Godwin de Pra&sul. 
p. 420. 
P. 105, Fenner was B.D., and Kent, should be Essex. 
Ibid. Of Clarke, Attwood says, Incepisse eum in Artibus 
ex Grad. Libro, si oculis utor, non constat : he was of St* 
Michael's, Northamptonshire, and died A. 1700. It was 
m the Contmuation of Poole's Annotations on the Acts, 
that Vincke wrote, not in the Synopsis Criticorum. A list 
of his publications, with a short memoir, may be seen in 
• Calamy, Vol. II. p. 52. He was Rector of St. Michael's, 
Cornhill, whence he was ejected. 



4f SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

P. 103| Clyfford was a Warwickshire bmb^ A.M. 16^, 
and confirmed FeUdw, l66l. Rector of QuendoB^ m the 
county of Essex, wkeoce he was ejected bj the Barthe^ 
JomeW'Act, A. 1662. He afterwards ptactised physic. 

Attwood's MS. There was another (James) Clifford, 

Fellow in 1652. - 

P. 106, Vines was « Presbyterian^ and wrote a Treatian 
on the Lord's Supper. According to Richardson's Cata* 
logtie of Grad^iates, he was A.B. from Magdalen College, 

162£, A.M. 1625. 

P. 107| Isaacson, an eminent chronologer, who died 1654. 
Richardson's Catalogue of Graduates has him A.B. from 
Pembroke Hall, l6l2, A.M. of Jesus College, I6l6. 

William Holder was A.M. 1640. 

Dr. Drewe's publications were, Museum Regalia Socie* 
tatis, or the Natural and Artificial Rarities of the Royal 
Society, preserved in Gresham College ; the Anatomy of the 
History of Plants and Vegetables ; and Cosmologia Sacra. 

Thomas Warton, an eminent physician, was A.B. from 

Pembroke^ 17 12^ M.D. 1719. He wrote niiifoyfafiaj 
sen Descriptio Glandularium totius Corporis, with one or 
two othier pieces. 

Ibid, for Joseph Stanley, read Thomas, son of Sir Thomas 
Stanley; be was A.M. of Pembroke, and admitted ad 
eundem at Oxford. He also wrote a volume of poeoM^ 
about 1646 and 1647- His ^SEschylus was first printed in 
folio, 1663, with a fine portrait of him, by Faithorne. His 
Idea* Orientalis Philosophise was translated into Latin by 
Le Clerc. He died 1678. According to Aubrey, his 
eldest son, Thomas, was abo of this College, and translated 

iElian*s IloixiXo&ilro^tai, when but fourteen years old. See 
Mr. Aubrey's Letters of eminent Persons, &c. from Bod- 
leian MS. Vol. H. p. 54S. 

Ibid, notes, for 1 70, 270. 

Ibid. Banks was a Westmoriand man, A.B. of Trinity 
College, A.M. of this ; elected FeHow, 1682. MS. Att* 



HISTORY OF CAMBRID0E. 4$ 



wood Mys (I have not seed the edhicm), diat k waa 
by Arthur, Earl of Angleaea* 

P. 107, add: 

Tboagh the celebrated phytiologiat and antiquary, John 
Woodward, was not a regular student in any College, yet^ 
having received of Archbishop Teniaon the degree of M.D^ 
in \693, be was admitted, the year following, to the same at 
Cambridge, and became a member of Pembroke Hall. 
The work that procured him so much celebrity, and excited 
so much controversy, at home and abroad, is entitled, an 
Essay towards a natural History of the Earth, '8cc. 1695, and 
other works, illustrative of it. His Treatise, also, on a 
*' Curious Iron Shield," wliich he possessed, gave great 
exercise to the Antiquaries. H^ also wrote much on physic, 
particularly the State of Physic, and of Diseases. Many 
pieces of his were published since his death, and many, as 
directed by his will, were burnt. His name must always be 
held iu respect by this University. He left it two cabineti 
of English fossils; and a Lectureship was, by his will, ap- 
pointed to be founded, out of the produce of his library, 
fossils, and other curiosities, when sold, and of his other 
property. He was appointed Professor of Physic at 
Gresbam College, 16O0, and an ample account of him and 
his writings may be seen ^n Dr. Ward's Lives, tic. of 
OresHam Professors, p. 983. 

Ibid. Mr. Bentham (History of Ely, p» 102, first edition) 
says, there was a large volume in folio, of Bishop Wren's 
Theological Meditations, {rasf xy^wv y^afttay avwpn^vinefAoif) 
tcmaining at the time of his death. Bishop Wreo's son's 
name, I think, is not in Ricfaardson^s Catalogue of Gra* 
duates. 

P. 109, Mr. (William) Moses, who founded several good 
schotanAiips for youths coming from Christ's Hospital, 
proceeded A.M. 1647, and was admitted (the ^hitttetfa) 
Mft^tcr, 1694 : be was ejectM by the Act of Uniformity, yet 
Ve Heems to have been a loyalist, from a copy iji verses of 



44 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

his in the Congratulation to Charies at tlie Restoration. He 
afterwards took to the law,- and died a rich old sergeant, L. C. 

P. 109. Neale's name was James ; he proceeded A. M. 
1748. He was Master of Beverley School, and translated 
the Prophecy of Hosea. Proposals were lately issued (1814) 
for republishing it in one volume, 4to. to be accompanied 
with Vander Hooght's Hebrew Text, together with Letters, 
Latin Versions, and Aonotations of Rabbis Jarchi, Aben« 
ezra, and KemchL Whether executed I know not 

P. 109. T. B9wman was Vicar of Marsham in Norfolk. 

P. 110. Mr. Pentycross published a Monody i>n the 
Death of the Rev. G. Whitfield and Rev. Mr. Hitchin, and 
. , a descriptive poem.. 

P., no, 1. 15. John Newell Puddicombe, A.M. 1781, 
and Felloirof Dulwich College, 1785, published Sermons 
and several Poems, one addressed to Messrs. Ramsay^ 
Claricson, Sharp, and Smith, and the respectable Society of 
the Quakers, on their exertions for the Suppression of the 
Slave Trade, 1788 ; another, an Irregular Ode, to the Right 
Honourable William Pitt, republished in4to, 1783. 

Ibid. I. 19, after I8O6. Not half the Bishops educated 
here have been enumerated : and a few more noble or enu- 
nent persons might be added, such as Lord Kennaird, re- 
turned one of the Sixteen Scotch Peers, 1786 ; John, Earl 
of Strathmore, and in succession John Bowes Lyon, Earl 
of Strathmore; John James Hamilton, promoted to an 
English Marquesate, 1 790 ; Sir Robert Hitcham, Sergeant 
at Law ; and Sir Robert Keene. 

P. 1 112, 1. 3. On a visit lately made to this Library, by favour 
of Mr. Aspland, I could not find these MSS. My examina- 
tions, indeed, were rapid, (for I was eng^ed at the time on 
other inquiries,) and they might probably be bound up among 
other MSS. or, as on a former visit, through favour of Mr. 
Chevalier, I did not make my memoranda on the spot, but 
from after-recollections, I, perhaps, put down Aristotle; 
and my own imagination may have supplied me vnth the idea 
of a Greek Organon : there is a folio Jjatin MS. of many of 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 45 

Aristotle's works : about the Treatise on Music I was rather 
ciirioas; for should it be an ancient Greek MS. on Music, 
it nUght prove very valuable. There are many MSS. of the 
Latin classics here. 

P. 1 12 of Mr. Gray's Common Place Book^ as I called 
it, perhaps somewhat incorrectly, I have, though but par* 
tially, perused the portions since published by Mr. Matthias* 
Mr. Matthias' edition consists of Observations on English 
Metre :— «nd every one knows from Mr. Mason's Memoirs 
of Gray's Life and Writings, that he had meditated a History 
of English Poetry, previously to Mr. Warton— of Observa- 
tions, in Mr. Gray's concise but elegant manner, on Plato, 
Aristotle, and Aristophanes ; of some neat Latin Transla- 
tions of the Greek Anthologia, and of Remarks on the An- 
cient Indian Geography. — These latter I should expect to 
be the most curious, from the course of reading which it 
shews, and, particularly, as being made before Major Ren- 
nel explored the subject, or Dr. Vincent elucidated urith his 
learning the Major's discQveries— -and Observations on the Sys- 
tema Natune by Charles Von Linnaeus, But of a work so in- 
completely examined I can give but a very partial account. 
Mr. Matthias's edition of Gray's Works now forms two 
splendid volumes, of which one, selected from Mr. Gray's 
MS. in Pembroke Hall Library, is entirely original ; and it 
will, no doubt, find its place in public libraries, as well as in 
those of die more wealthy and learned readers. 



BENET COLLEGE. 

P. 11 3, notes, to virgin add blessed. 

P. 104, notes, for excitamur, excitamus. 

P. 1 19, 1. li, for confirmation, liceme. 

P. ISO, 1. S. If not incorrect he has at least confused 



I 



IMttari, for he pays, p. bj History of Beiie'^ CoHege, die 
Master .«od two F«llow3 were admitted of Corpus Chrieti 
CoIkgeGild in 1^50; wh^eas, by what be afterwards aays, 
he could not be then Master ; they were not created till after 
%Ab9» ; be shoukl have said, ofterwaris (be first Master. 

p. laS, 1.14, for 1411, 1437. 

.{hid. Parker, accerdi^g to Bicfaardson's Catalc^ue Giad« 
jpfoceeded A. M. 1527. His D. D. does not appear* 

P. 124, \.9SL I speak under shelter jA Mr. Masters; 
otherwise there were Browns, according to Bichard8on*8 
Catalogue, though without Chnstian names,. w)io took die* 
grieesAibofit this time ; and one (JSobert) of tbifs CoU^e, was 

A. B. 1572. 

P. 1:25. Greenfaam should be Greenwood (Jphs), was 
A. B. 1572. While in confinement^ certain con^ences 
and letters between two prisoners (Barrow and Greeniwood) 
wepe printed in 1590. Greenwood wrote against Gifford's 
Sboft Treatise against the Dooatists of England : it was re- 
published in 1605. These two, says Mr. Masters, Histoid 
of Bene^t College, p. 229, were executed at Tyburn, April 
6, 1593, after having been exposed to all the severities of 
buoger, cold, and nakedness, in a close prison for the spaoe 
of six years. 

P. 125. Barrow (Henry), A. B. 1569^ has not his Col- 
lege macked in Richardson's Catalogue. 

Ibid. Carry er proceeded D. D. 1602. 

P. 125. Langhorne (Daniel), was S. T. B. 1664. Wo- 
moch (according to Richardson's Catalogue) was A.M. 
1601. 

P. 126. No such name as Dumoulin in Richardson's 
Catalogue. 

P. 126, 1. 9, add Robert Parker, A. M. 1685, Fellow, 
was a writer of great name .among the Puritans. The 
most famous of his works was A Scholastic Di3COur8e 
against Symbolizing with Anti-Christ in Ceremonies, f^lio^ 
1607^ and de descensu Dom. nostri Jesu Chris^ a(l ^iff^oa 



BISTORT OP CAMBRIDGE. «r 

fl 

lab* ii^« 4ld. AflMterdam, idll^ and other pieces Ifaatei^a 
History of Bene't College, 532. In his* first Pfovk, Mr. 
Pttrker ^disousses much »t large that great point of dispute, 
the Use cftke CVeis in BapHsm, 

P, 1£7- i* 3, add, John Spenser, i^ady mentioned, (VoL 
I. p. 182,) wrote de Legibus Hebi-asoiuni Ritualibus, and 
Dissertatio de Urim et Thuoimim. He was a Kentish man, 
and admalted Master, August 3, 1667. He also piddidied 
a curious work, 'called a Discourse on Prodigies, accompa^ 
aied with another on Vulgar Prophecies, republished while 
JFellow in 1,665. 

Peter Dumonlini son of the &mous French Protestant, 
was probably first of Paris, and afterwards of Leyden, where 
he was D. D. It has been said by Wood^ that he was in- 
corporated at Cambridge. His name not in Richardson's 
Catalogue Grad. Carter gives him to tiiis College ; and R, * 
Smyth says, and unsays, and says again, that he was of this 
College ; but as Mr. Masters passes him by, I take it for 
granted, his name was never entered here* 

P^ ISPy I* 4. Thomas Green, Master, Bishop of Nor« 
wich, and translated to Ely, 1723, published several Ser- 
mons and Tracts ; one of the principal of which (though 
unnoticed by Mr. Masters) was. Two Letters on the Princi- 
ples of the Methodists, addressed to Mr. Whitfield and Mr. 
Berridge : one proceeds on the principles of Mr. Locke's 
Chapter on Enthusiasm ; the other on Dr. Taylor's notion 
of a twofold Justification, in opposition to Justification by 
Faith alone. The Bishop intended to have continued these 
Letters ; but as Mr. Berridge did not publish his Sermon, 
preached at St. Mary's Church, Cambridge, the Bishop 
dropped his design of pursuing the subject further. 

P. 131, K 13, after ihiag, add with his name* — ^Tliat ac- 
count, short, but well-written, and with much discrimination, 
of Mr. Gray, at the end of Mason's Memoirs of Gray, was, 
as I am informed by Mr« Matthias, mentioned before as 



4S SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

♦ 

editor of Gray's Works, written by Mr. Tyson, though fats 
name is not there mentioned. 

To our bishops and nobles might be added, Thomas 
Teni^n, Arfchbishop of Canterbury, 1694, Founder of Su 
Martin's Library, Westminster, of which parish he had been 
Vicar. Samuel Bradford, Bishop of Rochester, Mister, 
May 1^1, 1716, and author of several things, principally 
Sermons. William Ashbumham, Bishop of Chichester. 
Frederick William Harvey^ Bishop of Derry, in Ireland, in 
1779, fourth Earl of Derby ; and James (Yorke, Bishop of 
Ely, with three others of the Yorice family, all sons of the 
famous Phillip Yorke, Lord Chancellor, and the first Eaii 
of Hardwicke. 



TRINITY HALL. 

P. 137. ■ Bylney without Christian name, or College, 
stands in Dr. Richardson's Catalogue Grad. C. L. B. 1521. 

P. 139* John Harvey, LL,*D. was eighteenth Master. 
His best work was the Road, or Causey, that reaches about 
three miles towards Newmarket from Cambridge. 

P. 139- Dr. Halifax had been of Jesus College, entered 
according to Richardson's Catalogue, October 21, 1749* 

P. 143, notes. The Phillips's Theatrum Poet, referred 
to, is the edition, widi additions, of 1800, of which only the 
first Volume was published. . 

P. 143. No such name as Hereside in Richardson's Ca* 
talogue. 

P. 144. To the names of persons of rank educated in tbia 
College, might be added those of two or three Judges of 
more modem time. 

P. 142. I have spoken incorrectly of the garden. There 
are two gardens. I had only been in the smaller one, by the 
water-side. Dele the remark — For a further account of Dr. 
Jowett, see Christian Observer. 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 4& 



QUEEN*S COLLEGE. 

P. 147y !• ^ after Jerusalem^ add descended from the. 

P. 153. John Aubrey (Letters, &c. from Bodl. MSS.) 
says, that be heard that Francis Beanniotit and John Fletcher^ 
the dramatic poets, were both of Queen's; but we have al* 
ready seen that Fletcher j at least, was of Bene't, p. 126 of 
this volume. Beaumont was not of Bene't ; I rather think of 
Queen*s ; though I have not been able to find his admission. 

P. 158, 1. 11, add Thomaf Brett, LL. D. of Bene't, but 
admitted first here, March 20, 1680, became a serious con- 
scientious Nonjuror. He sacrificed his preferments to his 
principles, thongh he still continued a very worthy orthodox 
churchman. The Tracts written by him are numerous, of 
which a list may be seen in Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, &c. 
vol. I. p. 407 : one of the most distinguished is a Chronolo* 
gical Essay on the Sacred History. He died March 5, 
1743. — William Reeves, A.M. 1692, one of Queen Anne's 
Chaplains, published various Sermons. 

P. 136, last line, for Redevivus, RedMvus. 

P. 159« Dr. C. Plumptre's publication was not a transla^ 
tion, but a serious acute treatise in English, (to which he 
wrote a sensible preface,) entitled, An Inquiry concerning 
Virtue and Happiness, in a Letter to a Friend, an. 1751 ; 
the aim of which is to shew that man is a free moral agent ; 
without a name : but in a copy that was the Archdeacon's, 
that I have read, possessed by my learned friend, Mr. 
Hammond, he has written Philip Glover, Esq. and to 
the preface he. has subjoined bis own name. No notice 
taken of this publication in Bentham's Account of Dr. 
Plumptre, in his History of Ely. 

Ibid. Dr. P's father too, (of this University,) Huntingdon 
Plumptre, M . D. was author of a scarce, but said to be (I 
have never seen it) a valuable little volume, entitled, Epi- 

•n 



50 SUPPLEMENT TO TIJE 

grammatum Opusculuin, duobus Libellis distinctum, A- D. 

1629- 

Mr. Hughes's Library, (p. 159) left to the College, con- 
sisted of a valuable collection of pamphlets and printed books. 
He also left a series of his own Sermons in MS. a deaire 
being expressed in his will, thai they should be printed, at 
the discretion of the Master and Fellows ; and the wish of 
so respectable a man, and so great a benefactor, ought aurdy 
to have been complied with. 

Joseph Dacre Carlylc, S. T. B. 17i53, Professor of Ara* 
bic, 1796, published a Translation of some of the smaller 
pieces of Arabic Poetry, and s^me other pieces. 

P. l60, 1. 17, add, among the men of eminent rank may 
be mentioned, George Harry Grey, who aucceeded as fifth 
Earl of Stanford, in 1768 ; and Philip Yorke, bom Deceon. 
ber 1, 1690, who raised himself solely by his talents to thm 
head of the law, being made Lord Qiadbellor, February 21, 
1 731, which office he held with great honour for near twenty 
yiears. He was created Viscount Royston, and Earl of 
Hardwicke* April 2, 1754» and died March 6, 1764. 

In the year 177^, as I am infonned by Mr. Hammond, 
the famous Polish warrior. Prince Poniatowski, was a pupil 
of Mr. Barker's, a tutor of this College.. He would willingly 
have been a member of it, and of the University, but for hit 
rel^on, he being a Catholic. Not being capaUe, there- 
fore, of becoming a member, he went abroad with Mr. 
Barker, as his travelling tutor. 

P. l6l. The Corkskrew, so far at least as Edasmuais 
concenied, is, I understand, and as I supposed at the tkne» 
a mere hoax. 

Ibid. 1. 25, instead of diamben for atudenti, read iim 
Jllasier*s Chambers. 

P. 166, 1. 13, for sixth, six. 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. ' «i 



CATHARINE HALL. 

P. 168. Archbishop Parker says, the Charter of Catha- 
rine Hall was confirmed, 1475, «• 15 Edward IV. 6th of 
April. Dr. Fuller makes 1475, the l6th of Edward IVth. 
Yet both agree as to 1475. Mr. Parker's History (p. 114) 
dates the King's License, 1459^ ten or eleven years before 
Edward began his reign. Carter's History dates the founda- 
tion, 1457, a false print though, I perceive, for 1475. 

P. 169, 1. 16, instead of semicolon put fiiU stop, and dele 

P. 169, 1. 28, dele and died Bishop of Norwich, in l6ig. 

P. 170, 1. 14. Bui several, &c. down toac^, should be 
placed four lines back^rd, in the room of but 1 suspect, &c. 
down to here, which lines may be dele'd. 

P. m, I. %y after 1674, add, John Jeffery, D. D. 1696, 
edited Dr. Wbichcote's Sermons, 4 vols. Bvo. Vid infra, p. 
)96. He puUiflhed also a volume of his own, entitled, Se- 
lect Discourses upon divers Important Subjects, 1710; and 
a complete collection of his Discpurses and Tracts, was pub- 
lished in 12 vols. 1753. He was Archdeacon of Norwidi. 
Dr. J. was an Arminian, and his writings are remarkable for 
limpUci^ and a freedom from party spirit, unless his Tracts 
against Canting in Religion and the Quakers may be ex* 
cepted : for notwithstanding some enthusiasm and peculiaii- 
ties, the Quakers have maintained many benevolent and great 
principles; and Voltaire knew what he meant, when he 
called them that philosophic sect. 

P. 175. Sir William Meredith was member for //fi^er- 
pool, not Yorkshire^ 

P. 178, notes. Archbishop Dawes had been one of 
Queen Anne's Chaplains, and in 1701 published a vdumeof 
Sermona dedicated to b^r Mqesty, tod printed at the Univer- 

♦ D 2 



52 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

sity Press. A complete edition of hb .Sermons was pub< 
lisbed in 1735. 

P. 176, 1.3, for 1783, 1733- 



KING'S COLLEGE. 

P. 183, I. 8. The belief that Henry VL was murdered 
in the Tower by order of Richard IIL rests on the following 
passage of Petrus Blesensis : l^aceo^ hoc temporis interstitio 
inoentum esse corpus Regis Henrici in Tvrri Londinense exa- 
fiime : parcat Deus et Spaiium Penitenlia ei donet, guicun- 
que tarn sacrilegas manus in Christtt^i Domini aums est im* 
mittere: unde et agens, tyranni, patiensq. gloriosi Marty ris,ti- 
tubtm tnereatur. Hist. Croiland. Continuatio. Mr. 
Carte, however^ gives his reasons for not believing the report 
true : and says, it was never heard of till Henry VIL thought 
of canonizing Henry VL See a Letter of Carte's on the 
subject, vol. in. Letters, dec. from originals in Bodl^ 
Libr. 

P. 187, I. «1. He was always called Gfywn, though his 
monumental inscription is, (as afterward) Robert Glynn 

Clobery. 

P. 188, 1. 20, for Portsmouth, read Chatham. Bryant 
was contemporary with Gray at Eton School, next boy to 
him, or Gray next to him, as>I am informed by Mr. Ma- 
thias. 

P. }95f 1. 14. A curioife account of Dr. Giles Fletcher 
may be seen in Lloyd's Statesmen and Favourites of England, 
p. 477, by Mr. Ramsey, who married the widow of Giles 
Fletcher, the poet, the Dr.'s son. Dr. F. himself was a poet. 
The Russian Commonwealth was suppressed by Queen £1n 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. S3 

zabeth. I am not aware be published the book meDtioned, 
p. 195, therefore dele it. 

Mr. Carter has Bishop Story, Chancellor in 147 1 • If 
my authority is correct, he could only be Deputy. 

P. 19s. Mr. Robert Smyth is generally correct. He 
only notices, that Cartshili was said to be jwrniiuited before 
his death to the see of Worcester; and that he was never 
consecrated, and therefore not bishop ; see Godwin de Prae- 
sul, &c. p. 470, where his name ought otherwise to have been* 

P. 195, 1. 10. Queen Elizabeths Liturgy was only Ed- 
ward the Vlth's altered f by retaining some things that were 
in Henry the VHIth's time, as her articles of 1562, were 
Edward's articles of 1552, with some additions. 

Of Anthony Wotton, B. B. first Divinity Professor in 
1596, and his writings, an account may be seen in Ward's 
Lives, &c. p. 39 of the Professors of Gresham College. 
The principal was, De Reconciliatione Peccatoris : ad Regium 
Colleg. Cantab, libri IV. This excited at the time much 
controversy, and Mr. Wotton was charged with Socinianism. 

P. 198, I. 19. Instead o#. Nor must I, &c. down _to 
works, two lines from the bottom, insert the following: 
Nor must I pass over W, Oughtredy B. D. an eminent ma^ 
titematician, author of Horologiographia Geometnca, zprit" 
ten when he was but twenty^three years old. He was also 
deep in astrology andalchymy. He used, says John jiubiey,'^ 
to talk much of the maiden earth for the philosopher's stone, 
and said he could make that stone. Benjamin, his son, said 
he was sure he understood magic. Aubrey, who knew the son, 
has given a curious account of the father. It has b^en said, 
he died with joy, being a zealous loyalist, J or the coming in 

* John Aulvrey's Letters, &o. and Lives, fco. of eminent men, from 
originals in the Bodl. Library, vol, U. Aubrey, as appears from am tber 
publication of his, was a gr^at believer in astrology, alcliymy, spirits, aod 
other wonders, and therefore a great admirer of John Dee, Oughtred, &c. 
Our early Cambridge astronomers and mathematicians were commonly 
astrologers and alchpmista. See Ben Jonson's Alcbym'St, who takes hit 
character from JobB Dee. 



34 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

of Charks IL He was born near Windsor, 1574, anddied 
ISthJune, 1660. 

I shall here add a short list of critics, as they were nearly 
contemporaries, and followed nearly in succession. 

James Upton,. A. M. 1701, edited in 1702, an edition 
of Dionysius of Halicarnassus's Treatise, n«fi Dui^Ofirtw Ovo- 
lAxrm,^ inserting among his own notes, Sylburgius's, and 
following throughout that edition (of 1586 ;) subjoining loo 
Fircovius's Exempla Latina. Upton, also, edited a very 
useful school book, entitled, noixiXo&» Irop*«*, being collections 
from JElian, Polyaenus, Aristotle^ and Maximus Tyrius, with 
notes, partly his own, partly extracted from diflferent writers, 
in the manner of his former work, well adapted to school- 
boys.* Non .pari successu about the learnhig of Shak- 
speare.-^Mr. Upton was one.of his commentators, and here 
he was misled by his Greek and Latin. See Dr. Farmer's 
Essay on the Learning of Shakspeare. In 1711, Upton 
republished Roger Ascham's excellent book, the School- 
master, with Corrections, and^some good explanatory notes. 
Mr. Tho. Johnson published two of Sophocles's plays in 
1705, with notes, &c. ; two more in 1708. The whole seven 
were published in 1746. In 1758 Mr. Bowyer, the printer, 
republished this with additions, and it was also reprinted at 
Eton in 1775 —Mr. J. was A.M. 1692. 

Dr. Hare, Fellow, Bishop of St. Asaph, in 1727, trans- 
lated to Chichester, 1731, was an eminent critic, and pub- 
lished the Psalms of David, with a Prolegomena, exhibiting 
a peculiar hypothesis as to the metre. There are extant aba 
of Bishop Hare's various works, theological, critical, and 
controversial. 

Richard Mounteney, Fellow, A. M. 1735, published an 
edition of Demosthenes^^ Select Orations, that has gone 
through various editions, accompanic^d with Greek Scholia, 
and useful notes on the Scholia and Greek Text EdiUoD, 

'^ • Rc-€dited, wiUi additions, 1803. 



HISTORY OP CAMBRIDGE. 55 

17^^ I. The Dedication to Sir Robert Walpole ii much ad- 
mired. Mountency was afterwards made a Baron. 

John Foster, S.T.P. 1766, Fellow, published at Eton, a 
learned Essay on Accent and Quantity, in reference to the 
English, Latin, and Greek languages. A second edition, 
corrected and much enlarged, was published in 1 763, con* 
tainining some additions from the papers of Dr. Taylor and 
Mr. Markland, together with a reply to Dr. Gally's second 
Dissertation in answer to the 1st edition of the Essay. 

John King, M. D. Fellow, edited, in two volumes, 8vo. 
d plays of Euripides, viz. Hecuba, Orestes, and Phoenissie, 
with Greek Scholia, end notes. 17^6. The text and Scho* 
lia are emended from ten MSS. ; they are accompanied also 
with an improved version. Dissertation on Greek Metres^ &c. 
Dr* King also published, Epistola ad Virum omatiasimum 
Joannem Friend, 1722* 

In 1748, Dr. Morell re-edited King's Euripides, sub* 
joining a fourth play, the Alcestis. Dr. Morell also pub- 
lished the Prometheus Vinctus of ^schylus, with an English 
poetical version, accompanied also with various readings and 
notes. He edited, too, the Philoctetes of Sophocles, with 
Scholia, and notes, and subjoined a few notes to a 4to. edi- 
tion of all Sophocles's Plays: various other pieces were 
publbhed by him : but his most famous and mosf useful work, 
was his Thesaurus GroscsB Poeseci>c, sive Lexicon Grseco* 
prosodiacum, after the manner of the Latin Oradus ad Par^ 
nassunii first published at Eton, in 1762. An improved 
and greatly enlarged edition of this valuable work, is just 
published by the Ijsamed Dr. Maltby. 

Nathaniel Kent, A. M. 1 735, published Ezcerpta Que- 
dam, from Lucian's works, wilh a corrected version, and 
notes. A new edition was printed in 1777* 

George Steevens, Esq. the celebrated commentator on 
Shakspeare's Plays^ was admitted Fellow Commoner here, 
1751-£. The taate, acuteness, and knowledge of old Eng- 
lish literature, displayed in his notes, are well known. ^' John- 



56 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

8OD9 (it has been said,) with his giant strides, could not walk 
by his side." He first published, in 1766, twenty of these 
plays, in four volumes. Johnson's and Steevens's edition, 
in ten volumes, was published in 1773, and republished in 
1778; and a third edition, in fifteen volumes, with coosidera- 
ble additions, appeared in 1793. Mr. Reed afterwards gave 
a new edition, in 1803; and Mr. Harris, tlie respectable 
Librarian of the Royal Institution, corrected the Press. Bj 
this work, Mr. Steevens has certainly acquired a well-earned 
fame ; but he also wrote a Commentary on Hogarth ; and 
says one of his biographers, '^ that alone would have stamped 
a lasting fame on his critical acumen." He died January 
i20, 1800. For further particulars of Mr. Steevena, see 
Gentleman's Magazine, vol. 70, p. 178 ; the Pursuits of li- 
* terature, and Mr. Dibdin's Bibliomania. . 

Christopher Anstey, Esq. also, (son of Christopher Anstey, 
Fellow and Tutor of St. John's, D.D. 1715) was Fellow 
Commoner here. He was author of several small sprighdy 
poems ; but is principally known by the New Badi Guide, a 
▼ery humorous poem, that was, by the fashionable world, at 
the time, much read ^nd admired. It has been since followed 
by a poem (said to be written by one of the . Anstey family) 
in the same spirit, but composed of better materials — the 
Pleader's Guide — which though it has not been so much 
read^ is to be more admired. Mr. Anstey died in 1805, aged 
eighty^one ; and, by the duty of his son, there is a monument 
erected to him in Poet^s (Corner, Wesminster Abbey. 

Some good portraits might have been noticed in the Mas- 
ter's Lodge; such as those of Sir Robert Walpole,, and Dr. 
Sumner, Provost; with others. I have, however, mistated mat- 
ters (vol. II. p. £07) by confounding a picture in the Master's 
Lodge, with the celebrated painting over the altar piece, in 
the chapel ; and p. 200, 1. 8, for VI. read VIL 

To our Catalogue of bishops and men eminent for rank or 
talents may be added, John Cbed worth, JProvost, Bishop 
of Lincoln, 145 1. Oliver King, Fellow, Bishop of Bath 
and Wells, 1495. Nicholas West, Fellow, Bishop of 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE: 57 

Ely, 1515. John Pearson, Bishop of Chester, 1G72. James 
Fleetwood, Provost, Bishop of Worcester, with others ; and 
Judge Hall, Historiographer; Sir Joha Osborne, Fellow, 
Commissioner to King James ; Sir Albert Morton, Fellow, 
Secretary of State to King James. In more modem times 
may be added. Sir Robert Walpole, created first Earl of Or- 
ford, the celebr^ed minister of George I. and II. whose 
life has been ciccQmstantially written by Mr. Goxe, and a de- 
fence by Governor Pownal. His younger brother, Horatio 
Walpole, Under-Secretary of State to Geoi^e II. and in 1756 
created Baron Walpole of Wolterton ; Charles, second Maiw 
quis Townsend, the eminent associate of Sir Robert Walpole; 
Charles Pratt, tlie celebrated Lord Camden, made Lord 
Chancellor ip 1766; and to Jthese a few more might be 
added. 

' P. 196. I have read, I think, somewhere, (I forget where) 
that Dr. Whichcote most probably did take the Covenant ; 
but on recollecting that he was an Armiuian, and that Dr. 
Tillotson says he did not take it, I must conclude^ that he 
did not. Dr. Salter republished Dr. Whichcote's Contro- 
versial Work in 1751. 

P. 197. This Sir William Temple was the confidential 
friend of Sir Philip Sidney, (in Elizabeth's reign) to whom 
he dedicates his Latin Treatises, and Secretary to the Earl 
of Essex, till his tragical death. He died provost of Trinity 
College, Dublin. Sir William Temple, so distinguished as 
an ambassador (see him under Emmanuel College) and a 
writer, was his grandson. See the Life and Character of Sir 
William Temple, the grandson, written by a particular friend. 

P. 199. On a second perusal, the epitaph alluded to may 
be admired as an expression of regard, but I doubt whether 
^Hch as a composition. 

P. 200, 1. 8, for VI. read VII. 

William Fleetwood, Fellow, Bishop of St. Asaph, 1708, 
died Bishop of Ely, 1723 : cujus opera (says Richardson in 
Godwin) omnium manibus terunter. He was a theological 
writer. A volume of his Sermons, preached on public occa- 



58 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

MODS, should be mentioDed, though it were only to notice 
one delivered to bi» Brethren of Eton, in which be pays the 
proper tribute to his Royal Foundation. He was stU4;iioiiB 
also in ecclesiasdcai matters and antiquities. John Aubrey 
observes, he was supposed to be the author of a enrious work 
entitled an Historical Account of Coins, dated J70T. It 
had the merit of confirming a person in his fellowabipy 
by settling the refaitive value of Euglish money in different 
reigns.* This work was republished in 1745, with his name, 
and the coins* All his works were reprinted in one volune, 
folio, 1737. 



CHRIST'S COLLEGE. 
Leland was A. B. of Chrbt's, 1722. That Dr. Fuller has 

« 

mistaken Leiand's words, in calling him Fellow, see a state- 
ment in Nichols's Anecdotes, &c. vol. H. p. 626. 

P. £20, 1. 11, for Oxford, Cambridge; so Aubrey has 
it, (Letters, &c. vol. IH. p. 288,) and so I have put Cleve- 
land under St. John's. 

P. 220. Quarles was A. B. 1608. 



» It is surprising, on many accounts, that under Clare Hall, I should 
have overlooked such a man as Maitin Folkes, Esq. chosen President of 
the Royal Society in 1741, and of the Antiquarian, 1749-50, eminent as a 
philosopher, antiquary, and general scholar. I therefore notice him here, 
because Ms principal works relate to coins ; entitled a Table of English Gold 
Coins, and a Table of English Silver Coins, from the Norman Conquest to 
the present time, published in 1745. They are allowed to excel every 
thing done in that way before, and to leave little room for future additions. 
He was admitted of Clare Hall, 1706-7. He took no degree at the msal 
lime ; but was created A. M. Comitiis Regiis, 1717. A very vaiusbie me- 
moir of him, including an account of his commuaications to the Royal and 
Antiquarian Societies, and other literary pur^iits, may be seen in NichoU's 
Literary Anecdotes, vqI. II, p. 57a 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 59 

P. 200. Jobn Harrington's name not in Richardson's Ca-* 
talogue of Graduates: 1. 11 , for Oxfbrfl, Cambridge^ see 
Aubrey's Bodl. Let. ; and for some carious and authentic 
particulars concerning Milton, see Aubrey's Letters, &c. 
vol. III. and Wharton's edition of Milton's Poems, p. 421. 
Edition of I79h 
P. 218, 1. £7, add: 

Anthony Gilby, '' a fierce writer against ceremonies," (so 
described by Fuller, Church History, Book IX, p. 76,) one 
of the ante-signani of the Puritans. 

Mr. Adam Wall was only Fellow, and died a good deal 
advanced in years. He declined, I have been informed, 
holding any Church-preferment, from some scruple of con- • 
science. There was also, contemporary widi Adam, a 
CHlman, Wall, whom Dr. Farmer, in a letter to Dr. Thomas 
Warton, calls the jtntiqtuiry of Chrisfs College. But I do 
not recollect any thing published by him. If it be tnie, that 
Buck's MS. Book of University Ceremonies, &c. is irreco* 
verably lost, Adam Wall's will rise in value, 

P. 223, Paley took much of his turn of thinking in theo- 
4ogical matters, from Abraham Tucker's (Search's) Light 
of Nature, and Bishop Law's works: his Principles of 
Moral and Political Philosophy are, therefore, with much 
jyropriety and decent acknowledgment, dedicated to the 
latter ; and the well-written Memoirs of the Bishop, printed 
in Hutchinson's History of Cumberland, are by die Arch- 
deacon. It should have been noticed by me, too, that John 
Law, the Bishop's second son, was the fellow-tutor and 
confidential friend of Dr. Paley. I am not aware he pub- 
lished any thing, but he is understoiyl to have rendered Paley 
assistance in the composition and arrangement of *' The 
Principles of Political and Moral Philosophy," and that he 
wrote the chapter on Reverence of the Deity. Dr. Law 
<fied Bishop of Elphin in Ireland, 17 10. 

In the HoBJS Paulin jb, Dr. Paley seems to have taken 
for his guide, the celebrated Hermannus Witsius, in his 



<»> SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

Pralectitmes de Vitd et Rebus Gestis Pauli JpostoU, Lugd. 
BaL; aiid here this reminds me, that Paley's talent very 
much resembled that of tiiis elegit Leyden tutor, and Cal- 
vinist divine, described by himself thus : Neque quid^tiam 
tribui mill! postulo, nisi fortassis, si ita benevoli Lectores 
velint, collectioriem rerum baud indiJigentem, dispositionem 
non inconcinnam, et aliquam orationis non salebross perspi- 
cdtatem. Dcoicatio Acad. Lugd. Bat. Curato- 
BiBUs ad Praelectiones de Vitk et Rebus Gestis Pauli 
Apostoii) Lugd. Bat. 

P. 229» as last paragraph : 

To our list of bishops and eminent men, the two or ibree 
following names, out of several, may be added : 

Nicholas Heath, Scholar^ Lord Chancellor, and Arch- 
bishop of York, 1555, but set aside by Elizabeth, as bein^ a 
Papist ; though both Protestants and Papists deemed him a 
very conscientious, excellent man,— (see Godwin, de Praesul. 
&c. p. 710, and Lloyd's Statesmen, &c. p. S37),and, ac- 
cording to Camden, so did Queen Elizabeth herself. 

Cuthbert Scott, Bishop of Chester, set aside by Queen 
Elizabeth. 

John Still, Fellow, Bishop of Bath and Wells, 1592. 

William Chaderton, Fellow, Bishop of Lincoln, 1595. 

Humphrey Henchman, (Smyth's MS.) Fellow, raised for 
his attachment to Charles II. to the see of London, J663, 
(Godwin.) 

John Sharp, Archbishop of York, 1691.- He published 
two volumes of Sermons. * 

Frederic Coin wallis. Bishop of Lichfield and Coventiy, 

1749, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1768; with several other 
bishops. 

To our men of eminence in the state, may be added. Sir 

Robert Raymond, Lord Chief Justice of the Court of King's 

Bench. fValpole's Caial. of Royal and Noble Julhors, 
Vol. II. 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. «l 



ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE. 

P. 236y notes, 1. 1 y for natalitis, natalitiis. 

P. 244, John Hail is thus described by Robert Smyth| 
(MS.) "noted for his wit and pathos, while very young. 
Author of Essays, entitled Horn Vaciva, Divine Poems 
(after which he turned Independent,) the Grounds and 
Reasons of Monarchy, and a Translation of Longinus on 
Eloquence, (the Sublime, I suppose he means, though I 
never heard of it,) and Hierocles on the Golden Verses of 
Pythagoras: he died 1656, setat. ^9.*' I called him histo* 
riographer, being misled by Carter, who probably * con- 
founded him with Edmund Hall, Fellow of King's, who 
wrote the Histories of the Wars between the Houses of 
York and Lancaster, and died 1597 ; or with Anthony Hall, 
Fellow of "Queen's, Oxford, who published (so incorrectly )y 
Leland's Commentarii de Scriptoribus Britannicis, in two 
volumes, Oxford, \ 709. 

P. 246, 247. It was Kenelm Digby, Esq. (not Sir Ke- 
nelm, who indeed was of Glocester Hall, Oxford). But 
Smyth has himself confused the matters, in which -1 followed 
him. It was Sir Everard Digby, according to John Aubrey^ 
who wrote de Arte Natandi, and Everardi Digbei de Duplici 
Methodo Libri Duo. Aubrey's Letters, &c. Vol. III. — He 
says too " he (Sir Kenelm) wrote his Book of Bodies and 
Souls, which be dedicated to his eldest son, Kenelm, who 
was slafQ (as I take it) in the Earl of Holland's rising." 

P. 248, 1. ] 1, Thomas Cartwright, first of this, afterwards 
(in J00K) was admitted of Trinity College, where he became 
Fellow, and was Senior Fellow, 1563. Richardson's Cata^ 
logue of Trinity College. 

Ibid, h \9f for Revolution, Resioraiion. 



0$ SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

P. 250, I.. 7f R- Smyth has made some mistake in regaid 
to Archbishop Tiilotson^s ^ (not Archbishop till 1691), or 
Austen's death in 1669- 

Ibid, add : 

Robert Jenkynsy D.D. 1709^ and Master: while Fellow be 
had resigned his Church-preferments from scruples of con- 
science to take the Oath of Allegiance, at the RevoluUco : 
he supplicated to proceed D.D., and having changed his 
political principles in 1711, was admitted Master^ April 13, 
of the same year, and became^ Lady Margaret's Professor of 
Divinity. Twenty-four Fellows conscientiously refused 
taking the Oath of Allegiance on the accession of George 
L ; and Dr. J. himself, therefore, was obliged to eject them; 
of which number Mr. Baker was one, who complained of it 
as an hardship, from that quarter — <' Dr. Jenkyns himself 
coming so readily into it." See Masters's Memoirs of 
Baker, p. 34 ; and for an account of Dr. Jenkyns, and the 
twenty*four Nonjurors of St John's, see Nichols's Anec- 
dotes, &c. Vol. IV. N. Vlll. Dr. Jenkyns published 
several pieces j among others an Historical Account of 
General Councils ; an Account of the Life of Apollonius 
Tyanaeus, translated from the French of Mons. Tillemoat; 
and the Reasonableness and Certainty of Christiamty. 

P. 9^3.. Edward StiUingfleet, Bishop of Worcester^ 
1689| had been Fellow, a man of various leariang, and pub- 
lished several works; Ecclesiastical Cases, 1704, Bishops* 
Rights, Irenicum, &c. But his most famous works are, 
Origines Britannic©, aud the Origines Sacr». This laiter 
work went through several editions, mA is rsplote with 
learning. Bishop Nicholson (Eng. Hist. I4ibrary, p- 148,) 
observes, " he never fails of exhausting every subject he 
pretends to treat of." There is a monument to hiftittraiory 
in Worcester CaUi^dral, with an ebborate inscription by Ht. 
Bentley. See Dr. Nash's History of Worcestershire, and 
Godwin de Pras., ^. p. 475. He died in l«y9. John 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. • 63 

StiUi^gfleety D.D. brother of the Biabop, was also Felloe of 
this College. He wrote on the Divine Presenoe in Places 
of Religious Worship. 

P» Z54, 1. 9p for the, some. 

lUd. Having made several references in my writings to 
the works of the learned Mn William Clarke, it is strange 
I should have overlooked him here. He was Fellow, 1716^ 
A«M. 1719; the author of several works, of which the 
principal are a welUwritten and curious Latin preface to 
Hoel Dda's Welsh Lawsy prepared for the press by his 
learned father«in-law. Dr. William Wotton, and published in 
one volume folio, m 1730; the other, the Connexion of tlie 
Roman, Saxon, and English Coins, in 4to. in 1667. He 
also left several curious works in MS., and was besides a 
man of much fancy, and a poet. , He died at Chichester, 
October £1, 1771* His son Edward also was Fellow of 
St. John's, and A.M. 1755« He also, like his father, waa a 
learned roan, and respectable as aniuithor, both in verse and 
prose. The principal of his published works was. Observa- 
tions on the Spanish Nation. He drew up the admired 
Z#atin Epitaph on Mr. Markland : and issued proposals for 
printii^ an ^ition in folio of the Greek New Testament, 
with Notes from the most eminent Commentators and 
Critics, complete, though it was never published. Mr. £. 
Clarke died in 17B6. He was the fitther of two well-known 
writers in modern time, die* Rev. James Stanier Clarke;, 
author of the Life of Lord Nelson, and Dr. Edward Daniel 
Clarke, author of Travels through vaiious Parts of Europe, 
Asia, and Africa, and Professor of Mineralc^ at Cam- 
bridge* 

Thomas Hartley, formerly of Maidstone, Kent, was a 
xealous disciple of the celebrated Christtan philosopher. 
Baron Sw^d«nbofig» the founder of the Churches of the New 
J^maalflVL Of the Baron's numerQua wiitii^s, th^e Rev* 
Mv« Cbwea UMsUted.fbom the Latin, the AncibNA CiB*- 
jUMKCU, lB^4re vohimei^ 8fQ. The Tm^ti^e de lufyxm. 



04 SUI^LEMfiNt TO tH£ 

and of the wonderful Things therein seen and heard^ hg 
E. SfTEDENBORGy aRcl his Intercourse between the Soul 
and Body, were translated by Mr. Hartley, accompanied 
with a curious Preface by him, addressed to the Universities 
of Great Britain, and a Letter from the honourable Baron to 
him, giving some account of himself (dated I7f^), though 
not sufficiently long to be circumstantial. From the doctrine 
of Intercourse, Infux, &c. as explained by Mr. Hartley, it 
appears that this doctrine stands opposed to every species of 
what may be called Materialism, or Hobbism (from the phh* 
losopher of Malmesbury) and combines the doctrine of 
Plato, with the metaphysics of Descartes, (Meditat. VI.) 
and of Malebranche's (Entretien VII. De I'inefficace de 
causes naturelles, ou de I'impuissance des Creatures : Qne 
nous ne sommes uuis immediatement et direetement gu*E 
Dieu seul) carrying them through all their bearings, and to 
their utmost point, by traversing the World of Spirits, and 
conversing with angels ; so that the Baron seemed to think 
himself under a New Dispensation, with a doctrine, however, 
as he maintained, conformable to that taught in the writings 
of the Old and New Testaments. What the ancient Jews 
thought relative to the doctrine of Angels, see Maimonides, 
passim (as translated by Buxtorf, 1699), who shews, omnia 
hcc tantum fieri in visionibus propheticis, et in Imagina* 
tione;^' and what the writers of the New Testament, see 
Herman. Witsium^ de Coelo- Aperto, &c. inter Disseita* 
tiones Selectas. 

I have been thus particular, because Baron Swedenboi^g, 
amidst all his peculiarities, was a very learned man, 'and be* 
cause Mr. Hartley seems to have been the most explicit 
advocate for bis doctrines, that Cambridge has produced. 
He proceeded A.M. 1745. 

1 should have mentioned another peculiar dtfctriRe of this 
school';" which is; diat Christ was not a second-person in 
the ' Trinity, as the Athasasians hold,< nor a aecbbdafy, 
eitated Oklyae the Arians, n«r a mei^ man^ as the SocitiiattB; 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. , 6$ 

but die one Jehovah hioMelf : so that they are Unitariana, in 
« aeose peculiar to themselvea^ 

It appears, from a curious preface to the Intercoursej^ 
8cc-, that Mr.#iartley considered Swedenb^, ''an extra* 
ordinary messenger:'' and I have referred to Maimonides 
(More Nevocheim, p. 215), for the resemblance that the 
Ageutis lucorporei ISfluentia bears to the doctrine of Influx, 
laid dowft by Mr. Hartley. 

P. 960, 1. 15, after liberality, add. He also wrote a 
Treatise on Colonies, in reference to tlfe Americans. His - 
Lectures on Modem Histpry were said to shew great learn* 
ing, though they were never printed. 

P. 264, for Lockes, Locke. 

P. 259, last line. Of George Ashby, F. S. A. I have had 
occasion to speak more than once, as a good antiquary* He 
was admitted here, 1740, proceeded B.D. in 1756, and was, 
President of the College several years. In addition to what 
Mr. Baker did, he made further advances towards a Histor]^ 
of this College, and his manuscript is in possession of the 
College, Hie last edition of the Cambridge Guide was 
greatly indebted to him* Mr. Nichols, in his Histoiy of 
Leicestershire,' makes frequent acknowledgment to him, and 
by the kindness of Mr. Deighton, bookseller of Cambridge^ 
several of his papers have also passed through my hands. 
He wrote much in Mr. Nichols's Literary Anecdotes^ under 
the signature of T. F. He printed a Dissertation on a Coin 
of Nerva, in the Archseologia, Vol. III. p. 165, and acknow- 
ledgments of his serviced' aro made by several respectable 
writers. He died Rector of Barrow, in Suflfolk, and held 
•ome other preferment. 

In connexion with Mr. Ashby should be mentioned^ John 
Ross, Bishop of Exeter, as being his old College-friend^ - 
>ind afterwards his patrop. Ross had been Fellow of this 
College, and proceeded D.D. m 1756. Besides a few 
single Sermons,, he published in 1749 ft very good edition of 
Cicero's i^istohe tid Familiares, in two volumes. The 



«8 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

notei are in EogliBh. He mlsa wrote a satiriad pam|iUef 
against Mr. Markland's Remarks on the Episdes of Cicero 
to Brutos, and of Brutus to Cicero. Tbb pamphlet seem* 
to have nettled Markland; and in refercwte to it, Aahbj 
called Ross, '^ a Teteran of the first class.*' Bishop Roa* 
was the professed admirer of Dr. Middleton« 

James Tunstall, B,D- 17S8, D.D. 1744, was Fellow, and 
Public Orator of the UniTersity. He watf the professed 
opponent of Dr. Middleton, He first wrote EpisCola ad 
Virum eraditum Oonyers Middleton, &c.; and afterward^ 
1744, Observations on the present CoHeetion of Epistlea 
between Cicero and M. Brutus, representing several evident 
Marks of Foi^ery in those Epi8tles,*and die true State of 
many important Particulars in die' Life and Wridnga of 
Cicero, in Answer to the late Pretences of the Reverend Dr^r 
Conyers Middleton. Subjoined is a Letter from the Re- 
verend Dr. Chapman, on the ancient Numeral Ghaiactera of 

the Roman Legions. 

Of the Obseryations, &c. Mr. Markland says, ^'I have 
read over Tunstall twice more since I came liitber, and am 
more and more confirmed, it can never be answered.*' 

Dr. Chapman should have been mentioned under King^s 
College, of which he had been Fellow. Besides the Tiact 
mentioned above, he wrote, Eusebius, or the Christianas 
Defence against the Moral Philosopher, in two volumes} 
De ^tate Ciceronis Libri de Legibus, 1 74 1 ; of the mira* 
culous Powers among the early Christians, 1752; Observ«« 
tiones in Commentarios vulgo Ulpianeos, prefixed to Moun* 
teney's Demosthenes, 1747* 

William Ludlam, Fellow, proceeded B.D. 1749* Hm 
published two theological tracts, somewhat in what vraa 
deemed an evangelical strain'; but was most eminent as a 
mathematician and mechanic. He published several niathe<* 
matical treatises, with his name, as distinct works ; others in 
the Philosophical Transactions. Of the former number 
were, Two Mathematical Essays; die. first oa Ultimata 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 67 

t, tfae secood on the Power of the Wedge : the Rudv* 
meiits of Mathematicsi designed for the Use of Students ia 
the Universities; an Essay on Newton's second Law of 
Motion, with se^ral others. He died in 178B. His 
younger brother, Thomas, also proceeded in 1752, A.M* 
from this College, and be<^me distinguished as a theological 
controversialist, of whom see a full account' in Nichols's 
History of Leicestershire, Vol. IVk p. 1040. 

William Heberden, already mentioned as giving lectures 
on botany, in reference^fo medicine, in the Botanic Garden 
at Cambridge, M»Dk 1739* On settling in London, he 
obtained great celebrity in his profession, and became well« 

known as a writer. He published^ AvTiOn^iaxa, an Essay on 
Mitliridatium and Theriaca, which is considered a very ex* 
cellent work ; and, in conjunction with Sir George Baker 
and others, edited the London Medical Transactions (1768), 
various papers in the three first volumes being written by 
him. Dr. H. was also one of the writers of the Athenian 
Letters (1741). Having been much acquainted with Dr. 
Middleton, he edited, after Middleton's death, his Disser- 
tatio de Servili Medicorum Statu apud GrsBCos, and as the 
intimate friend of Mr. Markland, paid the expence of 
printing some of his critical works* 

Whether Dr. H.*8 theological sentiments were Trinitarian^ 
Unitorian, or Sceptical, I know not. One feeling, at leasts 
be possessed in common with Middleton, Markland, and 
other learned men of that time^ against subscription to Ar- 
ticles ; and as Markland was strenuous against subscribingi 
Heberden Mas equally zealous in opposing subscription. 
Yet amidst his zeal on this subject, even Mr. Cole could 
i^fford to speak of him '' as a very decent, welUbehaved man 
in every respect." Bishop Warburton and Bishop Hurd 
apeak greatly in his praise, and Dr." Johnson called him, UU 
timum Romanorum ; and, indeed, from the character given 
of him (Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, &c. Vol. HI. p. 70), 
by a writer nnacquainted with Dr. H., and professing| 



6» SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

therefore^ to express otily the public opitiion, he appears to 
have been a man of the highest honour, and very superior abi- 
lities. Dr. H. died in 1604, aged 91- 

P. 9,67, 1* 19* To our list of bishops and men of ranlr^ I 
subjoin the following : George Daye (Master), first Fdlovr 
of King's. He went from St. John's, to be Provost <rf that 
College; Bishop of Chichester, 1543; one of the com* 
pilers of the Liturgy. John Tayler, Master, Bishop of 
Lincoln, 1552 (set aside by Queen Mary, Godwin, p. 301, 
and deprived also of the Mastership). Robert Horn, Mas* 
ter. Bishop of Winehester, 1560. Richard Curteis, Fdi« 
low. Bishop of Chichester, 1570. John Overall, Scholar, 
(Bishop of Lichfielid and Coventry) after(l6l8) of Norwich | 
died the year after. Godwin^ He had been Fellow of Tii- 
nity College, and Master of Catharine Hall. Francis JDee, 
- Fellow, Bishop of Peterborough, 1634. He founded two 
, fellowships and two scholarships in this College. JohnWil* 
liams. Fellow, Archbishop of York, 1641, a man much dis* 
linguished in that tumultuous period :— ^Arcbiepiscopus ali- 
^uandiu a partibus r6giis stetit ; verum postea, conailio mu- 
tato in Puritanorum castra transivit, et contra Kegem oiilita- 
vit : Godwin de Praesul, Sec. p. 714. John Lake, (ad Qxo- 
niam fug& elapsus se recepit, per quadriennium arma nulea 
gessit, partinm regiarum fortunes secutus) 1682 Bishop of 
Sodor and Man; 1684 of Bristol; 1685 of Cicester; be 
MFfts one of the seven bishops imprisoned by James IL 
Godwin, &c. p. 516. John White, Bishop of Peterbo- 
rough, 1685, one of the bishops imprisoned in the Tower by 
Jafties IL for opposing his edict : wa^ deprived at the Revo- 
lution, for refusing to take the oath of allegiance to Kii^ 
William. Richardson, 56 1. Samuel Squire, Fellow, S.T.P. 
1749, Bishop of St. David's, 1761. He published seven} 
pieces, particularly an 8vo. volume on the English Govern- 
ment, and an edition of Plutarch's Treatise de Iside c€ 
Ouride, improved wkh Bentley's and Markfamd^s cotvac- 
, ^ons. 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 09 

To our men of rank among the laity may be added^ Tho- 
mas, third Viscount Weymouth, and created Marquis of Bath 
17S9> Lord Gainsborough, iind Lord Craven. 

The North family abounded with distinguished men, many 
of whom were .writers. The first Lord North was a great 
diplomatist in Elizabeth^s reign, of whose employments an 
account is given in Lioyd*s Statesmen of England, p. 374. 
The second Lord was one of the finest gentlemen in King 
James'^ Court, and paid for it too dearly. Horace Walpole, 
in his Catalogue of Royal and Noble Authors, Vol. L also 
notices Dudley Lord North, and gives the tide of his 
book; *^ a Forest promiscuous of several Seasons' Produc* 
tiona, 1649." It is verse and prose; and he says of the 
verse, ^' though it is not very poetic, it is natural, and written 
with the genteel ease of a man of quality ;*' and he gives no 
bad specimen of it. The third Lord, Dudley North, wrote 
several treatises, the principal of which is the History of the 
Life of Lord Edward North, the first Baron of the Family, 

Francis Guilford, Lord Keeper, was third son of the 
former. His Life, together with that of Sir Dudley and 
Dr. John North, bis brothers, was written by the Hon« 
Roger North. Lord G. was entered of St. John's the ,8th — , 
lQ5Sf and be is entitled to particular notice here, becausei 
while yet a Fellow Commoner of that College, he recovered 
to it a considerable estate, which had been contested for 
seven years, and which was at length supposed to be irre« 
coveiable. North's Life, ftc. p. 70.— Lord Guilford's 
Paper on the Gravitation of Fluids found in the Bladders of 
Fishes, is in Lowtborp*s Abridgment of the Philosophical 
Transactions, Vol. IL p. 845, which is distinctly noticed 
by Mr. R. North ; because, he says, it was anonymous, but 
fumisbed some useful hinU to Mr. Boyle and Mr. Ray.-* 
North*! Life of L. GuUford, 6&c. p. 292. ^ 

Of Dr. Jobn North, editor of Plato's Select Dialogues, 
Pe Rebus Divinb, and Mr. Roger North, tbe author of die 
above Life, I have spoken under Jesui College.— ^The 

2 



<ro SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

Life was reprinted in two volumes 4to. by Montngii 

North. 

Postscript. — ^Humphrey Gowcr, D. D. 1656, first Master 
of Jesus College, and afterwards of this, might have been 
mentioned, as a man of considerable leaming, though he 
only published two Sermons. He was Lady Margar^Cs 
Professor, 1688, and is spoken highly of by Mr. Baker, in his 
Catalogue of the Margaret Professors. 

P. 244 of this volume I have spoken of John Bampfield, 
Esq. as of this College; but he was, I understand, of Trinity 
Hall, though I have not been able to find his admission. Hit 
Sonnets, however, are, I think, very excellent. They are out 
of print ; but I remember being so pleased with them, that I 
some time ago copied every one of them. 

To the above list may be added the following; 

John Mangey, A. B. 1707 (Pel.), L.L.D. 1719, D.I>. 
1725, was Prebendary of Durham in 172^, and was Of&dal 
to the Dean and Chapter of Durham. He published Prao* 
tical Discourses on the Lord's Prayer, Bvo. and between 
1719 and 1789 several single Discourses. He also wrote 
remarks on Mr. Toland*B femous book (printed in 171B) 
called Nazarenus, or Jewish, Gentile, and Mahommedan 
Christianity, and one or two other small pieces; but the 
principal work, by which he is known, is an edition of Philo^ 
Judseus. He also furnished Mr. Bowyer with some Note» 
for his Coi^ectures on the New Testament. 

WilUam Wilson, admitted 1779, Fel. A, M. 1787, B. I>. 
1794. He was author of a work entided. An Illustration of 
the New Testament, by the Early Opinitms of Jews and 
Christians, concerning Christ. He maintains, if Christ was 
not properly God, the Jews, according to their own law^ 
justly and legally put him to death. He was evidently a 
man of leaming, and his work shews much ability as well as 
strong conviction: he is to be ranked among; the most liberal 
of the opponents of Dr. Priestleyl But I am told by Mn 
ElUs^ of Peter House, a very intelligent gentleman, in 



taSTORY OF. CAMBRIDGE. 71 

gard to matters relating to t^ University, that the copies 
went by legacy to some person in Derbyshire. I have never 
seen more tlian one copy of the work. 

William Craven (a Yorkahireman) was admitted under 
Dr. Powell, July H 1749; was S.T.B. 1763, and per 
Lit. Reg. S. T. P. i 789i in which year (March 29) he was 
admitted Master. He was made Arabic Professor, 1770. 
He published an 8vo. volume, entitled, The Jewish and 
Christian Dispensations compared with other Institutions; 
the Sd edition of which, enlarged and corrected, was pub* 
lished in 1813: being a Series of Dissertations which, if 
they do not display the eloquence of Sherlock, the acute- 
ness of Warburton^ nor the polish of Hurd (who have all 
written on this subject), sh^w something vastly better, great 
simplicity and * sincerity of character, with, at the same 
time, considerable learning, and form, at least, one of the 
€ompUit9t works on this subject. Dr. Craven also publish* 

ed five Sermons on a Future State, with a dedication to Dr. 

« 

Ogden, in which he acknowledges himself greatly indebted 
to him for his knowledge of the Arabic* 

Dr. Craven died Jan. 28, 181 K 

Henry Martyn, B. D.(when abroad by royal mandate) waa 
Fellow and A. B. at Cambridge, where he much distingidsh* 
ed himself at the time of taking liis degree, which he took 

* This Hbtory being almoit exclusively Hterary/ 1 rarely oyerleap the 
bonndf , by dwelling on moral and religions character, or their oppositesy at 
being not required from the nature of the work» nor consistent with its bre^ 
vity. Bnt Dr. C'f executor (Dr. Wood, the present learned Master) havhig 
mentioned to me that he was possessed of extraordinary imtanees of his intOi* 
frity and prirate benerolence (with which, as l^is execotori he must be well , 

aequainted), I allude to them, for the sake of mentioning one. Dr. C. waa 
vesiduary legatee to a lady, who left considerable property to beneyolent 
purposes; the le|facies having been paid, according to her will, £6000 re« 
nained, which Qf course became his; bnt the Doctor, after obsenring that 
|he lady could not intend that so much property should go out of the line of 
berbeoerolen^ inUntions, directed the whole of it to be applied to benet»< 
iMi purpetea-H^ rare example of % residuary legatee! 



n SOTPLEMENT TO THE 

when very young: in the i||mnier of 1805 he embaribed 
for India, as chaplain to the Company ; and he acted also 
as a missionary to the East Indiesy by the appointment of 
Ibe Church Missionary Society. In his several stations^ he 
discovered great zeal as a missionary, and applied hinasel^ 
tov^ards forwarding his favourite object, with much diligeace^ 
to the study of the Eastern languages. He cmgoged in trans- 
lations of the New Testament into the Pernan and Hindos<« 

« 

tanee languages ; and, with the aid of an Arabian convert ta 
Christianity*, he began a translation of the Scriptures into 
the Arabic, in which he had made great advances. To eom^ 
plete his design of a Persian translation, he undertook several 
journies^ particularly to Shiraz and Bagdad, in Persia. Hia 
health being greatly injured, he meditated to return to his na* 
tive country by Constantinople; but died at Tobris, about 
fl50 miles from Constantmople, ]6th Oct 1812. In Cfae 
Reports of the British and Foreign Bible Societies, thet» 
are several honourable testimonies to his worth and talents; 
and in the Missionary Register there is a singular testimony 
to the merit of the Persian Translation, communicated by 
the present King of Persia, in a Letter to Sir Gore Ouae- 
ly t, our Ambassador Extraordinary to the Persian Court^ of 

* Sabat— He afterwards returaed to Mohammediim. 

f The present Kiog of Persia is said to be admirablj' acquainted with him 
own language^ a good scholar, and a poet. In the library of the East India 
Company, I have seen a finely-ornamented volume of Persian Poems, com* 
posed and written by the King, and presented by him to the East India Com* 
pany, , 

The several translations of Dr. Cairy, Mr. Martyn, and others, are made 
from the present English Version. But how laudable soever their indastry 
in translating, and their zeal in opposing the absurd and cruel superstitions 
of some of the Eastern nations, those who are at all acquainted with the 
subject, must be surprised that they have entirely overlooked the imper- 
fections of the English Version. See Observations on the Expediency of 
revising the present English Version of the Epistles of the New Tcstamcnf, 
by Dr. Symonds, late Professor of Modern History in the University of 
Cambridge, 1794. From a conviction of such imperfection. Dr. Alexander 
Geddes, a moderate Catholic, published in 1793, part of a new translatioa 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 73 

ifhich Letter a TraDdatfon may be seen lo the Missionary 
Register for Nov. 1814. 

Mr. Martyn also translated the English Liturgy into the 
Hindostanee. A more particular account of him may be 
seen in Dr. Buchanan's Christian Observations, p. 
290. 

I have somewhere hinted (and I spoke from authority ), that 
a Fellow of St. John's was preparing to print Mr. Baker's 
History of this College, that has often been mentioned 
as being in MS. in the British Museum, and of which an 
incomplete MS. copy is in St. John's Library; it may, 
therefore, be proper to add, in conclusion here^ that the 
gentleman* who undertook this office afterwards went abroad, 
and that being now very usefully and assiduously engaged as 
tutor in another College, Trinity Hall, he has of course re* 
finquished the design : whether, therefore, the History is 
now likely to be printed I cannot say. It appears, indeed, 
that Mr. Baker himself was not sanguine about it. He says^ 
** I shall reserve the account of the government and))rogress 
^ of the College to a larger work, which possibly may one 
" day see the light, or if it should not (as there are some 
* Arcana CoUegii in every society, not so proper to be made 

of Uie Old Tettament, and died before be completed it Mr. Wakefield, a 
declared Unitariao, printed an entire new translation of tlie New Testament 
in 1791. The Unitarians in 1800 gave tbe New Testament in au improTed 
version. Bisbop Newcombe also bas given a New Translation of tbe New 
Testament; and Bisbop Pearce of tbe EpistleSb Other cleKgymen of the 
Eitikllslied Church have pnblished traDtlations of different partt of the Old 
Testament Tbe ReT. Mr. Bellamy also, an avowed Trinitarian, deelaring^ 
in No. xxiv. of the Classical Journal, *' that O^mVM* though a noun sin- 
gular, comprehends a Divioe Trinity in Unity," is at present engaged in « 
New Translation of tbe Old Testament from the Hebrew. He says, in this 
Jottmal, ** he was brought up in the Established Church, and that he be- 
lievei her doctrinei to be perfectly coosiitent with the Established Church ;** 
and he deems the present Translation extremely imperfect So that we see, 
the persuasion, that tbe present version is very imperfect, and require* 
much improvemettt^ it not confined to any particular party* 

• Mr. HuglMt. _ 



74 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

'^ public), I will either leave it to the Society, or in sock 
'^ hands as, being above mean and little ends, I am well a«* 
'^ sured will never proetitate it to taiercenary designs.**^— J^/vw 
fact to Lady Margaret* s Funeral Sermon in MS* but printed 
with the Sermon in 1708. 



MAGDALEN COLLEGE- 

George Harvest, Fellow, ^was A.M. 174S, aatbcHr of s 
volume of Sermotfis, and a Tract on the Subscription^CoiH 
troversy. Mr. Gilbert Wakefield (in the Memoirs of his 
own Life), to whose father Mr. H. was curate, speaks of 
him as a good classical scholar, but as a man of great pe- 
culiarities, some of which he has recorded. 

Rev. David Brown was a student of th'is House, but took 
no degree. In the year 1785 he was appointed Chaplain to 
the East India Company, and went to Calcutta in that dia« 
racter, where he became the principal Chaplain: he also 
acted, as far as his regular engagements allowed, as a Mis- 
sionary P)reacher. He was made Provost of Calcutta. It 
is said, he discharged these duties for 35 years with zeal and 
ability, and died in 1812. I am not aware he published any 
thing himself, but two volumes of his Sermons are to bo, 
shortly published. For a more full account of Mr. Brown, 
see Missionary Register for Jan. 18 14. 

Claudius Buchanan, late Vice- Provost of Fort William, 
in Bengal, admitted * Oct. 37, I79L A. M. and D. D. 
after his return from India, by royal mandate. While in the 
East, he collected some Hebrew and Sy riao MSS. (in 1806), 
which, on his returp, were deposited in the Public Library ; 

♦ Out of iU places Dr^ B. imt of Qneoi^ 



HISTORY OP CAMBRIDGE. 75 

m collation of three was published by Mr. Thomas Yeates, 
in 18 IS : they ar« without vowel points and accents, in the 
large square character/ and without distinctions of chapters 
and verses, with the other characteristics of the Synagogue 
Rolls. Dr. B. also founded prizes relating to tlie civilisa- 
tion of the East, both in prose and verse, and the coroposi* 
tions which gained them have been published. One is mag« 
nificent, being no less than jgoOO for a Dissertation on the 
Propagation of Christianity in the East, which was obtained 
by Mr. Pearson of St. John's College, Oxford: published 
in 4to, pp. 287, in 1808. * * 

Dt, B. published Two Discourses, preached before the 
XJniversity of Cambridge, June I2th, 1810, and one 
preached before the Society for Missions to Africa and th^ 
East, prefixed to his Christian Rbskarch&s in Asia, 
181 1. The latter work contains much information relative 
to the present state of religion in the East, with notices of 
the Translations of the Scripttn'es into the Oriental Ian* 
guages. He has also published Memoirs of the Expediency 
of an Ecclesiastical Establishment for British India; aix 
idea which met with opposition by some writers, but was 
supported by some of the advocates of the Missionary So** 
cieties ; and there is one now settled on the principles of the 
Church of E|nglaqd. There are also, by this author, aq 
Account of the first Years of Fort William, in Bengal, and 
^ree Jubilee Sermons. 



7ff SUPPLEMENT TO THE 



TRINITY COLLEGE. 

Mr. Mason, in his Essay on Church Music, prefixed to 
Ills Anthems, gives a Psalm, of which both the version and 
music were composed by Hen. VIII. and he calls them, truly 
Royal; but the prose of his Majesty, in his fanipus contro- 
versial work, is in a somewhat higher strain ; it is enUiled, 
Assertio Septem Sacramentorum Adversus Martiii Lutherum 
adita ab inviciissimo Anglia Sf Fraticia rege^ et Do. Hiber^ 
via Henrico, ejus nominis octavo. A pud inclytam urbem 
Londinum in xdibus Pynsonianis. An. M. D. xxi. It has 
been said this book wa^ written by some Statesman ot Court 
Bishop ; but it bears marks enough of being written by the 
King himself* :«one must suffice : he says, ad Lectores (this 
was in those days the royal vvay of confuting an opponent) — • 
Quod si recuset (nenipe non retractet errores suos) Lutherus^ 
brevi cert^ fiet, si christiani principes suum officium fecerint, 
ut errores ejus eumq. ipsuni (si in errore perstiterit), ignis 
exurat. I have perused the first edition, which is a curio» 
sity on its own account, and as having on the binding the 
king's arms. It is possessed by the Rev. Mr. Morgan, 
the respected Librarian of Dr. Williams's Library. Henry 
wrote several other pieces, and is understood to have com* 
posed his own Injunctiom and Proclamations^ 

Horace Walpole (Lord Orford) also, mentions another 
tract or two against popery, by the King(Catal. of Royal and 
Noble Authors, Vol. I. p. 10, 11); and he adds, '' that in 
'' the British Museum is preserved a missal, which belong* 
" ed to his Majesty, after his breach with the See of Rome ; 
'' and that in the Calendar he has blotted out all the Saints 

* In his DcdicatioD to Pope Ijqo X. 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 77 

'^ ^at had been Popes/' On all these accouDts, theref<M«| 
i^hen speaking of the founderi we must net overtook the 
author. 

P. £84, 1. 10. Tlie first Master of Michael House (ac- 
cording to the Founder's Statutes), was Rc^er Burton^ 
S. T.P. 1324. It had a succession of J 6 Masters, of 
mrhom there is a regular entrance; the last, Dr. Francis 
Mdlet, was. particularly famous (Dr. Richardson, in his 
MS. Register of this College, adds a few more names), and 
a succession of Fellows till the foundation of Trinity Col- 
lege. 

Ibid. 1.23: 1324: according to Richardson's Reg. King's 
Hall was founded in 1322. Thomas Powis was the 
first Master, and continued till 1S60. It had a succession 
of 12 Masters, till the foundation .of Trinity College. Of 
the Masters,- some were famous (as Nicholas Cloos, or 
Close, Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, see p. 190 of this 
volume) and some of the Fellows taken afterwards into 
Trinity College. This Hall, indeed, was of the greatest 
repute of any in the University. 

P. 289, !• 5' The Foundation Charter has one Master 
and 60 Fellows : but there were (according to Richardson's 
MS. Register) 40 Grammar Scholars, a Schoolmaster, and 
an Usher. Commbsioners for making statutes were 
appointed by Edw. VI. and not signed till October, 
1562. 

P. 290, note 1 : at least, Wood says, Roger de Melton bad 
part of his education at Oxford, without mentioning Cam- 
bridge. Ath. Oxon. Vol. I. p. 22, If Bale's account al- 
luded to there is true, it is probable Wood thought that the 
other part of his education he had at Paris : but in a MS. 
Register, copied by Dr. Richardson, I find '' that William 
Melton, in the Life of Bishop Fisher, is said to have been 
that prelate's tutor, and Master of Michael House, Chan- 
cellor of York, admitted July 13; 1495." So that either I 



TS SUPPLEMENT TO THE . 

read Mr, Baker's MS. wrong, or Mr. Baker is defecdv^. 
At all events, with Mr. Wood's leave, I am justified in t^* 
tabing William de Melton's name in this place. 

Ibid. Whatever may be said, incorrectly ^ (in Stiivth's MS^y 
of Tonstairs being a translator of Hen. VIIIth's'^Bible, he 
was the person, who, -with Sir Thomas More, caused Tyn* 
dal's Translation of the New Testament to be bumt« 
Lewis's Hist. Eog. Transl. &c. p. 17- So that of the first 
edition there is but one copy known to be in England, 
which is. in the Baptist's Library at Bristol. But Tonstall 
had been Fellow of King's Hall. 

Ibid. I followed Carter, in giving Ridley and Angel, 
to King's Hall: but neither of their names is in the 
list of Masters and Fellows of King's Hall (according 
to Richard^n's MS. list), John Angel appears in a 
list of Scholars of Michael House, though not in Rich* 
ardson's Catal. Grad, Lancelot Andrews M^as of Kiwg'a 
CoUege, not of King's Hall. 

P. «91. For William Earl of Essex, see Fragmenta Re- 
galia, p. 36, and Lloyd's Sutesmen and Favourites, &c 
p. 449. There is also a rather elaborate account of him, 
aiid a li^t of his writings, in Walpole's Royal and Nofole 
Authors, Vol. I. p. 127, second edition. 

Ibid. Michael Rabbet was B. D. 1686. William Bed- 
well, A. M. J58S. John Harrison, according to Richaid- 
son's Trin. Reg. was Fellow 1633, and died April 3, l675, 
Robert Fighe I do not find ^either in Richardson's List of 
Fellows, or of Univers. Graduates. 

?• 292. Jt is recorded by Dr. Richardson (in one of his 
Registers) that William Alabaster kept an act in Greek 
against Francis Dillingham: this is a singularity. Ala- 
baster, according to the same, was admitted Soc. Major 
of this College March 12, 1590. 

Ibid. The only John Pell 1 find in Richardson's Cat. 
Grad. was but A. B. 16£9. But it was Breda, not Hottciu 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 19 

datn^ where be was professor. John Aubrey knew him 
'Veil, and frequently refers to him in Letters, &c. from 
Bodl. M8S. where may be found a few curious particulars 
jrelatiog to Eravmus, communicated by Dn Pell. He was a 
firiend of Mr. Hobbes, the Philosopher of Malmesbury, 
and quotes him according to Aubrey (who was also the par- 
ticular ftiend of Mr. Hobbes) as one of his 12 Jury Con* 
tra Longomontanum, de Quadratura circuli. 

Ibid, last line. Mr. Walker vnrote, also, 1678, Baiirri(r/AttS 
Ai^ftvvi, the Doctrine of Baptisms, or a Discourse on Dip« 
pings and Sprinklings, in which he considers, pretty much at 
large, the arguments m favour of dipping and sprinkling,* a 
subject afterwards exhausted by Dr. John Gale and Mr« 
Wall. He proceeded B. D. 1686. 

P. £93. William Travers waR matriculated Dec. 13, 
1560, being first of Christ's College. He proceeded A.M» 
1669* Prom Dr. Richardson's MS. RegUt. of Trin. 
Col. 

John Arrowsmidi, D. D. Master in 1653, put in by the 
l^arliament. He had been previously (on the sequestration 
of Dr. Beale) Master of St. John's; and of whom there- 
fore a full account may be seen in Baker's History of St. 
John's College. He was Regius Professor of Divinity, 
and his writings (which are Calvinistic) had great weight 
with the Puritans. He published Armilla Catachetica, a 
Chain of Principles, being Aphorisms, and Theological 
Exercitations, 4to. I659f and Qtoty^PwvoTf or Godman, on 
the 18 first Verses of St. John's Gospel, 4to. 1660. 

He died before the ejectment, in 1569* 

P. £97. Cowley was A. M. and is put into the list of 
Fellows who were ejected from Trinity College, both in 
Querela Cantab* and Walker's ^nfierings, &c. and it is re- 
markable, that in Cowley*s Life, prefixed to his works by 
Bishop Spratt, this is unnoticed, who only mentions his 
going to Trinity College from Westminster School, and 



«p • SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

removiDg thence in the Civil -Wars to join th€ rojal party 
at Oxford. Mr. Walker (Sufferings, 8u:. Part IL p. gg) 
nays, that Cowley, after his return (in 1656) to England 
from France, got an order to be made M. D. at Oxfords 
But neither does Bishop Spratt mention thidi he spemka 
indeed of his studying medicine, in reference to plaints 
and professing it nominally, for convenience, but not lor 
practice or profit. It does not appear tliat Cowley re« 
turned to a fellowship, but in his Elegia Dedicatoria he 
addresses Trinity College very affectionately ; • 

• Oh ! cbara ante alias, magaorum nomine Regam 
Digna Dorauf 1 Trini nomine digna Deo t 

Ibid. George- Herbert, the Poet, (according to Rich- 
ardson's MS. Regist.) was admitted Socius Major of this 
College March I6l5, and Public Orator, 1619', but it 
was a William Herbert who was ejected 1644. 

P. «98, 1. S, (') should be dele*d, and the two notes be 
considered but one, relating to Dr. Calamy's Book, at (^). 

Of persons mentioned in pages 298, 299, the following 
particulars may be noticed: Thomas Senior, B. D. pub- 
lished a tract, entitled God, tike King, and the Chuich, 8vo. 
and a Sermon oq Morning Exercises at Cripplegate. Mr. 
Edmond More, Fellow, John Hutchinson, A. B. 1658, 
Fellow, and John Davis, A. B. 1652, Fellow, I have 
inadvertently reckoned among the comiderQ.ble scholars 
of Trinity : they may have been so ; but I only hi,ow that 
they were ejected Fellows. See Calamy's Ejected Mi- 
nisters, &c. Vol, 11. Francb Oddy should' be Jos. Od^ 
dey (as in Richardson's Regist. Trin): he was A.M. 
admitted Fellow 1658. Dr. Donne was first of Oxford, 
See a good account of him and his writings in Walton's 
Lives. Hugh Holland (to distinguish him from Phile* - 
mon) was descended from the Earl of Kent, and a Roman 



HISTORY OlP CAMBttlDGfi. tt 

Catholic. He died 1633. See more of bim in Aulbteftt 
Letters, &c. from Bodl, MSS. VoK H. p. 305. 

P. 300. Henry Peachum, A.M^ 1598, wrote also the 
Worth of a Pennj ; or, a Caution to keep Money : third 
edition, 4to» 

Robert Boreman, B. D* Fellow^ a staunch hierarcbist 
fai antihierarchical times, was author of the Churches Plea^ 
\6ol, Sermons, &c* The only piece of his, tfiat I have 
perused, is, UaitHOb^fiAfAi^q^ or Triumph Of Learning 
over Ignorance, with a motto from the Talmud— noDn rano 
mvay* rryvoy He who increaseth (academiaro) increasetfa wis* 
dom; 1675: reprinted in Vol. I. p. 505, of HarL Mis* 
cellany, as lately edited by Mr. Park. Much learningi 
Heb. Gr. and Lat. with reading of the Fathers, are here dts^ 
played, in answering four queries— -Whether there bd any 
need of Universities ? Who b to be accounted an Heretic I 
Whether it be lawful to use Conventicles? Whedier a 
Layman may preach f The author tells us, ^^ they were 
lately proposed in the parish church of Swacy, near Cam* 
bridge, Oct. 3, 1 652, after the second sermon ;'' and if I 
judge rightly, Mr. B. was another Dr. Gauden, by answer^ 
ing the proposer in the church, it being '' since that en* 
larged by the answerer." This warm advocate for Universi* 
ties, against the Dr. Dells of those times, and for the 
Church of England, against those who wander from the 
Apostles* Creed, the Ten Commandments, the Lord's 
Prayer, and the two Sacraments, ^ devouring wokmf 
proud anabaptists, and ioul'devouring Jesuits," died 
J 675. 

Ibid. Walter Nedeham was A. B. here 1658. He 
teems to have proceeded M. D. somewhere else. 

Ibid. Thomas Jacomb, D. D. 1659> was A. B. of 
Oxford ; he then went to Emmanuel, Cambridge, and was 
afterwards Fellow of Trinity. For an account of hhii,-aee 
Calamy's Ejected Mmisters, VoL II. p. 45. His piin* 
cipal work was^ ^ The Grand Charter of Believers opened,'' 

•f 



U SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

•nd successors should be bouod to give jetAj to the Ui^ 
versity seven written Lectures; and, when appointed Master 
of Trinity, being ob%ed by the Statutes to compose some 
Theological Discourses, and finding he could not attend 
properly to the Mathematical Professorship, he honourably 
resigned it. Not. 8, 1670, to Mr. Isaac Newton, who waa 
then Fellow ; (Dr. Ward, as above.) So diat I infer, when 
he became Mathematical Professor, he resigned the Greek 
in favour of Thomas Gale, who, as we have ahreadj aeei^ 
was Greek Professor about this time. 

P. 306. I have said in the History of Cambridge Lfte^ 
rature (Vol. L p. 213, Hist. Camb.) that grantsticm was 
not wholly unknown to the ancients ; the authorities, with 
testimonies to them, of modems, are diere produced, and ^ 
Jeamed left to judge. To a question put in the Gentle* 
man's Maganne, Dec. l815| Whether any modem advanced 
that doctrine before % Isaac Newton, I sent a reply ^ and 
Ae reader is referred to a curious article on this subject in 
Aubrey's Letters, from Bodl. MS. &c. Vol. II. p. 403. 
At die same time, to the question, Who among die modems 
Hiught gravitation ? Sir Isaac Newton himself has given an 
answer in his Prindpia, Sect II. Prop. 4, Scholium: 
1^ tliat Aubrey's exclamations are out of place, and his in- 
sinuations illiberal and false. 

Rev. Nevile Maskelyne, F. R. S. and AstitHiomer Royal 
of Greenwich, i» well known by his astronomical writings^ 
of which die principal are, Astfonomical Tables, comput* 
ing the apparent Places of the Fixed Stars, and reducing the 
Observations 6f die Planeto. He was the original proyactor 
^f our Nautical Almanack, which is now published anaoatfy^ 
and found of such importance to mariners, and the gre^t 
use of which In astronomical calculations is shewn by asa 
eminent modem astronomer^ Mr. Frend, in Wintflr Evening 
Amusements. Maskelyne was S.T.SB* 1768| and- pr^ 
ceeded D. D. 1777. 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 9S 

• 

P. 313| I. 8. The family of the Benthams was at truly 
fandlia clericalis at I ever heard of. According to t^e Epi- 
taph on Jo8eph*8 (Dr. Bentham's^ brother of Jame8][^moDu^ 
nenty their father, grandfather, great grandfather, and 
peat-great grandfather, were all cle|gjmen, and there.were 
six brothers (all clergymen but one) who used to assemble 
once annually at James's, . at the Prebendal House. James 
was the e^rly and intimate friend of my learned friend John 
Hammond, Esq. of Fenstanton, Hunts ; and I have found 
llie History of Ely so useful to me, and understand the au- 
thor was so worthy a mftn, that I lake pleasure in copyii% 
die following inscription on his monument in Ely Cathe* 
dral. It was wnttes by Dr. Pearce, the learned Dean of 

Elj. 

Jn. S. S. 

Jacobus Bentham, A.M. 

Hujtts Eccleras primum Canonicus Minor, deinde Cano- 

aicus* 
Bow Brickhiil in Agro Bedf^ Rector* 
In hAc i£de renovaoda, > 
In Paltidibus emuniendis, in Viis publicis stemendis. 

In Ecdesiae hiy|u8 Historiia explicandis, omandis. 

Per totam fere vitam occupatus, alib, non sibi, visit, 

Ob. Nov* xTii. MOccLxxzt. set. lxiv. 



1. 15* Peck intended originally to have printed this 
in seven v^umes. See his Letter on the subject to Mr. 
fieanie^ in Aubi«y> Bodl. letters, 8cc. Vol. III. p. 55, 
5& 

F* il4, i. 7, add~ 

Hon. Thomas PownaU, F. R. and A.$S. (he resigned the 
latter in 179^) was in succession lieotenant^ovenior of 
New Jersey, Gov. in Chief of Massachusetts Bay, a|p4 
Governor of South Carolina^ and afterwards represented 
Minehead, Somersetshire* lie was the first who perceived 



96 SUPPLEMENT TO THE . 

fbe coDiequences of the American Deputies meeting it 
Albftny, and became afterwards, in the English Parliament, a 
itr^nuQiis assertor of American independence. His speeches, 
which were many, are in Almon's Parliamentary Register, 
from -Governor PowufliPs papers. He was also a pregnant 
writer, and g4ve great assistance to Mr. Almon in his Ameri- 
can Rememf>rthicer, in 20 volumes. He published maoj 
works himself^ noting to America : ^' The Administration 
of the Colonies,*' and it went through many ecBtions; a 
^ Topographical Description of such Parts of Nortb Ame^ 
rica as are contained in an annexed Map of the Middle Bri- 
tish Colonies,^ fcc. FoL '' A Memorial, addressed to 
the Sovereigns of America."— ^^ Two Memorials,* with aa 
Explanatory Preface.'*— '' Memoria}s addressed to the So- 
irereigns of Europe and the Atlantic." He also wrote on 
various subjects of political economy ; '* A Letter to Dr. 
Adam Smith, being ain Examination of several Points of 
Doctrine in his Inquiry and Causes of the Wealth of Nin 
tions," 4to. ^-^ A Memoir on Draining and Navigation ;" a 
Pamphlet on the high Price of Provisions: '^ Con»dera- 
tions on the |i^ignity suffi^r^ by the Crown, and Dishonour 
brought upon the Nation, by the Marriage of his Royal 
Highness the Duke of Cumberland with an Englbh Sub- 
ject." 4to. This is in a vein of irony. He also wrote mudi 
that was thought very Cjurious on subjects of antiqnity in the 
Gentleman's Magazine, and the Archieologia, on. Roman, 
English, Saxon, and Irish Antiquities, on Godiic Architec- 
ture, on Ancient Pamting; and a Defence of the Charac- 
ter of Sir Robert Walpole, in which is. much jaat observa- 
tion on the defects and igUQrance i^ th^ early part of Hume's 
History, and the partiality of the hotter part, l^hisaiay be 
seen in Coxe's life of Sir Robert Walpole; and* a long 
sensible letter to Mr. Pownall from Lord Orford, relating to 
it, may be seen in Nichols's litenuy Anecdotes, ^oc*. 
Yol. IV. p. 709. 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 87 

Governor Pownall lived in great friendship with Dr. 

i Fraokliny and other philosophers and eminent politicians 

I of his day, and wrote also, as 1 am informed foy Mr. Frend, 

I ^' Intellectual Physics/* being somewhat, I understand, of a 

sceptical turn in some theological opinions ; but whether of 

the school of Des Cartes, or Hobbes, I know not, having 

1 never perused his work, nor any account of it. Of his other 

writings, above mentioned, an account may be seen in the 

Gentleman's Magazine, Vol. LXXV. p. 288. '' This 

worthy and learned antiquary (as stated in Nichols's Lit. 

Anecdotes, Vol. IV. p. 709) died at Bath, Feb. 25, 18059 

in his 85th year/' He took, the degree of A. B. at Cam* 

bridge 1745. 

P. 5 1 6. Mr. ColIier*s Poems are partly originals and 
partly translations from classical, French, and Italian au« 
thors. Mr. C. had been classical tutor of this College. 

Ibid. That I may not be thought of borrowing too 
freely from a work called ^ Public Characters," I am con* 
•trained to avow, faodie cum jam egomet mea vineta caedere 
valeam, that the article Parson is one of only 3 articles in 
those voluraea written by myself in the Professor's life-time, 
but wittiput )m koowMge, though I was intimate with 

Since Ms death, Mr. Monk, Porson's successor in die 
Greek Professorship, and Mr. Blomfield, editor of three of 
iEschylus's Greek tragedies, have published his Adversaria, 
cootaining ^ Notse et Emendationes in Poetas - Gnecos, 
quas ex Schedis Manuscriptis Porsoni apud Col. SS. Trin. 
Cantab* repositis deprompserunt et ordinarunt, 1812." Read- 
ers are informed, in a modest but judicious and well-written 
Lain preface, that this volume is made up partly from the 
Pirofessor'a Adversaria, and partly from his MS. notes on the 
nuu^giiis of books, or fragments dispersed over single pieces 
of paper, all of which thejc copied; an employment iil 
which they were engaged for two years. The iindertaking, 
tb^l^ore, of the editors required much industry^ and baa 



B8 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

been executed with great skill, more particularly in vhat co«« 
cems the arrangement of the Emendation* on Atbena^iur, ia 
the order of Casaubon's edition of l657t ^^ edition that waf 
. used by Porson. 

Since the Adversaria^have appeared. Tracts and MiscelUn 
neons Criticisms, collected and arranged by the Rev. Tho> 
mas Kidd, A.M. Trin. Col. Cambridge, 1815, with, what 
the learned editor calls, an Imperfect Outline of the Ufe of 
ifticfaard Porson, and a Preface in English. 

Each of these volumes, unquestionably, does ctedit to tho 
editors; the publishing of them was an act of justice to the 
author, and cannot fail of bein^ highly acceptable to chtica\ 
readers. In the latter, the Critique on the Parian Qhronide^ 
and the Review of Knight's Essay on the Greek Alphabet, 
are particularly excellent, with all those marks of sound 
Judgment so characteristic of Mr. Porson. Amidst the vaiie* 
ties of these posthuma, the Praelectio in Eudpidem afiords % 
rare example of promptness, of a mind early ripened almost 
to maturity* 

There, are, it seems, ample gleanings^ which may stiU 
be made from Notes on Aristophanes, the Professor's fii^ 
vourite author : so that the editors, by bringing, in successiooi^ 
such testimonies before the public eye, provide agsdnst com« 
phinto from future biographers, that Richard Porson, with 
extraordinary abilities^ did but little. 

P. 320, L 3. Fdr Gray's Inn, read the {being the Chaf^ 
ter^House Chapel), and in the note, dele. In Qray's-Inn Qmk 
pel; but I did not mean to say that I had reaif the insciip* 
tion m Gray VInn Chapel, 1 had on^ pemsed the insciip^ 
tion, as it was circulated on a printed paper among Im 
fiiends. The inscription I have since perused as it is on I& 
monument in the Charter-House ChapeL There is, how* 
ever, an inscription on Dr, R,'s monument in Gf^e^Imi 
Chapel. 

Ibid, I. & ypr 1738, 178«t 



] 



\ 



• HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 8» 

P« 321, 1. 19. Dr. Clarke, ia his ** Travels into Greece, 
^gypt, and the Holy Land, p. 582, 583, observes, Mr. 
Tweddle's Collections and MSS. made during his travels, 
were known to be extensive and singularly valuable; and 
that perhaps no traveller in modem times has enjoyed, in aa 
equal degree, the means of investigating the antiquities of 
Greecse ; and he observes, there is something mysterious in 
their disappearing in toto. Dr. Clarke makes this observa* 
tiotiy after visitii^ Athens, where Mr. Tweddle died. 

P. 331, 1. 5. For John, Thoma8» I am not aware that 
Dr. Nevile published any thing. So all I shall add, is, Ihat 
be had been Fellow of Pembroke Hall, was afterwards ad* 
mitted the 7 th Master of Magdalen College, and advanced 
to the mastership of this in 1503; succeeding Archbishop 
"Whitgift; that he was Dean of Peterborough, Preben«* " 
dary of Ely, and, at length, during the primacy of Arch* 
biahopa Bancroft and Abbot, became Dean of Caiiter* 
bury. 

As we began Trinity ^Collqre with a Royal Author, it may 
be in character to close it with a Noble one. — Lord Royston 
(admitted of Trio. Col. Oct. Id, 1801) was eldest son of 
PfaUip Lord Hardwicke, tbe pi*esent High Steward of the 
University. He translated Lycophron's Cassandra> tfaoagh a 
few copies only were printed, which were distribated amoilg 
the translator's friends, Lycophron, it is well known, is 
^e most difficult and obscure of all the Greek poets. Tbe 
translator, however, perforated his part well, in a style per* / 

spicuous, but poetical, and with great command of buoh 
bers, Jt is in heroic blank verse. This young nobleman, of 
early promise, and, it is said, of very amiable character, was 
vnfortunateiy shipwrecked, and lost near Memel, 180& 
The entire Translation may be seen in the Qassical ^our« 
^tlf Vol. XXV. and following nnmbers^ 

It not having been noticed in the proper place, it shall, hk 
observed here, that the role generally foUai^td in reganl ta 



90 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

noble autborS; has been that laid doyrn by Lord Orfbniy 
(Royal and Noble Authors, Vol. II. p. 154, second edit) 
^' not to reckon such as authors of whom nothing is extant 
but speeches or letters, unless where the presumption is, that 
either were published by the persons themselves." I must^ 
however, take this opportunity, .though somewhat out of 
place, to recUfy two or three omissions. Hist. Cam* 
Vol. II. p. £47. William Cecil, Lord Treasurer Burie^, 
was more of an author than his son. Sir Robert Cecil, Eatl 
of Salisbury, diough Lloyd (Engl. Statesmen, 6cc.) mentions 
only speeches and sayings. He wrote, La Complainte de 
TAmi pecheresse, in French verse ; in the King^s Library : 
Latin Poems ; a Preface to Q. Catharine Parr's Lamenta- 
tion of a Sinner ; and, if he did not write Diar, Scotics^ 
1541, be fvrnished the materials for it (Holingshed^ fiiere- 
fore, places him among our historians). All these are no- 
ticed by Tanner, p. 21 6. Several other pieces are gjiven to 
him in the. Biographia Britan. and by Lord Orford ; and the 
latter says, ^' the celebrated libel of Leicester's C!ommon« 
wealth was ascribed to Burleigh;'* though he thinks without 
reason. 

P. 265. I have the same to say (5f Thomas Sackvillei 
Lord Buekhurst. I am not sure, indeed, he was Student 
of St. John'si though he had, according to Anthon. Wood« 
(AthensB Oxon. Vol. I, p. 347) the degree of A, M. confer* 
red on him at Cambridge, as well as at Oxfbrd. The tra- 
gedy of " Gordobuc,"^ (written in rhyme) was the easiest of 
any tragedy, of much account, in the English language, pro* 
ceding, by several years, those of Shakspeare, though, ac- 
cording to Wood, he only wrote part of it, the three first acts 
being Norton's. He also wrote the Preface in prose, and 
the InducticMi in verse, to the Mirrour of Magistrates, so 
much admired in Queen Elizabeth's reign. The original 
thought, and tlie most excellent part, according to the editor, 
yf^B I<9rd Buckhurst's* He wrote also in the Cabala^ a9« 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE, 9^ 

cording to Lord Orford, who adds, that our historic plaja 
are allowed to be founded on the heroic narratives in the 
Mirrour of Magistrates, To that plan, and to the boldness 
of Lord Buckburst's new scenes, perhaps we owe Shaks- 
peare. 

Edward Vene, Earl of Oxford, was reckoned the best 
writer of comedy in his time : according to Anthony Wood, 
he was Pensioner of St. John's. A few of his Poems are ia 
tfie Paradise of Dainty Devices, 1578, and two in Percy'i 
Ancient Ballads, Vol. II. p. 178, are much admired. Se% 
further of him in Phillip's Theutrum Poetarum Angl. p. $5j 
edition of 1800. 

P. S32, notes, for Wray, Ray, 

P. d^Sy notes, last line. Dawes, at least, in his edition of 
his Miscel. Oritiea, maintained this. But vide p. 380, notf 
of this volume of our Hist. 

P. 334, 1. 1 5. For cosdes, casdes. 

P. 339, notes, 1. 27. For Peirce, Pearce. 

p. 991/ !• 18, for Biographies, Characters. For of, ms 



EMMANUEL COLLEGE. 

' P. 340, I. 16. In Aubrey's BodL Letters, Sec. it ap.^ 
pears, the Vioae of Brat was Simon Aleyn, or Allen^ 
Vicar there in 1540, who died 1388 ; so was Vicar of Bray 
near 50 years, llie editor adds, in a note, '' that the. writer 
of die well-known aong of the Vicar of BrayAas changed 
ihe date ef the original story, applying it to the SEvsif* 
TBBKTU century f and nuiking the Vicdr^s versatility shew 
itself by the versatility of his politics/* .Vol. HI. p. 100. — 
}ij ojMorvation too naust be taken with fome aUpwance.—- « 



9d SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

However; instead of '* gave birth/' read, will give €zddi'» 
iional force. 

P. 347* It does not appear, from Dr. Ricbardson^s Cat. 
Grad. that Sir Walter took a degree. 

P. 349, I. 24. For Stainground, Stanground. 

P. 350, 1. 10. John Brown, Rector of Wallingtbn (insti- 
tuted 1714), left money for the increase of the stipend of the 
Master, and that of two Fellowships and two Scholarships^ 
to persons coming from Canterbury School, in preferencse^ 
Bat I do not find that he left any scholarships for diose y^ho 
came from Christ Hospital. Mr. Smyth must have been ia 
a mistake : dele, therefore, what is in inverted commas. 

P. 352. Dr« Chadderton proceeded D. D. by royal 
mandate. 

P. 353* Tliere is a portrait of Preston in the Pictuns 
Gallery, none of Chadderton. 

P. 354. Two or three of my dates are wrong relaUng to 
^ Dr. Tuckney. According to Mr. Baker (MS. Hist, of 
St John's, p. 267)9 Tuckney was admitted Master of St, 
John^S) June 3, 1653. He commenced A. M. 1620, D. D. 
1649: 22 years after he was Bachelor of Divinity; fox IGIS^ 
therefore, (1. 7) read 1627. Mr. Baker observes, '' that at 
Emmanuel Dr. Tuckney is placed next to Dr. Holdsworth :'' 
he adds, ^ by mistake, I suppose, for Dr. Thomas Hill was 
some time Master there, as appears both by an Epistle of 
bis to the Earl of Manchester, and by his Funeral Sermon 
by Dr. Tuckney." He was chosen (so Baker's MS.) DivU 
nity Professor in 1655 : so alter 1. 8, 1659* 

Tuckney would have been ejected, but he voluntarily i^* 
signed both his Mastership and Professorship^ June 22^ 
1662^ a pension of a hundred pounds a year beiiig reserved 
to him out of the Professorship, according to Dr. Calamy^ 
But. Eject. Minist. Vol. JI. p. 80. He died l6d9*l67Q» 
in the 71st year of his age; and I6g9> I69O, (at p. 355^ 
} 5) should be 1669) 1670« 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 93 

P. 355, 1. 14, at controversy, should be (*). 

It is said, by some, that Dr. Whichcote did take the cove* 
nant ; but I have admitted, elsewhere, that Dr. Tillotson was 
likely to have known whether he had or no. See p. 196, 
Hist. Camb. Vol. 11 

- P.-355, 1. £3. Dr. Cudworth was Master of Clare Hall, 
and Christ's College, in succession ; but it is under Clare 
Hall where I have spoken of him ; so, for Christ's College, 
read Clare Hall. See p. 50, Vol. II. Hist. Camb. for Dr. 
Cudworth. 

- P. 356, !• 19. Bishop Bedell does not appear b Rich* 
ardion's Cat. Grad. as D. D. but he was admitted at Em*' 
manuel 1584, being the first year of admissions. 

Ibid. I. 16. There was a Gyfford, A. M. l607. 

P. 357> I* 18. Sir William Temple was the grandson of 
the Sir l^Hlliam Temple mentioned under King's College, 
and son of John Temple, who died Master of the RoUs in 
Ireland in 1677« According to a Life of our Temple, (said 
to be written by a particular friend, and having an engraving, 
taken from the original portrait of Sir William in Emman. 
Picture Gallery) he was entered at Emman. College when 
17, being placed under Dr. Cudworth; and at 19 he began 
his travels: nor does it appear that he returned to Emman. 
agun : sb that the William Temple, who stands there for a 
degree, must, I apprehend, be another man. He was mosdy 
engaged in foreign embassies, in the intervals of which he 
wrote hts Observations on the Netherlands, and one part of 
his Miscellanies (p. 15 of the above-mentioned Life). Hia 
works are much admired. He was a man of a free*thinking, 
but elegant and upright mind ; an ambassador, to whom Sir 
Henry Wotton's definition could not apply, Legatus, vhr 
bonus peregr^ missus, mentiendi gratifi. He died in 1608, 
«t. 70. 

P. 367, !• 7, before p. add Part II. 

Ibid. 1. 18, for Vol. IV. Vol. ///. 

P« 368r St. means Stephen. 



94 StTl>tLEMENT TO THJ^ 

JE^. S70, I. 1, after GeoiFry^ add, Geofiry Watts was the 
son of Sir John WatU^ some tiine Lidrd Mayor of LfOiid<»iu 
See bim above, under Jesus College* 

Ibid. 1. 11. The line torn off from my copy is this:— - 
bom Feb. 10, 1655. Ex autograph — educated in CkrisfM 
tlotpitalr^the cate of the Church of England fairly repre^ 
' tented. 

P. 371* Gilps Firmin was a man of much learning, andy 
at length, practised physic i there is an' ample account of 
him and his writings in Calamy, Vol. II. p. 296. His name 
not in Richardson's MS. .Reg. but Calamy mentions bia be- 
ing at Cambridge, under the tuition of Dr. Hill, who iwaa 
tutor, and (according to MS* Baker) as before observed) a& 
terwards Master. 

Ibid. 1. 9, for Barroti^es, Burroughs (Joseph, according to 
Carter). There are two Burroughs in Calamy, but no co/^ 
lege to either* R. Smyth (MS«) says, be wrote a Comment 
on Hosea, and one or two religious treatises. 

P. S73, line 8, for towards the screens, read was at thi 

tap* 

P. 374, I. 3, dele r^Ji 

P. 376, 1. lOi This MS. seem^ peculiarly valuable, on 
account of the. paucity of MSS. of Herodotus. Gale seems 
•nly to have made use df this and another MS. (Eton); 
and though Porson says, that Gale examined it negligently^ 
the latter had certainly a full sense df its value^ as appears 
from the ample use he made of it, in the tariantes Lbetiones, 
and notae breves, at the end of his edit. (1679) of Herodo- 
tus. This MS. had been the property of Archbishop Sand- 
croft, and Dr. Gale accordingly dedicates his edition to him. 
It is one of the many books left by Sandcroft to £mman. 

Coll. 

Ibid, notes, 1. 18, after &c. addXe Long, the passage 
being taken from Le Long* 

P. 880, I. S, add— 

William Law was an eminent divine, author of various 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGil. 05 

tllep1og;ical works^ among which are, Remarks on Mr. Mari^ 

d^viUe's Fable of the Bees, Ae Case of Reason and Relw 

gion against the Author of Christianity as old as the Creation^ 

and Letters to Bbhop Hoadley on the Lord's Supper : but 

his most famous pieces are, his Practical Discourses on 

Christian Perfection, and bis Serious Call to a Devout and 

Holy Life. They savour much of what has been called 

mjFStical religion, but are remarkable for the seriousness and 

elegant simplicity of their composition. They ware held in 

great estimation by the lale Mr. John Wesley, and indeed 

were thought to give rise to that peculiar turn of feeling and 

thinking which, at the time, was called Methodism. W« 

Liaw was A. B. of this College 1708, proceeded A. M, 

1712, and died in 1761. He is said to have inclined at last 

to the doctrine of S wedenborg. 

P. 386, 1. 1, add— 

John Martyn was a celebrated botanist, a generally good 
acholar, an indefatigable useful translator and writer. As a 
botanist, like Ray, he travelled over various parts of £ng« 
land, to search for plants. He was the first who read bota* 
nical lectures at Cambridge, where he became Professor of 
Botany in 1734. There he published his Methodus Planta« 
rum Urea Cantabrigiam cresceutium, being Ray's Alphabe* 
ticai Catalogue systematized and improved. He also pub- 
lished a Translation of Toumefoot's History of Plants 
growing about Paris, with various other botanical treatises, 
some of which are in the Philosophical Transactions. He 
assisted, also, very considerably, in abridging the Philoso- 
phical Transactions, in continuation of Jones's and Low- 
thorp's edit.* Five volumes. Martyn's share came out in two 
volumes (6th and 7th), in 1 730. In his medical character, 
he translated two celebrated treatises, one of Boerhaave's, 
on the Powers of Medicine; the other of Dr. Walter Har- 
ris's, on the Acute Diseases of Children. 

In 1741 he published his very curious Translation of Vir- 
giPs Georgics (more immediately in reference to botany, . 



9S SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

iwhicli b now become extremely scarce, but which— *>ffaoiigfi 
the notesi as well as the translation, are in Engliah«-^as ob* 
tained for them moch celebrity in foreign conntries as well as 
his own. In 1749 he published his Translation and Notes 
on the Bucolics ; and from Memoirs prefixed (bj bis son, 
John^ Mart} a, the present Professor of liotany at Cam« 
bridge) to his Dissertations and Critical Remarks upon the 
iEneis of Virgil, it appears, that he intended to have com- 
pleted the^edition of his favourite poet. These fragments 
were published by his son in 1770, since his father's deatii. 
They are not in the way of verbal criticism, but codsist of 
useful, and some rather curious, remarks. 

Mr. Martyn was admitted of Emmanuel College May 96, 
1 7S6, and intending to have proceeded widi the d^rees in 
physie, kept five terms ; but marriage prevented bim finish- 
ing his designs, though he practised as a physician. He 
died in 1768, agreeably to the line, quoted by his son-* 



Unplac'd, QDpeBfion'd, no man's btir or dave« 



POFB. 



J am informed by Dr. Bennet, Bishop of Cloyne, my 
late learned tutor, when of this College, that Mr. I4|pirtyn 
planted the celebrated cedar tree in this College garden* 



Honof erithuic quoque pomo. 



P. 380, 1. 3, add— 

John Richardson, B. D. 1679, prepared for the press his 
Pnelect. Ecclesiasticoe Triginta novem olim habifa& in Sa- 
cello Col. Emman. apud Cantab. They are Earned, and 
relate to some that are deemed the most curious points in 
the- first ages of Christianity, the Apostolical ConstitutioDs, 
Sybilline Books, the Thundermg Legion of Constantine, 

&c. One aims to shew, that the Otp^trfuroM mentioned by 
Philo (de Vit& Contemplativ& Philo, Op. p. 60$, ed. 15^2), 
were not Christian> but Jewish Monastics ; and another, that 



MIS3t)RY OF CAMBRIDGE. 97 

dife (unoua passage in Josepbos (Antiq. Jud. 1. 18^ c. 4) ii a 
Christian forgery. 

Dr. William Ricbardsoo^ his nepbew, often referred to in oor 
History, published these Prelections in 17^i after his nucleus 
death, and inserted, .widi his wanted asuduity, all thereferences* 

P. 887. Since Bishop Hurd's death, has been published 
lus edition of ^fr* Addison's works: it contains a few notes 
by Hurd, .but of no great account. 

Claget Nicholas (D* D. 1 688)9 one of those learned dU 
idnes who withstood Popery in James Ild/s reign. His son 
Nicholas was of Christ's (D. D. 1704). A Ibt of the Ser* 
mons, and other Theolof ical Tracts, of these eminent divines, • 
may be seen in Biogr. Britan. Vol. H.— -This article is a little 
out ^f its proper order. 

From the veiy oatufie of a tTiiivEasiTY-History^ we are 
often obliged to speak of some who have written much, 
with little kno¥rledge or thought : we shall now notice one 
who knew and thought much, but who Wrote nothing, except 
a few pap^n in the Philosophical Transactions : and it 
if pleasing to pay respect to a person, whose modesty sur-* 
passed his industry, whose love of science was greater tfian 
his love of fame, and to whom nothing perhaps was wantmg 
to have rendered him one of the most distinguished men of 
bis tim.e, except better health, and more systematic habits of 
industry. 

Smithson Tennant^ Esq. shewed a fondness (ot natural 
pbilosopby and chemistry from his childhood : he read Sir 
Isaac Newton*s Optics when at school, and in chemistry had 
« stroi^ desire to become die pupil of Dr. Priestley, whose 
reputiltioa was then at its height. Not being able to gratify 
this wish on account of Dr. Priestley's numerous avoca« 
tions^ be went, in 17B1, to Edinbuigh, and studied under 
Ae celebrated Pr* Black. Here however be did not 
continue long ; for in Oct. 1782 be was admitted of Christ's 
CpUege, Cambridge, where, from a dislike of the com* 
Bon routine of coU^ discipline^ he became a Fellow- 



98 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

Commoner, though he had the titipBgeel propensity to sCndj, 
for which he had been distinguished froin his earliest years. 
At the age of 25, by the recomsftendatioa of the most emi- 
nent scientific persons of Cambridge, he was elected a aoen* 
ber of the Royal Society, IS Jan. 1785. 

In 1786 Mr. T. came^ together with his firiend, Profisssor 
Harwood, from Cfarist^s CSoIiege to Emmao. tirkera he re* 
sided till 1 788^ when he took the degree of M* B. 

Mr. Tennant did not proceed M. D. till 1796; nor did his 
desultory habits allow 1dm tofi^Hdw the regvkur practice ef a 
physician, though he had applied himself dil^ently to thai 
' science, and was yery conTcrsant widi ^ best meAcal wri*^ 
ters^ ancient and modem. He engaged, however, soraetim^ 
afterwards in agricultural pursuits ; but resided for the most 
part in London, where he became generally kaownas a maa 
of die highest reputation for science, besides heing miicli 
distinguifllied for las general kaowiedge and great powen 5f 
conrersatkm. 

in coDsefuence of his high chatocter, Mrs T« was ^cte4 
Chemical Pfofessor «t Cambridge m May, 18 IS; wai m 
the following spring dt^Iivered his iaaagural coarse of ieclmes, 
which fuHy justified (he expectations of his fitends* and the 
University. Bat this course was his first and his last ; for, 
in returning from a scieafifie toat ia France, in Feb. 18]5y 
he met with a fatal accident in ridiag over a drawbridge aaai 
Boulogne, in consequence of Ate bridge giving waj^ he 
was thrown from his horse, his sl^nll was firactufed, and hd 
died almost on the spo<« 

In the composition of Dr. T/s niad Aere appears to 
^ have lieen a great mixture of romance and phHosophy. Ha 
^as particularly delighted with the society aadoonversalioii 
of travellers, and had himself travelled through great part of 
modem Europe. He possessed a certain pictaresqueness of 
oriental taste; and had acquired a great passioa ton Ae his* 
tpry, literature, and custoBu of the'JEkistern aatJoBSb^ Jh 



Vtf 



HISTORY X)F CAMBBIDGE. 09 

had dicrefore formed the design of visiting Constantinople: 
and so late as 1814 he had some thoughts of traversing 
Spaiiiy for the sake of visiting tlie Moorish parts of Africa. 
He appears also to have been much of a traveller in his 
own country, through England) Wales, 8codand, and life- 
land, and to have made t^s journies> subservient to his fa- 
vourite studies of Chemistry, Agriculture, and Political £co« 
Homy* . 

Dr. T/s principal discoveries in Chemistry rdata to the 
Analysis of Carbonic Acid, the Magnesian variety of Lime- 
stone, the inflammable nature of the Diamond, the nitrous so« 
lution of Gold, a mode of Double Disdilation, the Chemical 
fixamination of Emery, the discovery of two metals, called 
Oaminm and Iridium^ in the powder which remains after 
treating crude I^atina with Aqua Regia.*--In consequence of 
these various discoveries, Dr. T. received, Nov. SO, 1804^ 
from the Royal Society, the Copley medal. 

A judicious account, drawn up by one of Dr. Tennant's 
intimate friends, is inserted in Dr. Thompson's Annals of 
PInloiopby, and has since been printed separately for cir** 
culatioa. From hence it appears that Dr. Tennant, inde* 
pendently of his scientific attainments, was distinguished by 
very extensive and accurate information on a great variety of 
subjects, by a very refined taste for the fine arts, and by a 
singular and characteristic vein of humour. He was also H 
man of great practical benevolence,* and wacmly attached to 
the' pfinciples of civil liberty ; as will be apparent from what 
*is stated by his biographer respecting the subjects upon 
which he expressed to different friends the intention, or rather 
the wish, of writing. Among these are the following :-^ 
A Treatise on Political £conomy«— which was his fa- 
vourite literary project, and at one period of his life en- 
gaged a great deal of his attention. — Biographical me- 
moirs of some of those distinguished persons to whose lite* 
rary or scientific pierits justice has not been done (owing to 

♦ o « 



1 



100 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

accidental causes) by their contemporaries, or by posterity : 
— ^among these, he particularly mentioned Dr. Priestley •^- 
Obsenrations on the Principles of ihe French Rsvolutiony and 
the Causes of its Failure. 

% Bttsick Harwood, F. R. A. S S. the particular fneod 
of Dr. T. practised as a surgeon for many years in tlie East 
Indies: was M.B. 1785, M.D. 1790, at Cambrid^, 
where he became a physician of much repute, and was 
elected Professor of Anatomy 1785. 

Dr. H. delivered Lectures on Comparative Anatomy, toad 
puUiriied.a first number of his Comse of Lectures. It 
treats on the brain, the organ of sense, the nose, aad oUao- 
tory nerves, in men *, beast, and fishes ; accompanied widi 
tables aad plates. His Observations on. the Nasal Sense are 
curious, and those on the Brain and Nerves prove how little 
light can be thrown by anatomy on any theory of the buoum 
mind, and that the. learned have not. proceeded a ungle step 
on this mysterious sulgect beyond the ancients, the fathers of 
medicine f. 

Sir B. H. resided many years in Emman. CoL but being 
elected Professor of Anatomy in Downing Col. he resided 
there at the dose of life; aad there he lies buried; the first 
that has been buried there* 

Sir B. H. proposed to print two volumes in 4to. on Cgm* 
parative Anatomy ; but, through the expenriveness of the on* 
dertakmg, and paucity of readersi he never published more 
than the abovementioned first part, in thin 4to. pp« 7d* 
1792. 

I forgot to notice, what has been noticed by Lord WaU 
pole, of Mildmay Fane, Earl of Westmorland, related to 

* Dr. H/s Observatioas oa ibe Nasal Sense in Man strongly favour U^ 
tlieory of Dr. Laoib in hts Report on Kegimeo in Chronic Diseases. 

fahnr vv«gx'«n * Galea, de U«u Partiaoi, as qqotcd by Sir B. K. 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. lOi 

the founder ;— that he wrote " a very small book of poems, 
^ which he gave to, and is still preserved in, the libraij of 
^ Emman. College/' Roy. and Noble Authors, Vol. I. 

P. 389. What Mr. Hubbard bequeathed to Emman. 
Coll. amounted to nearly £5000. 

P. 392. For 1784, 1782. 

P. 395, I. 6, for Dillingham, GUtinghapi* 

P. 596. Dele all relating to Mr. Hardy : he was not of 
Emman. 

* P. 390. Not setting up for the Arbiter Elegantiarum of 
every thing in the Cambridge poems addressed to the Duke 
of Newcastle, I allude, in a way of comparison, only to 
die few copies of veraes that I have read in that coUec« 
tion. 



GON'VILE AND CAIUS COLLEGE. 

« 

P. 398, 1. £3, for Clerc, Clere. 

I have indmated (p. 399^ Hist.), that a line or two back ia 
litde more than a translation of Caius : in saying here, the 
eastern side of Gonvile Hall was baih ** not seventy years,** 
I have (as the reader must have observed) inadvertently 
kept too close to Caius; ibr though it was true in his time, it 
is not so now. According to Parker, thb side was built 
about 1480, which brings it to the time mentiooed by 
Caius. 

P. 399. Sir Edm. Gonvil^, Priest, was Fouader of 
^ Rushworth College, of Gonvile Hall, in Cambridge, and 
^' (as some say) of the Friers, in Thetford, and of St. 
^ John*8 Hospital, at Lynn : he was first Rector of Thel- 
^ vetham, or Feltaroi Suffolk, instituted Dec. 4, 1320, bj 



KW SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

" Adam de Tyryiigtone, Rector of Hoptoni his proxy, hp 
" being then in priest's orders. He resigned this for RusL- 
'^ worth's rectory, in 13£6> and after he had established it m 
*' collegiate church in 134^, he was instituted to Terryug- 
" ton, of which he died Rector in 1350.'* Bloniefieid*s 
Hist, of Norfolk, Vol. I. p. 19^. It was Rushwortu, 
of which Sir Edixi. Gonvik was both Rector knd Patron, 
according to Blomefield* 

' P. 404, notes. Dr. Coray, though he is now a physician 
and critic of France, is, I think, a native of Greece. 

Ibid, notes, 1. 14, for 148, 168. 

P. 408. Dr. Ward adds, with respect to Sir Thomas 
Gresbam's admission, ^' the year is not preserved^ there be^ 
*' ing no register of admissions so early." 

P. 401). Jeremy Taylor was A. M. 1634. 

P. 410. Dr. Sam. Clarke wrote also a Paraphrase on the 
Four Gospels, with various Sermons, some of which were 
preached at Boyle's Lectures. 

Ibid, last line. Thomas Pyle, A.M. 1738^ was an emi- 
pent divine of Dr. Clarke's school, author of a Paraplirase 
with Notes, on the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles ; be- 
ing a Supplement to Dr. darkens Paraphrase, Sec* He 
also published Sermons, and after his death three volumes of 
his Sermons were published by his son, Philip Pyle, with his 
Life prefixed. The son was A. M. 1749, and published 
foiur volumes of bis own Sermons, of v^hich some, marked 
with an asterisk, were originally written by his father. Thes^ 
also savour of th^ Arian sentiments, but are remarkable 
jMOst for their prs^ctical tendency. 

P. 411, 1.2, after critics, insert: between which, how-- 
ever, l^ us insert one known only as a madiematician* For 
Mr. £dm. Wright, according to Aubrey (Bodl. Letters, &c« 
Vol. II.) was of this College. He is said to be the inventor 
. of the new mode of sailing by Mercator's chart, as appears 
from his book entitled, Crrors in Navigation. 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. lOS 

Mr. Wdght read Ltctures to Piinoe Henry, and caused a 
«!uiiou8 sphere of wood to be madei to iiistrttct faitn in astro- 
Booiy, which, for some time after his death, lay neglected in 
the Tower of London. He also wrote an Hypotliesis St^l* 
larum fixaram et Planetarum. It was £uund among BU 
flbop Ward's papers, and was given by Mr* Aubrey (see 
Vol. 11. of Bodl. Letters, &c. as above) to the Museum at 
Oxford. 

P. 41 1| L 7. I do not find Pone's name b lUchardaeia's 
Catal. Grad. nor Heydon's, nor Gruter^s. Watts appears 
as D. D. 1639, and Sherringham as A. M. 1626. 

P, 412. Wharton is b Richardson's Catal, Grad. A. M. 
1687. Robert Brady, for 1660. Hen. Chauncy does not ' 
appear at all. Sir Will. Id Neve died l66l. 

Ibid. I spake from imperfect recollections of many 
years past, concerning Will. More: there are MSS. of his, | 
doubt not, in Caius*s library ; but I incline to think it was 
bis funeral Sermpn (by Thomas South, A. M. of Christ't 
1661, and Fellow) that I perused* Afore, according to 
Carter (Hist, of Camb. £5 1 ) collected the University Sta* 
lutes (from MSS.) into one body, and made a Catalogue of 
the MSS. in the Public Library, with the exception of tho 
Eastern; and it should seem con umor0, be being very dis« 
eased at the time. He died in 1659. Carter says, also» 
that he assisted in the Polyglott Robert Smyth adds, that 
he translated into English, Dans»is de Usu Patrum, and 
wrote a treatise on the Rise and Growth of Quakerism; sa 
that he must have been quick in hii perceptions, or quaker* 
ism very rapid in its progress : for it did but rise about hia 
tine, when, indeed, they bad their Qoak^ Master, Dr. Dell» 
of whom before. 

P. 4112, 413. Olysaon, according la Richaidson's Cat^ 
Grad^ proceeded M* D. 1634. Scaitorougb, A. M. 1640^ 
at Camb« The latter does not appeav M. D« from Casft* 
l>ridge,.ac<;ofding to Richardson* 



104 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

P. 413. Whence I copied the following inscription I 
forget; it is of authority, and maltum in parte. Gvliel. 
Harveius An. St. 10. in Schola Cantuar. primis doctrime 
rudimentis imbutus; 14. Gonvile et Caii alunwus ; 19. Pera« 
gravit Gralliam et Italiam ; 9S» Patavii Pnpceptorea baboit 
Eust. Radium* Tbo. Mituid. H. Fabric, ab Acjua pend. 
OonsuK ' 

P. 414. T, Shad well's name is not in Catal. Grad, 

P. 416, notes, L in, forC. 23, read B. 2. C. 23. 

P. 417, notes, I. 13,. for 404, 405, 406. 

P. 418, notes. The edit, of Phillips's Theat Poetanun^ 
quoted here and als^where^ as observed before^ is &at of 

1800, 

Since writing as above, I had occasion to apply to tbo 
learned the Master (Dr. Davy) and the Tutor, Mr. C9haj>> 
man, concerning a former member of this society ; and re* 
gret it was only just on the eve of my leaving Cambndge. 
I was reminded, that the Master possesses an Htstoriette, or 
Annals^ begun by Dr. Caius* and, from the foundation of 
Gonvile Hall, continued to 1570 ; resumed by some suc- 
ceeding member, and afterwards brought down to bis own 
time by Mr. Mdre. Had an earlier application been mad&— 
from which I was diverted by various business — 1 should, I 
doubt not, have been allowed, from the well-known liberality 
of the Master, to have made some improvement in this part 
of my work ; but in consequence of what passed in a short 
conversaUon, I shall subjoin a few observations. 

1 have already alluded to the iibove-mentioned papers } 
(Hist. Univ. and Gott. of Camb. Vol. II. p. 397) and think 
it a pity, tbaf Mr. Parker did not m«ke better use of then 
than be seems to have done. With respect to Caius's ac-« 
county what I have said at the beginning of Gonvile and 
Caius C!qI. (ibid, p. 397, 398, 399) is little moxe-^as 1 have 
said in the place— ^than a translation from Caius (Hist. Can« 
tab. Acad. I^ib. I. p. 64) whicb^ no dauht| porrespoQfU with 



I 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 105 

~^hat he has kft in his MS. Account of the College* And 
perceiving, as, I own^ I did at the time, a paucity of materials 
for this place, and feeling, as I did, a great veneration for the 
Founder, I took the more pains to till the hiatus^ in treating 
of him and his writings. 

it has been suggested, that a certain author has placed 
Gonvile and Caius the fifth of the Colleges in the order of 
time ; whereas, it was said, it should be the fourth. My or« 
der (if, indeed, I had intended the regulhr order) would of 
course be liable to much greater exception. But my af- 
rangemt^nt has already been accounted for. I was con* 
Btramed to seize opportunities as they fell in my way, and to 
vrite, not in the order of the Colleges, but of my opportuni- 
ties : and, nideed, as stated in its place, a derangement of 
some papers, and the ioss of others, dunng a long and dan- 
gerous illness, when things of this kind were dismissed from 
nay mind, reduced me to further difficulties. Several parts I 
vas obliged to recompose from my original notes, and to 
print, as I could ^finish. In speaking of this College, 
'where the order of succession is so violated, it seems proper 
to repeaf what has been hinted before. 

But 1 trust the dates of the foundation of the several Col* 
leges will be found correct ; and with respect to Gonvile 
Hall, the date of that (via. 1S48) places it in the order of 
time, provided the date of the foundation (as it stands in Mr* 
Masters's History) of Benc't College, be taken at the time 
when all the parties concerned joined in one instrument for 
that purpose, via. March 1366. See Master's iIist.'Bene*f 
Col. p. 16, and Appendix VI. 

At all events, my order is wrong (Hist. Camb. &c. Vol. II* 
p. lid), where incorrectly 1 copiec^ I suppose from Arch* 
bishop Farker, Vlf . for VI. For Gonvile and Caius stands 
injiis Hist, the sixth in order. — ^1 was less scrupulous^ too^ I 
bebevie, in this article, because Gkmvile and Caim College 
vas so l«te in order, tlipugli Omcik JSaU so early. 



m SUPPLEMENT-TO THE 



SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE. 

P. 425. Lady Frances Sidney, though learned^ did not 
as I am. a\i'are of, publish any things it was her niecoj Maiy 
the Countess of Penibroke, who published PoemSj Transla- 
tions, and a Tragtdy : but it was an omission in me not to 
notice, in the proper places (when speaking of Lady Mar- 
garet, Foundress of Christ's and St. John's Colleges) that 
sl^e published several things — " The Mirrour of Gold for 
the Sinful Soul, translated from the JPrench,'' 4ta. with 
cuts. ^^ Translation of the Fourth Book of a Treatise of Dn 
J. Gerson, 1504;" '^a Lettertoher Son,'' also of L. Maj^ga- 
ret^s, is printed, and ^' Orders of Precedence, &c. for Ladies 
and Noble Women.'*. See Walpole's Royal and Noble Au* 
thois, Vol. IL p. 177. 

P. 42Bj notes^ L 7. It is WilUgm Whitaker^ whom Ca- 
lamy mentions as the son of Jeremy. Robert Whitacre (Ca» 
lamy, &c. Vol. II. p. 91) he mentions as being of Magd« 
Col. buty as he speaks of Mr. Hiil» as his tutx>r, I suspect 
h0 means Emman. . 

P. 429. W. Dvgard proceeded A» M^ l6S0. John 
Pocklington was S.T.B. 10 10. 

P. 430, 1« 8. John Playfere was first, I think^ of Em* 
man* 160K 

Ibid, 1. fiO. For he, read, Dr. Seii Ward, as what fol- 
lows relates to him, not to Dr. Samuel Ward.. Scth Wari 
proceeded A, M. from Sidney College in 1640. Hichard* 
tQto's Ueg4«^Peter Pett proceeded A* M. 16S1. 

P. 4SS« Gilbert Cierke is vkA in IticbardsoiJa Cat* 
€rad« 

P* 4S5, 1.7* Rev. Mr. Gay, A. M. was eminent as n 
tn^taph^sicVln and biblical critic, a particular fiiend of VS& 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 107 

shop Law's. He wrote the Prelimipary Dissertation to 
Law's Edition of King*s Origin of Evil. 

.P. 4S6. Charles Alleyn proceeded A.M. 1625. 

P. 438, 1. ll. For as churchwarden, read^ signed to 
some parish bmine$$. I have seen the paper* He was nui 
churchwarden^ though some have said he was* 

P. 4'37y 1* 16. Ilev. George Wollaston was an eminent 
mathematician. He has been aheady nientioned^as assisting 
in the cxcerpta of Newton. He was A. M. of this College 
in \lG\y and proceeded D. D. from Queen's, 1774. 

John Lawson, Fel. A.M. 1749. B. D. 1756, disdn-* 
guished himself as a mathematician, and was ainhor of a 
Dissertation on the Geometrical Analysis of the Ancients, 
^ilh a Collection of Theorems and Problems, tbe Design of 
which 16 to shew the Excellence of Geometrical Reasoning 
in Preference to tbe Intricacies of Algebra, and the Laby- 
rinths of Fluxions. He wrote also in the Lady's Diary ; 
and published beside something, of ApoUonius's. 

John Hey (Yorkshireman), A. B. from Cath. Hall, 1755» 
admitted of Sidney Feb. 4, 1758, whence he took his other 
degrees, S. T. P. 1780; elected Norris. Profess. 1780; 
published, 1797> 4 vols. 8vo. of his Lectures delivered at 
Cambridge. 

These Lectures are principally on the 99 Articles of the * 
Church of England, and pursued in the way of History, 
Explanation, Proo^ and Application, or Improvement*-^ 
On the subject of the Trinity and each Person in the God- 
head, Dr. H. is acute*. On Original or Birth-Sin, as being the 
^st li|ik t in ^^ Quin^uarticular Controversy, be is parti* 



* Of the famous coatrovertcd text, 1 Jobo, v, 7, he tays — '' If this 
** text might be more easily expongod unfairly than admitted unfairly, it 
*< is more easy to conceire it genuine than spurious." Vol. II. p. S90. ** 

. fHeylin on the QiiioqnMt Controv, ««cl Dr. Whitby on the Fhre 

points. I 



lOg SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

cularly elaborate. Oji this jsubject, he goes beyond 
istn, and opposes Dr. John Taylor* and iDr. Priestley *f^ 
(who somewhat diiFer from each other, the former aUov^kig 
that labour, sorrow> and death, are the consequence of 
Adam's transgresMou) and sometimes reaches Calvinism r 
for the definition of Original Sin, as given in Article 7^ 
seems to be taken from Calvin : '* Original sin is the finilt 
and corruption of every man, who is gendered of the off- 
spring of Adam, so tliat every person bom into the world 
deserveth God's wrath and damnation.** — Peccatum orfgi* 
nale baereditaria naturas nostras pra.vitas et comiptio, qnse 
primum Akcit reos irseDei. Institut, L. £, C. 1. S. 6. 

Dr. H. illustrates his doctrine of guilt, and its conae* 
qnence, punishment, from a corporation, a city, regimeMt, 
or an umversity, which he says may deserve ezcommuDicji^ 
tion, yet there may be in such worthless body the most vir* 
tuous man that ever lived :" notwithstanding tins virtuous 
man may, as a citizen, be said to behave ill or offend, be^ 
cause the citizens offend collectively; and that these two dif- 
fer eM ways of offending should never be confounded:^ the 
sin of the individual he calls proper, die other, nn contradis- 
^ tinction, improper. Vol. IF. p. 148. On free-will, he sayar, 

^' Mr. Hume is not to be reckoned among the friends of 
* CbrisUanity, but his Essay on Liberty and Necessity con* 
tains things that seem reasonable. His ideas seem, in some 
respects, like my own.'' His doctrine of Election is neither 
Aat of absolute Predestination nor Philosophical necessity : 
he does not hold the decrees to be absolute, and can ndther 
b6 called a supralapsarian nor sublapsarian. In endeavouring 
. to reconcile, the free-agency of man with the divine agency, he 
sayS) difficulties must arise on this subject from som^ f^l- 

* On Original Sin. 



f Corraptionsof CItrittiAnity, Vol. I. tad FamUinr Bluslcmlieiii of Sei^ 
tort. 



I 

L 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 109 

Iacjt, generally, from taking some advantage of the different 
senses of the word impomble, and substituting the idea of 
natural for moral impossibiUty. Vol. IL p. 220. On the 
article of Justification ' by Faith, he notices that by faith 
only means by faith in the meriis of Christ, which, there- 
fore, he calls the Imputed Merit of Christ, though be ' 
thinks* the Impated Righteousness of Christ an unnecessailf 
and useless phrase. He defends, of course, the three 
Creeds ; but seems to doubt the expediency of reading the 
Atfaanasian Creed, at least so often ; and thinks, if used, that 
it should be aung in a way of a thanksgiving, rather than re- 
peated as a creed ; and that the damnatory clauses should &e 
rather in the words of the Scripture, than of human com- 
position* 

With* respect to the more disputed doctrines, Dr. H. is 
evidently for what has been called the Latitudinarian sense, 
that b, for taking them in any sense they will, under all cir- 
cumstances, fairly admit. He makes no objection to a per- 
son, subscribing certain doctrines mho may somewhat differ 
from him in the interpretation of them : and he says^ *^ it 
u seems clear to me, that our church did not at the time of 
'' the separation from the chiuch of Rome, properly intend 
" to lay down any*doctrine of Predestination ; but only to 
** declare againtt abuses actually prevailing.". Vol. III. 
p* 502. 

Dr. Prel^man, Ae present Bishop of Lihcoln, in his 
volume on the Articles, has treated the doctrine in nearly 
the same way ; and it is certain, whatever might be the senti- 
ments of those who first composed the 39 Articles, ai|4 
sanctioned them by their authority (and I must think they 
were doctrinalljf Calvtnists), the last who much interfered by 
his royal authority was King James I. at the time a professing 
Armintan. This, however, is not the place for me to give 
an opinion ;— «I treated of subscription to the 59 Articles 
many years ago, somewhat at large — biit to state tho9f of 



no SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

Dr. Hey : and it may be proper to remark, that the ques- 
tion concerning subscription to the 39 Articles thus largely 
examined, relatea »olely to the church ; for I do not perc^ve 
he considers it in reference to Universities : perhaps he was 
not fiivourable to it, and what he secretly disapproved^ he 
would not openly defend : but I speak merely from the en- 
larged manner in which he has discussed the subject, and not 
from any authority. 

Proposals of this work were printed by Dr. Hey in 178S; 
at which time it seems Bishops Porteus and Halifax express- 
ed themselves, in letters to him, as entertaining apprehen*- 
sions concerning some parts of the heads relating to Vera* 
city. Vol. II. p. IS: and, it seems, many others were 
alarmed. He was advised, therefore, to omit some things in 
his publication that had been delivered in the lecture : but as 
he deemed it wrong to retract, he thought it right to publish 
them. To his second volume is prefixed the foQowiug no* 
tice : ** The author thinks it necessary to declare that the 
*' patronage of the Syndics of the University press was 
<' founded on their confidence on him, and not on a previ- 
*^ ous perusal of his manuscript. This declaration seems re- 
*' quisite, lest the Syndics should be considered as giving a 
^ sanction to some opinions advanced in the first 13 chap- 
** ters of the 3d book." 

Dr. H. published, besides, a few single Sermons, one oni 
Malevolent Sentiments, with a short Defence of Atonement; 
with -remarks on the doctrine on tlie same subject, by his 
brother, William Hey, of Leeds. He also published a 
poem on Redemption, that obtained the Seatonian prize in 
376S*. 

. Rich. Hey, brother of the above, LL. D. per Lit. Reg* 
T779j wrote on Gaming, Duelling, and Suicide* 

* I tm remintkdf by the perusal of Dr. H.'6 rolnmes, that I kaveMiiit* 
t«d to notice Dr. Balguy, who was of St. John's. He shall be tM^d in «»<•, 

•Ihcr place. 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. Ill 

£;dw. Pearson (Master), A.M. 1785, S.T.B. 1792, \ra9 
an emineDt ArmiBian divine, >;i'ho published numerous Ser« 
mous, some addressed to academical youth, others delivered 
aa Warburtonian Lectures. He also published Remarks on 
Dr. Paley, and Observations on Morals, a volume on Fa* , 
tnily Praiyo', and an Essay tfiat obtained the Norrisian prize 
in 1786. 

Or. Pearaon was nearly of die same school mih Dr. Hey, 
bat was more zealous against some of those feelings and 
doctrines, which are sometimes denominated Methodism. 

Christopher Hunter, Fellow, S.T.B. 1776, Rector of. 
Gaylon, Ntrdiamptonshire, was editor of the poems of the 
celebraled Christopher Smart, A. M. of Pembroke Hall, and 
prefixed his Life; a tribute of respect to him as his near re* 
lation. I am not aware that Mr. Hunter published any 
thing else, except a Sermon* preached at Northampton. 



^■Pi 



DOWHING COLLEGE. 

1 know of nothing that can be said lurther of Dowmng 
College, at present, except' that a fe^v fossils, antiquities, and 
bo^s, have been beqaemdied to it, the first beginning of a 
Museum and library. The books are principally topogram 
pUcal, and manuscript, or i^nritings reiatiu|f to the town of 
Cambridge* I should %ot have noticed them, being few, 
fiuM^ valaable, but for circumstances connected with the 
person who bequeathed them : this was Mr. John Bowtell, 
an inhabitant of the town, who died December 1813. 

Jehn Bowteli, though not a native of Cambridge, was an 
h h ihi taut of Trinity parish> m that town, where he followed 
flie.b«Min«s8 of a bookbinder, and served, in that capacity, 



112 SUPPLEMENT TO* THE , 

die members of the University, the Public and College 
braries, for several years. 

On his first coming to town (as I am informed by his 
phewy Mr. Bowtell, of Cambridge, who succeeds him in bu- 
siness), Mr. B. received a little tuition from a gendeman of 
St. John's College, and gained a tolerable knowledge of the 
Latin and French languages, and I think, a Uttle. Greek. 
He was fond of general reading, but more paniculaily of 
topographical ; and^ as many curious works of thb kind pre- 
sented themselves to him in the way of his business, bis mle 
was, first to read them, and to make extracts, and then to 
bind them : and thus, book*reading and book-btilding liouftKy 
very laudably, their . separate business, Mr. Bowtdl ac- 
quired, at the same time, considerable knowledge and very 
handsome property. 

It was natural, vnth his peculiar taste, that Mr. Bm's curio- 
sity should be directed to the history of the town, in which he 
resided, more particularly, when such opportunities were every 
day occurring to gratify it. He not only read and extracted 
much in the way above-mentioned, but became personally 
active and externally inquisitive, by examining parish r^^is- 
ters, and every sort of public instnunent which fell in bis 
way, that could throw light on the History t>f the Town. 

Mr. B. having thus collected a great variety of materials, 
formed it into a regular History, proceeding in the order of 
the different parishes, and giving an account of the antigui* 
ties, monumental inscriptions, charities bequeathed, witfi 
their benefactors, and such other particulars, as regularly 
come under the head of parochial history.. It consists of 
eight thin quartos, fakly written out, and the anchor wished 
to publish it in his life-time; but not beii^ able to bring a 
bookseller into his proposals, nor willing to encouni^ die 
hazard of publishing at his own expence, he left i^ at his 
death, with the other things abovementioned, to Downing 
College : how it may therefore be disposed of nowj resti| ^ 
course, with that soeiety. 



HIJitORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 113 

When I was last at Cambridge, an opportunity was af- 
forded me, by favour of Mn Hewett, the Professor of 
Mediciue, of examining this work ; but it was when I was 
about to leave Gambridge, and was obliged, during the re- 
maining time, to* employ myself on inquiries, which I' 
thought^ more immediately concerned rae^ So my survey of 
Mr. B/s bequest was but partial, and ray perusal of his His* 
tory very rapid. I ran over his Preface, which shews he was 
v>*ell acquainted with, the authors that treat of Cambridge; 
and one volume gives a regular History of Bainewell. I 
have no right to give an opinion, where I have made so little 
examination ; though, from what I have seen, inferred from 
the circumstances abovementioned, and heard from his ne- 
phew, who lived with him^ I am disposed to conclude very 
iavourably of the work. The author was engaged on it, I 
understand, for 18 years., 

I have perused some papers of Dr. Pearce, Master of Je- 
sus College, relating to the town, in which references, I re- 
collect, are frequently made to Mr. Bowtell; whence I must 
infer, that Dr. P. had perused the work, while in the hands 
of the writer : and one so well acquainted with what relates 
to Cambridge, as Dr. P. is known to be/ would not have been 
forward to refer to them, had he not reckoned bis work of au* 
thority. 

As I have no right to deliver an opinion on the character 
of the work, so neither have I as to the expediency of printing * 

it. 1 cannot, however, refrain from adding, that a History 
of tht Town of Cambridge is a Desideratum. 

Mr. Rawlinson, in his English Topography, remarks of 
Cambridgeshire, '* of this county we have as yet no history 
published," and there is none of the town**^. 

4 

'^Mr» SalmoD** account, since published (The Foreigner's Companion, 
1747), is a. mere Cambridge Oiiide» compriEing aU that is said of the town in 
about 14 or 16 pages. 

Mr. CarUr's History «f ^e County of Cambridj^e was published iu 1753, 
a small Tolame of 338 pages, and it is so rare, that the British Museum gave 



1 

I 



114 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

Should these papers, therefore, full mto the handi of sone 
faithful and intelligent person duly commiasioned, who might 
peilHips fuKthen avail himself of Bloinefield's Collectanea*, 
and Mr. Cole's Parochial Antiquities of Cambridgei*^ with- 
out any of his tattling remarks and Billingsgate laiigua^, 
we might expect a regular, and, I doubt not, a respectable 
History of the Town of Cambridge. 

Mr. BoWtell further left £7000 to Addenbrooke's Hospi- 
tal; j£5(*0 to Hobson's charity, for placing out poor boys; 
jglOOO in trust to Trin. Col. tlie dividencf to be paid to 
'iVinity parish, in which he had lived for several years, mnd 
Jg500 to St. Michael's parish, in whu:h he died. 

Near relations and dependants naturally become expec*. 
tants; and, I understand, those of- Mr. Bowtell think tbey 
have a right to complain, so as to make reflections siuii/ar to 
those of Mr. Mandeville, which I have already mentioned, 
as made on t^ie Founders of Colleges and Benefaclon to 
public Charities. 1 wish Mr. Bowtell had left no reason far 
Uicmi among some who I understand would have been glsd 
of his charities. But people have certainly a right to dis- 
pose of their own property according to their own pleasure; 
Hor are we always competent judges of their motives ;. thess 

■ « 

<£20 for a copy. The account of the town consists of only «bo6t 60 p%gH, 
(n Mr. Lyson's more elaborate account of CambHdgesbtr* (Magna Britao- 
nia,' Vol. 11. 1810) the liescription of the town is perhaps as iihort,^by i 
certain rule of proportion, which, I suppose, it might be deemed necessafy 
to preserve in relation to the other parts of so extended a woik. The Beau- 
ties of England and Wales (1800) seems to follow the same rule, and.^ivei 
the shorter account of the town, to leave greater room for that of the 
rniversity, of Cambridge. 

» In consequence of a gentleman's inquiring of me relatire to the tteo edi- 
tions of this work (see Hist, of Univ. and C»l. of Camb. Vol. I. p. 34), and 
' to prevent others from failing into mistakes, I mast hese add, there is bnf 
one edition. Both Mr. Beqsbam (Hist of Ely» Api^ndix, Tab. Bl4essis)aBt 
Mrr Oough (Topographical History) eiEprets thqfflselve^ asif tliere were tw<» 
editions j but, on examining two or three copies with different detM^ 1 iad 
tlufy are one and the saoie edition,, with the 29 4fSt pages oesceUed. 

f. Am9^ hi< WS, btqu«aUM4 to th« Brituih Mi«i««n 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. ili 

«re private concerns : I^ at least, who have no reason to coiiN 
"pianiy can have no right to censure. 

Public charities may certainly draw off property from fk<* 
milies, which may be said to l>e their regular and natoral 
diannels ; so also may a certain race of people, called HflS^ 
redipites, against whom Juvenal directs his bitterest satire^ 
(Sat. X.): but this is an evil which admits of no remedy; 
tfaoughit is one, whicb such as would leave behind tfiem tbd 
savour of a good name, would not choose wantonly to 
create. 

With Ml. Bowtell I had not the smallest acquaintance ; 
sor to this moment do I know whether he was CKnrchnudh 
or Dissenter, Whig or Tory. I am willing to believe hb 
"was a worthy man : and, as being an inhabitant of the towtt^ 
and one who deserves well of it, and also a fellow-la^ 
boarer in the department of Cambridge History, I feel a 
pleasure in paying a humble tribute of respect to his im- 
mory. 



APPENDIX. 

P. 441, 1. 14. The intelligent reader will perceive tfiai 
15, as placed, can mean nothing, and must be scratchtd 
out as an error of the press. 

P. 448, 1. 19, for Godwin, read Goodwin. 

P. 449, !• 6- The proper title is, AvoXvrfwcK AvcXv* 
r^wTiu^j or Redemption Redeemed, fol. 1651. In this 
work, John Goodwin states much at large, and aims to 
confute, the Predestinarian doctrine. It is dedicated to 



l\f SUPPLEMENT TO THE • 

pr. WbichcQte^ Provost of King's, and to the Vicecfajui- 
cellor^ Heads of Colleges, and Students of the UniTeraitjr 
of Cambridge. 

Ibid. Samuel Clarke \yas introduced elsewhere, so dele 
bim. 

P. 448, 1. ^, for whereiny &c. down to falsehood, read, to 
the falsehood of which the most commott readers^ as well ms 
■ our owA consciences^ must have borne their testimony^ 

P. 450, U 24, add— 

Mr. Attwood was no less distinguished for his skill io ma^ 
sic.' He was Fel. of Trinity College, bat not choosing to 
take holy orders, accoiding to the laws of this society, he t«. 
signed his fellowship. Contemporary with Attwood was Joah 
Bates, A.M. 1767, Pel. of King's, a no less emioent ge- 
nius for music : but I kno^ of no writings of his, except 
9ne or two Latin poems in the Acad. Cantab. Luctus e^ 
Gratulationes, 1760, 176K ^ 

. P. 451, 1. 12, for 1713, 1813. 

P. 452, 1. 19, for Oxford, read Cambridge. I ha^e dis- 
tinctly noticed Sir William Brown's proceedmg M. D. at 
Cambridge; for though this merry,, learned knight bore a 
mortal hatred to subscriptions to articles, and wrote against 
them, yet he seems to have thought they ought not to stand 
in the way of literary degrees m a British University. 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 117 

Having, in the case of Mr. Bowtell, spoken of things eon* 
nccted both with the University and town, I have thought 
this the proper place to introduce the following Plan of Im- 
provements, which, also, relates to both. I am aware that' 
Bome parts of it now may be considered as impracticable : 
the whole of it, however, ^hews the ingenuity and taste of 
the projectors, and parts of it, for aught I know, may, at* 

« 

some future' period, be found useful. I have already (Hist. 
Univ. Coll. Camb. Vol. I.) had occasion to refer to it, and 
spoken of Mr. Brown^s plan and Mr. Aahby's papers ; so, 
having been requested to print them, I make no further apo« 
)ogy for inserting them here. 



LOOSE HINTS, SUGGESTED BY A VIEW OF 
THE PLAN* OF CAMBRIDGE,, AND ITS 
"IMPROVEMENT. 

By tub Rev. J. Ashbt, B. D. late Senior Fellow of 
St. John's College, Cambbidge* 



1. Had the river continued to run in its regular curvature, 
it would have enclosed the half of the town more com« 
pletely and gracefully than at present ; that is, had it gone a 
httle distant from the grounds belonging to St. John's CoI« 
lege to the foot of the Castle Hill, and passing on between 
Magdalen X!ollege and St. Giles's Church, fallen into its 
present course ; in this case, it would not have directed its 
stream against the corner of St. John s College Walks ; an 

* This Plfto may be seen at the entraoce of the public Library. 



^9 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

inconTeDience.that is said to have been increased by 
i«g the river from Trinity College, to enlarge its site. 

The river is said to have run originally through its secood 
court, or the present cloisters, under the Library. The nobla 
Library of that College is said to stand on ground bdonging 
to the Town Corporation, held by lease. 

Tradition says, that the river did run in the line 

above recommended; that its present course was onlj a 

^ small bye-stream, or branch ; till enlai^ed, for the conveni* 

ency perhaps of its navigation, bang' nearer tlie collies mud 

town. 

The greatest improvement that the magnificent part of the 
University, consisting of St. John's College, Trinity Col- 
lege, Trinity Hall, Clare Hall, King's and Queen^s Col- 
leges is capable of, would be, the executing Mr. Brown*s 
plan for improving t!he grounds immediately to the west : as 
this was a spontaneous effort of his own great genius, tliere 
can be little doubt of its producing the most brilliant effects. 

The real utility and picturesque beauty of removing the 
river, and the freeing it from its present summer-houses, and 
the brick walls that enclose it almost all along, is too obvi* 
pus to be insisted on; and one can only wonder that some 
little convenience, from its division into separate pieceSi 
should have delayed so beautiful a project. Here again too 
we may say, that the expence would be nothing, or not 
worth considering, as when first proposed, a noble young 
Duke, dien at a splendid college, declared his readiness to 
l^ive £1000, and an honourable gentleman, who was bred 
at Oxford, aiid had only seen Cambridge en passant, de- 
clared himself willing to contribute his mite ; so much had 
Ike merit of the design struck him. 

JBut what shall we aay to the inattention, on this occasion^ 
of dio^ gentlemen who are favpurers of it, and yet neglect* 
ed to patroaizi^ ibe canal navigatiiH>> as that vould havt 
come precisely in the line of the intended embellishment, io 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. U9 

it# course from Nei^nham ; aod no doubt the favourers of 
that scheme, which seemed to promise much benefit to 
Cambridge^ would Mrillingly have ordered its course, and 
ividth) agreeably in all respects to what the friends of the 
otber scheme could wish, in return for their patronage : bj 
thb means, the river, so disagreeable at low water, and so 
troublesome in a flood, would have been rendered almost 
harmless, as the Colleges would all have stood upon dry 
ground, with a regular slope down to the water at' a proper- 
diatanca : but perhaps, as ghosts formerly did not carry their 
point till a third appearance, and as the case was the same of 
the paving scheme, now generally applauded, we must be 
content to wait till this scheme is proposed for the third 
time. In a flood, the river is too deep for the barges to be 
navigated in the usual, way ; and the men coming on the 
College walks, to hale tKem along is very disagreeable ; tind 
when the rise reaches to nearly the foot of St. John's Bridge, 
as it did- this winter ^ it entirely floods ail the piece; and 
these being surrounded by raised banks, detain the large 
body of water »o long, tliat much of it soaks in, and loosens 
the earth about the roots of the trees (many of which staipd 
on the sloping side of banks), 9o as to cause them to fall an 
easy prey to a winterly blast of wind ; and when the water is 
nearly gone off, the smell from the mud ^nd river weeds b 
such, for some time, as to be very disagreeable and unwhole* 
some. This, by the proposed improvement in removing the 
river to a greater distance, would be much mended, and by 
the regular slope of the ground to the water, allowmg it to 
ran off readily, perhaps entirely remedied. In snnnner, if 
the river is low, the look on both sides St. John's Bridge is 
little better than that of old f^eet ditch, with the addition of 
the before-mentioned nasty summer-houses, which then shew 
the open arches they stand on ; whilst a muddy bank on the 
opposite side contributes its quota to the general copious ef- 
fluvia. 



no SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

• 

Formerly, maQy |pod houses were surroanded in part, or 
wholly, by a. moat; but now, at a great expence, the owoeis 
are glad to set rid of such nuisances by filling up the hol- 
low. 

One would think diat men had taken the hint fitMD the 
practice of beavers, who construct their houses so as to be 
able to have always their fishy tails in the water : not that our 
ancestors are entirely blameable for all that we. now see done 
wrong, as the face of things was not when they built what it 
is now. Many of their costly lofty edifices which aiae aow 
liable to be injured by water, were not so when first built^ 
though they are now, from raising the water for modem im- 
provements, and keeping it up by -sluices, for the purpose of 
navigating heavy loaded barges, watering meadows, woridiq^ 
mills, &c. &c. 

Thus circumstanced, tessellated pavements are found near 
the river at Leicester, and liable to be overflowed ; but this 
could never have been the case originally : so, too, at Salis- 
bury, the river there was kept up for some purpose; and it 
was apprehended would damage the foundations of dM 
church. When all were afraid to remove the obstruction, 
the Bishop went, at the head of a posse, to give the first cut 
to the Weir, and ^vith a single stroke restored tlungs to their 
primitive state, and set all to rights. 

Such a glacis or sloping bank of even dry earth, would e& 
fectually prevent what must otherwise be expected to happen 
in a coqrs/5 of years, the undermining and destruction of the 
west fi-ont of 6t. John's College; but then, in order to 
guard against all inconveniences from such a flood as that of 
10th Feb. 1793''^, the terrace should rise at least two, if 

* As this extraordinary rise marked id the mpst perfect manner the level 
of the ground on ks banks between the two town bridges, it is hoped that 
care was taken to mark its heighth all along, in proper places ; especiaU]^ 
against the side of Clare Hall, opposite to the stables of King's College, 



mnd at Queen's College. 



2 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. Ml 

Tiot thrc^/eet higher than the pavement of the present clois* 
ters, or a little higher than the raised pavement under the 
arch between the two courts over which the water flowed *• 
This same ^ood, higher indeed than any before remembered, 
covered entirely the second court of Trinity CoUiege, and 
stood about six inches deep, at the end of the cloisters near- 
est the Hall. 

It nray be worth recording that the fall was equally rapid 
with the rise, being completed in about eight hours from its 
beginning to subside. 

2. In entering the town by St. Andrew's Street (adorned 
by the handsome appearance of Emmanuel College) and 
Bridge Street, the eye is struck with the straitness for .so 
great a length of these two streets; this we" may reasonably 
suppose was owing to its being part of the extensive Roman 
road from Colchester to Chester, which passed through or 
by the Roman station at this place f ; this spot they fixed 
on, with their usual good sense, as being a gently sloping bill 
turned. to the south, with a river running near its foot, and 
commanding an extensive view over 9 level country : how 
different this, in all respects, from the present narrow, crook- 
ed streets, upon a dead flat on the southerly side of a foggy 
sluggish river 1 At least such would have been the case, had 
not the Colleges and their w^lks prevented the houses being 
built close to the river, who have^done what they could to 
raise the ground on each side. Perhaps no town in £ng« - 
land is of such perfect flatness from Peter House to Magds^ 
Icn College. 

At p. 506 (it should be ^52) Lord Herbert, in his Life of 
Henry VI 1 1, tells us, that in 1544 it was enacted by Parlia- 

V 

I 

* Perhaps the removal of the riTer,.deepening, and widening its bed, may 
prevent all incouvenience,- without raising tlie slope so high. 

f If this 1ong-contina«d lineality is a little broke in upon by St. Andrew's 
Church, this is no more than what has happened at Bary St. Edmunds, by 
its noble abbey's front being too much advanced. For an account of th^ 
Boman Road above-mentioued, sec the Bishop of Cloyne, in Lyson's Bri^ 
tanoU Magna, Vol 11, 



SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

ment^ ^* That all persons which have any houses, landsy 
dens, and other grounds in the town of Cambridge, acfjotoi* 
ing upon every highway, street, or lane, in his own i^bl> or 
the right of his wife, or, &c. shall cause to be paved with. 
paving stone unto the middle of the same wayea^ and iia 
length as their grounds do extend, and so shIiU from time lo 
time, upon pain to forfeit sixpence for every yard square not 
sufficiently paved, to the king and informer. Ahd had diif 
statute extended to the other cities and great towns of Eng« 
land, it would have been much to the beauty of them, and 
the commodity of passengers/' 

This was in the SGth year of Henry the Vlllth's reign, 
only two or three before his death ; and a little before ihia 
time, we may suppose it was, that Erasmus is said to bare 
rode round the market-plac^ for a little exercise, being per- 
haps the only place he could venture to do so with safety. 
What sort of ways the streets afforded may be pretty nvett 
guessed, by only supposing a town built mth high houses, in* 
tncate, winding ^trqets, and those not at all or very badly 
paved, along the opposite side of -the river on the low ground 
between the two public bridges. The roads too were so bad 
as hardly to be passable between the town and Trumping* 
ton up to within these 50 years, powithstanding Dr. Monse'a 
benefaction of ^80 per annum,^ for the rep«r of nine inilea 
towards Foulmire, owing to mismanagemenf in rainiig them 
high, and making them concave, instead of the coDtnuy; 
the milestones set. up by the Doctor's order were perhaps 
the earliest instance of that pleasing and useful invention in 
England. The mensuration begins at a cirele cat in the 
base of the right hand jamb of the west door of St. Maiy's 
church. 

m 

Similar benefactions, for the like salutary purpose, have 
been almost superseded, the kind and well-judging donors 

names almost forgot*, by the multiplication of turnpike 

I 

• They well dcsei^e, bowcvcr, to be preserved. Dr. Harvey gave ,£8 per 
anoum, for repairing Uie road towards pittod. William Worts, Esq. ooe of 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. l«$ 

roKdfl^ which are now equal to any in England, and extend 
in every direction' that can be deaired. 

3. Those that remember the streets 20 years ago must ac- 
knowledge that ^n equal improvement of the pavement in 
Henry Vlllth's time has taken place; and though much has 
been done, and perfectly well done, yet further improve- 
ments may still be added. One of the chief would be to 
render the east end of Trumpington Street, facing the 
Round Church, less inconvenient ; for if the comers have 
been rounded off, and thereby much good done, yet th» 
street in that part, for a considerable way, is so very narrow 
(besides the sharp tuming-oif to Newmarket, which is again 
repeated at the entrance of Jesus Lane) as to be quite ina- 
dequate to accommodate the great number of carriages pass* 
ing continually to and from all the eastern and northern 
CQuhties. If the mountain will not come to Mahomet, Ma- 
hornet can go to the mountain; if we cannot widen the 
street, we may remedy the complunt by reducing the num« 
ber of carriages that now are obliged to thread this needle's 
eye ; 'as may be most conveniently and easily done, by mak- 
ing a great revulsion, in an entire new street, from near the 
back gate of the Rose Inn, over against the lane vulgarly 
called Piss-pot Lane, between Trinity and Cains Colleges, 
in a strait tine, to open against Jesus Lane. 

Tills would at once carry off all that wanted to go into 
Norfolk, Suffolk, and Essex. The street should be built 
Kke the middle-sized streets of Bath and London, with good 
bouses; all the fronts to be on a regular plan, a^ one build- 
ing; i. e. the centre and corner houses, on both sides, to be 
• higher, and somewhat more dressed out with pediments than 
the rest. By the plan of the town in 1797> called accurate, 
the length would be aboiit 200 yards : this space, if near tli# 
matter, might contain 15 or ^ houses in each row. 

Hie etquire beacllef , cmused an excellent eaoseway to be naadb to G'ogma- 
|og Hilli, four Bulei eait of Cambrid^, which afibrds a talvbrioaft ridr. 



1A4 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

If nothing already executed pleases, there is a small front 
of Inigo Joues^S; in Riou's Architecture, that stands in Sc. 
Jdin^s College Library, well adapted for a private house, or 
shop, or rather as uniting both in one; viz. accommodating the 
tradesman vith a good shop, and loftier rooms above^ to 
lodge another family. 

It is hard to say, considering the money which plainly ap« 
pears ready to be advanced for loans to our own country, or 
^ . any foreign potentate, that wishes to. have it, tontines, naviga- 
tions, &c. 8lc« whether the present time can be reckoned 
unfavourable to such a moderate undertaking, as building 
such a street as this. It can hardly be doubted but that' 
tliere are many builders who would pay sl large ground-reDt, 
and be at all charges, in their usual manner; especially if 
they knew how much comfortable houses for middling fami^ 
lies were wanted here. The number of strangers that 
would be glad to live in this provincial town b probably very 
great. Here * are many considerable inducements, which 
would make them give a preference to this place : a good 
market, a river, that brings coals, oats, building materials, of 
all kinds, as moderate as in any inland town ; carriages to all 
parts of the kingdom, town light*ed, excellent roads, beauti- 
ful walks, church music, libraries, without any expence, an 
opportunity of attending a son^s education, &c. Sec. The 
builders may be further told, with truth, that all the buildings 
to be pulled down are of the humblest cast; that there is not 
z church or any public building, not even a common brew- 
house, standing in the way : that the street will not only be 
airy in itself, as open at one end to the country, but let in 
air too to a close part of the town ; that, though free from 
noise, it will have the market-place and trading part of tbe 
town behind its southern side, at as convenient a distance as 
can be wished ; and an inhabitant may take his ride to the 
east, west, north, or south, the latter by going over the 
river at the wooden bridge, beween Trinity and Clare Hallj • 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. l«t 

and turniDg to the right or left, without going over hardly 
may stones, but those of part of his own short street. 

If the Commissioners for paving have already sufficient 
powers for doing this, and do not choose to employ build- 
ers^ there can hardly be a doubt made, that private persons . 
ivill be glad to furnish the money for doing the whole under 
their inspection and controuK If the University is likely to 
continue so crouded as at present, a pretty livelihood might 
be made by letting these clean and comfortable lodgings to 
the students : a material accommodation, but not now to be 
bad, for those who want to reside ; or such other persons as 
may choose to live here, either occasionally or entirely. A 
passage forxarriages from the newstreet to the market-place^ 
directly through the Rose or Angel Inn yard, might easily be 
made to the benefit and convenience of. all parties con- 
cerned. 

4. Another desirable street might be formed from the 
back of the Shire Hall to the Hog Hill and comer 6f the 
Botanic Garden. 

5. But if complete perfection is desired, the town should 
be pierced through its centre, in one strait regular line, from 
the end of Jesus Lane, along the market-place, and conti- 

* nued on to Hog Hill. How very feasible this is, may be 
readily seen, by laying a ruler on the plan in the line above 
described ; and how convenient to travellers^ and how orna- 
mental to the town, need hardly Be mentioned. And if 
Downing College is to be built on Pembroke Leys, as is ge- 
nerally expected, its magnificent front will afford a noble 
termination to this long vista ; and this grand street will in 
return, accommodate the College with a suitable avenue to 
the principal parts of the University. 

It is said to be in contemplation to open the end of Green 
Street, over against Sidney College : this to be sure would 
be doing much good, as it would lessen the number of pas- 
sengers now obliged to go through the gorge opposite to 
bt. Sepulchre's Church, by allowing a new passage for 



It6 SUPPLEMENT TO THE ■ 

tbose vfbo wanted to -gQ throagh Jesus Lan« ; mnd Aon^ 
this is very desirable, yet it is by no means a complete te* 
medy ; as the passage out of Trumpington Street into Grieeo 
Street is very narrow, and diree sharp turnii^ are to be 
passed instead of the present two. 

So much for the beneficial improvements of the town : let 
us now consider what can be easily done, for the ben^t of 
some of the particular buildings of the University. 

6. Upon a sbranger^s entering the town from London, no- 
thing would contribute more to impress him with an high 
opinion of the place, than an improvement of the facade of 
Pembroke College : it stands in a handsome broad ^part of 
the street ; and if the northern extremity was iintifaed like th*- 
end of die chapel, tlie entrance removed into the middle^ 
handsome modern windows pnt in, and the roof propeaij 
masked by a balustrade, or parapet wall, it would contri^ 
bute more to the ornament of the place than peibapa any 
other*coUege. 

Of Bene't College nothing need be said, as the proposed 
plan is very handsome ; unless it may ^be thought, that the 
ends fronting Catharine Hall might be made to answer better, 
and be handsomer, by being made like those proposed for 
Howard's Crescent, Gent. Mag. 1786, p. 7^> or those for 
the street near Temple Bar, }7ii3, p. 1093, or any other 
still better, inst^d of ending with so. many blank windows, 
as in.tiie plan. 

To proceed along the street, the building of the ning to 
answer the Senate House should be begun. 

7* St. Mary's Church should be entirely appropriated to 

the University, and the few parishioners that ar^ left, since 

the demolition of the houses for the building of the Senate 

- House, should be transferred to the immediately adiacent pa* 

rishes. 

8. Clare Hall is so complete, that it hardly seems to allow 
of any improvement; except the removal of the mean dwarf 
walls between the College aud the Bridge, and settii^dowB 



- HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. tt7 

ihe iron rails upon the ground : tlie similar walls too, by Uie 
river-side, should be taken away,- and the iron rails conti- 
nued; when the handsome west front is viewed from the 
ivalks, these low dirty walls appear to form a vile-lookiog 
brick base to a grand Btone building. 

9* If Trinity College would be so obliging as to allow of 
the corner, that projects into the street next to St. John's 
College, being rounded off to the corner of St. John's Col* 
lege, and the gate leading into the^ back lane between their 
College and St. John's set level with the latter; and the 
high wall removed that masks half their front, that Society 
might exhibit a noble antique front, by bringing the east end 
of the chapel parallel with the rest, and finishing the otiier 
end with ^ similar wing, regulating the windows, roof, &c. at 
before recommended in Pembroke College. 

Some more improvements might be ^mentioned for the in- 
ternal part of this large structure, which is very admirable 
for its regularity, considering that it was built at three differ- 
ent times; but these are omitted, as external appearance is ' 
the general object of present consideration*. 
' lO. Perhaps no spot can be fixed on itiore eligible for the 
New College than the precincts of the Castle. Had the 
Botanic Garden never taken place, there would have been a -. 
third instance of what is very remarkable, the original walls of 
a Romish Catholic religious house ' being unoccupied by 
houses for so much longer time than even the sites of Sid* 
ney and Emmanuel Colleges. 

] I. Another -general material object that might be submit- 
ted to consideration, is, whether it might not be for ihe bene- 
fit of all concerned, who now insure their property in differ- 
ent offices, to form a body of themselves, under the direction ' 
of their present Commissioners, and to pay the same sums 
as tUey do at present^ at least for some time, to repay any 

* It it doubted whether thert it another court really square in the •liolt 



1281 ^SUPPLEMENT TO TM£ 

losses that might arise by fire. Tliat the gayr to die offices 
must have been very considerable, is clear from the nomfaer 
starting up continually ; yet these make no payment at all 
for books, and books of account^ pictures, or other curiofii- 
ties, which may be of great value : nor can they da much 
towards preventing fires, which is the thing to be wished ; 
whereas, such a body as is here meant, always on the spe^ 
might adopt a variety of measures conducive to this eod; 
such as retaining, by a small weekly pay, a number, perhaps 
twelve, of stout labourers, as masons, carpenters, bl^ck^ 
smiths. Sec. whose names and dwelling^ might be known^ 
and who should be ready to turn out on the tirst alarm, and 

I 

give their assistance, and should then be properly rewarded 
for their activity : otie should be called Captain, and always 
be director and mtbager of the pipe ; and the rest aii num-^ 
bered: they should all be furnished with hats, and everj 
other article, the same as the London firemen. They 
should esercise themselves, and the engines, from time to 
time ; keep them in repair ; and if they took h by turns to 
watch one aight each, for which they should be paid, in 
some place from whence they could see great part of the 
town, it might often prevent mischief. In short, there 
should be a proper depot of every necessary instrument * 
that can be thought of; reservoirs of muddy water, which is 
found to be best, should be sunk iji proper places, and co^ 
vered over and distinguished as the fireplugs in Londooy 
&c. &c. 
. But it is unnecessary to enter into more particulars,' as 

* All the fire-engines shoald be brought together^ and kept in one coia- 
modious, accessible, and central room, »ith the furuiture of each properly ^ 
arranged by it : one at least of a propcr-Jsize" for the purpose shoald be 
mounted on a light fou».whceIed carriage, and furnished with every instru- 
n»ent that w ever wanted, in the manner well figured and defcribed in the 
^'nivvsal Magazine for April 1791, p. 281, from a design of William 
^ n*8, of Chelmsford, agent there -for the Royal Exchange Assurance Of- 
This would soon reach any of the neighbouring villages. 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 129 

such a Boards in two or three «ieetifig8| would be fuHy equal 
to the drawiag up proper regulations. The money, after 
detaining as much as may be wanted for current expences, to 
be lodged in the public funds, or on the credit of the Paving 
Act. This would, in a few years, accumulate to such a sum, 
as to make further subscriptions unnecessary. The only ob* 
Jection that occurs, is, supposing an heavy loss to- happen 
the first year, how is the damage to be made good i 

Answer. Such a Society need not fear the raising almost 
any sum upon the credit of annual subscriptions paying the 
intereet. 

If you suppose losses of a great amount to happen every 
year, you will break not only this bank^ but all the banks in 
the kingdom. 

This project, in a still minuter detail, has been submitted 
to a very sensible agent of one of the fire-offices, with a de- 
sire that he would start all the objections against it that he 
could, as we may well suppose he would be veiy ready to 
do : and these were only, firsts that Government would tax 
the shares, as they do the policies. 

Answer. If Government did, this would be no more 
than takes place now : but why should it happen to the mo- 
ney vested in the funds in a mass, any more than to the mo- 
ney lodged in the same manner by benefit societies, relief of 
necessitous clergymen. Sec. 8cc. ? 

Second. Ezpence of officers, &Cf , * 

Answer. But what officers would be wanted? The 
Paving Commissioners would be so kind as to do the whole, 
or the subscribers, who are all interested and resident upon 
the spot, would appoint a Conunittee ; the first banker in 
the neighbourhood would be glad to be their treasurer ; any % 

gentleman present at the meeting would be so kind as to be 
the secretary for that day, and enter the minutes of the pro- 
cee<fings ; all without fee or reward : whereas all the present 
offices have to pay an iqjent each of them in every great 



I8t SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

to something specific, require uniform narrative^ and 
lar description; and in a reference to such latter qualitie!^ 
it is, that Bishop Hurd has called Hume's History Ae mosl 
readibl^ history of England * that we have. 

But University-histories are of a nature different fiom all 
these :' their 'many breaks and interruptions are not the best 
calculated to amuse; nor even their narratives^ except with- 
in a limited circle, to instruct : while their regularities and 
particularities, their localities aud formalities, may in some 
delicate ears excite wearisomeness and disgust. Still mich 
qualities proceed from the very nature of the works; tliey 
belong to the place ; and it is only by an account of their 
littlenesses that we can judge of their properties^ under- 
stand their relation, or d^ve from them any use t. Phi- 
losophers, too, should recollect, that every question hma two 
handles ; they may take hold of which the; please : Eodem 
modo sspe etiam accidit, ut res minut« et humiles p\ua con- 
ferant ad notitiam grandium, quam grandes ad notitiam mi- 
nutarum: bene siquidem notavit Anstoteles, Cujusq. rd 
naturam in portiambus minimis optimi ccmi;}:. 

University history, in its generic character, must rank 
under what Lord Bacon calb Civil History; but it soon 
leaves its high grounds, and branches out into the humbler 
walks of species, differences, and little parts, what Bacon calls, 
Imperfecte mixtse §; and it must often happen, that what has 

* Oialogues on the English Constitution. 

f Lord Bacon well observes, thoagh not speaking directly on this fldh 
ject: Sifflili plane ratione natura hujusce magna CiviUtis, (Universitatil 
nimimm reram) ejnsq. dispensation in primft qniqne symboKxatioae et 
minimis reram portionibos inyestiganda est: ut fieri videmus, qnod secr^ 
turn illnd naturas (habitum pro maximo) de verticitate fenrit tactu magnetis 
exciti ad polos, se conspiciendum prsebuit, non in vectibus ferreit, sed in 
aeubut. Be Aug. Scient. L. II. C. 8. 

t Ibid. 

I Memorue, sive preparationes ad Historiam, dnplidi generis fliiDt,qnonuB 
alteram Commentarios, alterum Regiatra vocare placet. Coniiientarii m- 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. '» 

tolt the geatest laboor will obtain the least praise^ or not 
even be perceived. Here the writer must not look for the 
admiration of every fashionable reader; he must content 
himself, if in any measure he can interest readers of corre« 
spondent pursftits, who are content with what is useful, and 
prepared to think. 

Anthony Wood is a character in point : we at one time 
behok) him on the higher grounds, hand in hand with kings 
and queens, and popes, and noble founders ; at another, a 
mere gleaner in the fields below, collecting admissions, dates,' 
and degrees. And what do those who come at\er him, but 
tread partly in his steps ; gathering up, at first, what he over- 
looked, and, next, what could not have fallen in hia way * ? 

Mons. Crevier, in his History of the University of Paris, 
keeps the higher grounds : he udmits, indeed, that by his 
very profession and aim, he b often obliged to descend into 
some lower walks f ; but he never demeans himself, to pick 

dam actionimi et eventumn leriem ao connnionein proponDnt, pnetermif- 

sis cansis reniin et pnttextibas. At Registra duplicis sant natnra: 

Complectaiitar eoim aut"Titolos Rerom et PersoDarum—- ant Actorum So- 
len m i t a tes e t simiUa, absq. nairationis conieatu, sive filo continuo. 

In his ImperfieGta Historic deftetum aliqaem noa puto designaodum, com 
sint tanquam Impertect^ Mtsiae, at defectus hqivsinodi sit ex ipsi earom 
natunu C. 6. 

* Athens OzonieDses, &c. a new edition, with additions ; and a Conti- 
Buation, by Philip Bliss, Fellow of St John's College, Oxford, 1813— and 
The History and Antiq. of the Uaivenitjr of Oxford, firom Wood's Original 
VSS. ace hy John Goteh, A. M. 1793. 

f Ce, qui ooncenie les etudes fc les traits remarkable du Caractere et da 
la Tie desSavansy les progres des Lettres, leor decadence, leur renooTelle* 
ment, la difference de la methode et da goat sui?ant lesquels on les a 
traites dans les differens ages, ce sont des matieres qni plaisent a tout ama- 
tear de la litterature. Les Articles de reglement et de discipline, qncrfq. ils 
offirent nae image da I'anttquilft qui pique la curiosite, qaoiqu'ils puissent 
SQUTent doaner liea a des Tetouons utiles et judicieuses, ont neantmoins par 
euz memes quelque chose de seo et memo de petit, qui semble porter avee. 
ioi l*ennui et k degout. Mais je ne pourois les omettr«^ tani manquer a 



134 SUPPLEMENT TO TRE 

op those lighter matters just now mentioned i and ha^nqf 
Deboullai for a guide, and bis more plodding labours for nd 
es^emplar^ be had^ according to bis own account^ the cojat" 
paratively more easy part of giving a polish to bis predece^ 
sor's materials. Of bis biographies be ia very spario^: 
he holds out, indeed, some greater luminaries — such, at 
least, as he thought so, the Standoncs, Almains, G^^oos : 
1>ut the little stars he throws into utter shade. Crevier's 
^]story, therefore, may perhaps be more agreeable to polite 
readers ; but it required less of labour, perhaps of Jifera- 
ture \ and for many purposes, is certainly less useful and in- 
structive, thi^n the arduous, and with all its minutisBj exteu* 
nve, undertaking of Anthony Wood. 

I had but a slight acquaintance witji Wood's volumes, 
when I undertook to write the History of the Universiry of 
Cambridge : but the plap I adopted more resembles hi^ 
than Crevier's. I adopted it insensibly ; but, 1 6iink, natu- 
rally. It is, however, as the reader must perc^ve, one 
liable to numerous omissions, susceptible of perpetual im« 
provements, and calling for additions without end. 

What other editors dien have been lately doing for Wood, 
I have attempted to do for myself. Wood begins his Athense 
Oxon. ift 1500; and it is brought down to his death in Nov. 
1695* It professes to give an exact history of all the writers 
and bishops who had been educated at Oxford during that 
period: He had a John Aubrey (an able pioneer) to dig for 
him, and explore. Yet, with all his assiduity and care, Aer^ 
were many omissions; and it matters not what were &e 
causes. Our history did not propose to notice all aulbors, 
nor all bishops, but such only as were known by their writ- 
ings ; aud, perhaps, some may think several writers are in- 



Pan des principauv points de me que je me tuif pvoposM.— Cevx d« mm 
Lecteurs qui craiadront qoe ces metieras ne kt cimuy«nt, peaTentleipMi* 
«w. B»totre ds /' UrwMrtiU d$ Pmt. Prefkce. 



r 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 155 

Produced unnecenarily. Bit iae tliiesb matters as they itaay^ 
if Anthony Wood, v^ith all bis assidui^ and care, atid co« 
operating friendi, tould not help omisiioiiSy it may be ex« 
pected that in a ^orl of hmnUer pretensions, and with less of 
co-operation, diere will be numerous and striking omissions ; 
and an apology is not necessary, for not having attained what 
was never professed, and what could not have been executed. 

What already has been mentioned as the cause of som^ 
delays, must have occasioned also some omissions* When 
H person is introduced into a garden^ rich, beautiful, and 
extensive, and left to ratige at large, at his own discretion, 
what wonder if he indulges ih some natural propensities i 
If with a little fondness, he lingers in some delightful walks^ 
eats^ perhaps, net sparingly, of the choicest fruits, and 
plucks, as he passes^ many of the ttibst odoriferous flowers i 
If, gratifying otte setisie at the eitpenee ot another, he may 
pass many a stately tree without perceiving it, and a brook, 
murmuring, perhaps, at his feet, oi some songster warbling 
over his head, without even hearing them P Every species 
of intempehitjce has something of ebriety, which causes 
forgetfnlness or neglect. To speak without figure, when 
the work, to which these volumes are an appendix, was first 
undertaken, it was, after inany years of a coarse of read<^ 
iiig, sometimes in the way of pleasure, sometimes of A 
profession : a wotld of heading was to be gone over ; and 
criticism, like the volatile spirit, ivhich rises from heat, will * 

proceed from inuch reading. Wheti engaged, too, and 
often captivated with what ia immediately before us, we are 
apt not to perceive mariy objetts around us ; and, as from 
the varieties of literature, Mre teay go too slowly to our 
memoranda and register-books, we may return frdBi them 
too much in haste* 

Some otnissions have been occasioned by a desire of pro- 
curing information at original sources, and from the writ- 
bgi of the men thevmlvesy of whom I ^ have so briefly 



136 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

spoken. Thus £ur^ litde use has been made of our po- 
pular biographies : an observation thb, however, made writh 
the utmost deference and respect That we have Bratiah 
Biographies written by men of much learning, uniform in- 
dustry, and undoubted fidelity, and therefore carrying wiih 
them the greatest authority, no one can be ignorant. .Tlhe 
hint b dropped, not to intimate defects in those works, but 
to account for omissions in this* Thus, for instance, had I 
been more conversant in the Bi(^rapbia Britannica, die 
names of some distinguished Cantabrigians, so prominent ia 
that great national work, could not have escaped notice ^ 
and in what remains of this volume,, more use will be made 
of such learned labours. 

As some omissions, though unavoidable, have been with- 
out design, so others, it must be confessed, are wUfuI: such 
for instance, as the names of many ingenious and learned 
men, who are stUl alive. However agreeable it maj be to 
pay the respect due to living merit in works of this kind, it 
is always attended with peculiar delicacy, and often with 
some hazard. On one side, you are liable to offend, on the 
other, to disappoint. Party-spirit, on one side or the other, 
might look for an advocate, (not that such a work allows of* 
partialities, nor that any party, nor any in^vidual of a party, 
has shewn any inclination to bias this). Even the language 
of friendship may be construed into selfishness, and that of 
gratitude into sycophancy and flattefy. 

But of this part of the subject another view may be 
taken, that speaks once for all : few men would be equal to 
the task. In the present Voyage of Observations, more of 
Ocean has already been traversed than has been proper/j 
explor^ : 

— — Maria undique et undique cesium ! 

and it may be prudent not to attempt the new world, though 
promising fresh light, and new discoveries. Genius and ta* 
lents, and learning, may be every day springing up, and 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 137 

(however flattering the attempt, as being more likely to be 
encouraged) too numerous to be grftped by a moderate 

hand. 

■ 

So, to take a hint (as indeed has already been done) from 
one who hks often stood a friend; De modernis— — praeter 
ea, qu« jam antea dicta sunt, baud aliam affero excusatio* 
nem, quam quod modestise mese grave duzerim, virtutes eo- 
rum pro meritis decantando, adulationis suspicionem in<- 
currere, et gratiam, sive apud ipsos, Mve propinquos eorum 
edamnum viventes ineundam, sacrosanctae veritati« prepo- 
suissevideri*. 

Still, as some machines may be more eanly put in mo- 
tion, than made to stop, so,, in certain pursuits, is it with the 
human mind: it begins, perhaps, in a start, or with slight 
exertions, and with little of design ; but impelled, as it 
proceeds, by stronger motives, it proceeds with more force ; 
till being driven from its original direction^ amidst new and 
unexpected scenes, it becomes unable to keep its first reso- 
lutions unbroken and entire. 

So in this case, what affected me at first perhaps but 
little, was more impressive by neiuiiess; and the exerci- 
tations became more various, as the objects were more nu- 
merous. Prudence suggested a caution, and inability for 
completing what might be wished, brought on a resolution 
not to attempt it. But, perhaps, should God spare my life 
two or three yean longer (though I have something within 
me that preaches strongly of mortality)^ I may make out 
another list of more recent names; and in that case, when 
human opinions and frailties cannot affect the writer, the 
particulars will be left to proper persons to do with them 
what they please. 

So, from these preliminaries, which must serve as apo- 
logies, I pass to another series of additions, *' a few more 
last words.'' 

* Oodwia. de VnmiU AagL Prefat 



us 



SUPPLEMENT THE SECONl>, 



TO TUB 



HISTORY OF tHfi UNlVfiRSItY ANU CX)L.- 
LEGfiS OF CAMBRIDGE. 

The farmer Series of Addilunis referred to the His- 
tory only : there could therefore be a reference io 
nothmy but that: this Utter Series r^ers both to 

' the History and thefermer Additions : it, ihere^ 
fore, becomes necessary to marh, by ckaracferisHe 
siynaturesj the references to each. Thus, in th^ 
following Series, H, with the page subjoined^ tvitt 
shew the page in the History, to which the reference 
is nuxde ; and A, with the page sulffoinedf wiU 
shew the page in the AddUions, 

m 

VOL. L~THE INTRODUCTION. 

A. p. 3, 4. • Registers. 

Ths importance of Registers^ both in Collides and Uoh 
Tersities, for the purposes of biograpbyi must be obrioiM to 
every ooe ; and, since the reign of Elizabeth, they have been 
regularly kept : and as, on the one band^ it may be presumed 
Aat they will be preserved in great order, w, ou Ae other, 
tint they will always be accessible, where the case refones : 
-—the same also of what are called the Archires, as being of 
the greatest consequence in matters of history— and, accord- 
ingiy^ each University has its public Registrar : Oxford In^ 
several, and the appointment of a Keeper of the Archi?eS| ai 
a distinct officer, seems a wise regnhitievi in the economy of 
the University of Oxford. Oxford Matriculation Book be- 



HlgfORV OF CAMBRIDGE. ^ 190 

gui3 u^. 156$ ; Cai^ridge fkho^i ibq «ame p^iod ; tad, cmmt^ 
fluenllfiF, Dr. Ridmrdaon's Lii( of Ofadiiatea begiiis befora 



H. p. 3, !• 10. Dreams of Monks. 

As there appears in some writers^ either from selMove, or 
a desire to curry favour with present times^ a propensity to 
under-rate^ or even entirely to overlook, the attainments of 
former periods, so in others, to over*ntte them, and almost to 
identify them with the age in which they themselves live. The 
fiDTJSier, as there will be another opportunity of observing, was 
4ie case of Hume ; tbe latter, as I have already hinled, that of 
Attthooy Wood. Indeed, we may be led into error or ne- 
glect by too much scepticism, no less than too great a fond- 
ness for antiquity. * Still our religious institutions, like those 
of the ancient Jews*, were accompanied with schools ; and 
as we must begin with them, the infantine literature of mo^ 
nastic ages, as well as its more advanced and improved state, 
has its natural, and, therefore, should find its regular place. 

H. p. S. Fine Arts. 

Very lately, a most magnificent collection of paintings, 
prints, and books, on the fine arts, together with a suitable 
endowment, to give them eflfect, has been presented to die 

* Nam ante excidium sob Vespasiano, babebantor in AcademU Hieroso« 
molytani Synagogae sea Collegia amplius quadringenta, quorum singulis 
iaerant SchoJa item hiBse: alter% qaa Lax soripta pnelegebatur -iod rm, 
u f. BiUiotheeaj-^^Hera, qoi Mismahth, teu Traditionesatq. exagases vete- 
niiP) senteniiSB recept«, decisiooes forenses, id genus castera docebaotar. 
Hsc autcm Dvhn 11^3 seu Domus Doctriius nuncupabaatuc Seideni iV»-> 
Ugomena ad Lihtum Smgularem de Suecessionibut ad Leg^et Ebr<PorunL>— It ja 
resaarkable, that monastic houses had similar provisions, two schools, an 
ontvaid and an iummi, ona^ as I bava aliewkera shewn ft^m the ilir«« 



liO SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

Vwrmty by Earl FitzwiUiam ; and the result no one tm 
tell : perhaps it may be, that, at some future period^ &e ailr 
may intermix even with the sciences in these a^ats of lite* 
rature, more than we are at present aware of; and diooU 
that ever happen, the propriety of such incidental leraaiia 
on the arts, in connexion widi our Academia, will ba more 
sensibly felt ihan they can be now. 

H. p. 9, 1. 6. Bodleian library, (particularly the QJke- 
tians of Dr. RawUnson and Mr. GcugH) 

That of Dr. Rawlinson contains a volume, of pieces be* 
fore copied! by Mr. Heame, of Mr. Hatcher's Catalogue of 
Provosts and Fellows of King's Ck>llege, with some more 
papers. Among others, too, of Dr. Rawlinson mny be 
mentioned one volume, (though not going'much into detail), 
as being, I believe, peculiar to this collection, entitled, Tbe 
Foundation of the University of Cambridge, with die Names 
and Arms of all sudi noble Persons as have been Earls of 
Cambridge, and Chancellors of the University for 100 
Years (to 1662), with various other Notices of a public Ma- 
ture. It was written by William Sanderson, who, as ap- 
pears by the Preface, lived*in the reign of Charles II. This 
volume contains the Certificate of * the Records of the Uni- 
versity, as it was read over in the Consistory, April 2, 1629- 

Mr. Gough's Collections are more numerous^ and very va- 
luable. Among these are, Cantabrigiensis Academia, as 
Ibe Antiquities and Curiosities of Cambridge Univeruty, by 
John Pointer, the same writer, I suppose, as published the 
Oxoniensis Academia, or the Antiquities and Curiosities of 
the University of Oxford : they also contain, " MisceUa« 
nies relative to the County, the Town, and the University of 
Cambridge." These, according to a note written in them by 
Dr. Fanner, seem to have been the collection of W. In« 
gram, and contain many curious particulars. The more.va* 
luable part of Gough's Collections ai^ the MSS. of ^nncis 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. Ui 

Slomefieldy author of the Collectanea Cantabrigieiiria^ and 
the History of Norfolk. They consist of -two volumes, fo- 
lio. The first volume of the two folios contains General 
Collections for the County and University of Cambridge ; 
the 2ndy Church Inscriptions and other materials for the ge* 
neral History of Cambridgeshire, all the Towns being en« 
tared in alphabetical Order. In this are transcribed all the 
old charters from King John to Edward VI. of the Town 
of Cambridge, which was done by the appointment of John 
Wicksled, sometime an alderman of the same town. Theip are 
also two smaller volumes, in 4to. by Blomefield. — But the 
SBost valuable of Gough's volumes are the vast collections of 
Dr. Mason, consisting of 34 volumes folio. Dr. Mason 
vas the well-known antiquary of Trinity College, CauH 
bridge^ of which he was Fellow, and for the history of 
which he left considarable materials in manuscript, which 
are now in Trinity College. And these are the principal 
MSS. relating to Cambridge^ that I have met with in the 
fiodkiaa at Oxford. 

H. p.^O. Mr. Hare. 

1, have elsewhere spoken of having formerly seen a vo- 
lume of Mr. Hare's Collections in the Library of Caius 
College : indeed there are two volumes fol. of them in that 
Library, which are frequently referred to by Mr. Blomefield, 
in his MSS. that are among Gough^s Collections in the 
Bodleian. In the Catal. MSS. Ang. et Heb. p. 12«, 123, 
their distinct titles may be seen. Part of them only relate 
to Cambridge. 

A. p. 6, 1. 10. Baker^s History. 

But whatever disapprobation any persons might feel foe 
Mf Baker; and his writings, it is certain, that Mr. B. pos- 
sessed an indifference, bordering* on coptemp^ for their 
judgment ; and, indeed, bating a little superstitioas. fondness 



/ 
/ 



140 SUPPLEMF^,/«> TBTE 

Universitj by Earl Fitew^ ^^ m tWe to w^ek eaadovir cai 
lell : perhaps it may be ^^ in some respetts. Biker's con- 
may intermix even V /^ oemv^Brs. In his Preface to liie 
rature, more than * /,j|«garet, Countess of Richmoarf and 
that ever happen, ^resee^ kffAself of his coDtempoiaries of 
on the arts, in cf^^ no partiatity or fondness for the present 
sensibly felt tb' ^ I possess such advantages from it a9 to 
^ ^(0 deviate fVooi the troth ; and I do here dechre 
H. p. 9, ^ jt^e more regard to ow ibnnders and benefecton, 
/ Aave to- the present College now Kvhig/' And 
y^ As it IB, I trust it with die reader. If what has 
^ ^ sai4 by way of apology do not satisfy towards ob- 
i^ ^ing bis fttfWMr, the next thing' I am to teH him is, I de 
/net value his^ censure— I have always had an ineliDatioa to 
f speak the truth, and to do right, e^eeially where if is 

* most deprest, and waitlM^ an«^ in #iat opinion I hope to 
«< die.'* P. 6e^-60» 

• '^ The ^mne tking9^ in Baker^s History, which it seems 
'< certain persons thought had better rem^b- unpuMished^'' 
were, it is probable^ some old-fashioned sentiments or ex- 
pressions, that Baker delivered' a» a* nonjuror, which he 
most conscientiously, yet most peaceably^ was : perhaps, too 
he might be thought to speak too fhvourably of the Pori* 
tans. As to his opinion of Bishop Gunning, Ke leant to the 

/ side of candour ; for he spake not always conformably to his 

Conviction of the* truth of opinions, or strict merit of con- 
duct, but as an historian stating facts, and' according to his 
conviction of the sincerity of the persons of wliom he wrote : 
this appears very evident from his Freiace to Bishop Fisher's 
Funeral Sermon, in which he qualifies the Popish opinions 
delivered in the Sermon, with his natural candour, and with 
great admiration of 'Fisher; yet vrithout believing as Fisher 
baUeved- 

Mk Atiliby', who had beetf Senior Fellow of thfe GoU^, 
addfip, in this passage reflated to abovif, ^ that^ witen* Mn 
^ Maslera designad pnbfishiiig' the liiia of T. BUm;. be 




HierroRY oy cambriikse. 143 

« 

for leave to pAibUdi this History, but was not al« 
f b«t/' contiaues be, *' any body that can get lewe 
Trustees of the British Muaeuui) may obtain a 
ind print withoujt troubliag themselves tibo^t the 
/y copy (in St. John's College), when the perfect one 
^ M the Muuumr) may be had so easily/' 
/ 

r 

H. p. 18, I. iQr^Jind their may home. 

m 

The readec will please to observe,^ that I have left unno« * 
ticed several manuscripts, which, on their own account, de- 
serve distinct notice ; but as they have been embodied into 
the larger collections, they must now, of course, be consi- 
dered a part of them. Thus, if. I mbtake not, the Athens 
Cantabrigienses of Drake Morris, formerly Fellow-Commonr 
er of Trinity College, was taken, either in whole or in part^ 
into Baker^s, Mason's, and Cole's larger collections. Among 
the Harleian MSS. it consists of twd voliimesy folio ; though 
after all, it professes to be only E&tracts and Compilations 
ttom Bale, Pitts, Fi|Iler, and others. For the same reasoO| 
I have omitted one ,or two formerly possessed by Dr. Raw- 
linson, and now probably in his Collection in the Bodleian or 
in some other library, such as the Foundation of the University^ 
of Cambridge, with a Catalogue of the Principal Found* 
era, &c. being collected by John Ivory, Fol. 167 1. This 
belonged to George Villiers, Duke of . Buckingham, for- 
merly Chs^Qcellor of the University;. See Rawliosoa^s £ng« 
lish Topographer, p. 13. 

. Joh» Ro« diedtn 140K Brian Twyne, lb# 0»fofd Aftw 
tifMiji describas hkiii as Hiatoriaa utriuaq. Academiafc (tarn- 
OxottMtMis quam Cantabrigiansis) asstitnal^r omnium -asquMs^ 
mmuB* Antif • Asoad. Omoq4 Ap#L Xi« J, ' p. 7.' LehncP 



14^ SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

speaks of him thus : Secutus est Johannes Rossus Vevovica- 
nus, vir majoris longe diligentue quam judicii. Itmer. 
Vol. 9, p. .76. Comment, in Cygneam Cantionem ; and 
Ross's own account of the early part of our History^ in his 
Hist. Reg. AngUie^ and what he says^ de Academiis Britanni- 
cis, seems to accord with this character; for he follows 
almost implicitly the most credulous and superstitious of the 
monkish chroniclers. 

Indeed 9ne hardly knows what to say of Ross's writings, 
with the exception of the History above mentioned. LicUokd 
positively affirms, that he both saw and read his book^ De 
Antiquitate Academiarum Britannicarum, and contra paeudo* 
historiam Antiquitatis Grantanae (as two works, distinct from 
the Hist. Reg. Anglise), with others ; and as to Bale, he en- 
tirely follows Leland; yet Twyne thought the book De Aca- 
demiis was no distinct work from his Hist. Regum Angliae ; 
and Caius doubts whether he ever wrote a book^ de Acade- 
miisy or whether Bayle, or even Leland, ever saw such : and 
even Anthony Wood says, ut quod est res dicam, in errorem 
inde ductus est Noster ille (Briantu TwyneJ^ quoniam io 
Libro de Regibus multa deprehendit Alrademias tangentiay 
quae quidem eidem propterea inseniit Bossus, quia Libel* 
lum suum de Academiis, exiguus cum esset, perdendum in, 
baud falso augurio, prsesagiebat. De Hist, et Antiq. Oxon* 
lib. 11, p. 77. 

Hearne, who like Baker, was commonly willing, if he 
must err, to err on the side of candour, was, peihaps, not 
disposed to leave Leland under the imputation of uttering a 
direct lie. He thinks these were distinct works of Ross's, 
and that his book de Academiis, as other of Ross's works 
are known to have been, were lost ; and there is this, which 
seems to favour his opinion, that in Leland's Itineraiy 
(vol. iv. sub finem) are several extracts from the' book de 
Academiis, which are ndt to be found in the Hist Regum 
AnglisB. The same inference may be made from what Le- 
knd's friend Alien says, as quoted in the 0th volume of 



HISTORY OP CAMBRIDGE, 145 

Lelaiid's Itm. 8Mb. finem. See Hearne's Pns&tio to Ross's 
Hist. Regum Angl. in vol. lOth of the Itinerary, Add to 
this, that Caius himself (De Antiq* Cantab. L. i^ p. 44, ed. 
1568) distinctly refers to such a book. 

But leaving these matters, and allowing others to settle the . 
mlue of what Ross asserts^ of the University of Oxford, I 
must add one observation, relative to Cambridge, which is^ 
that whatever Ross, says of the University of Cambridge 
seems to be derived from the Historiola in the Black Book; 
and, indeed, (though he is said to have written a book. Contra 
Historiolam Cantabrigiensem, Lab. 1.) he says as much him* 
self, where, after speaking of the story of Cantaber, he says, 
ut scribunt Cantabrigienses, Hist. Reg. Ang. p. 26 ; and he 
seems to have followed an equally gooJ authority for what he 
says about Oxford. Secutus est (as Leland says, who is 
speaking of the Hutoria. Rerum MemorabtUum, quam Aca» 
demia Isiaca religiose servat) et Rossus Vervicensis — banc 
quaUmcunque de Scholarum translatione opinionem. Com- 
ment, in Cygn. Cantionem, p. 76.— -The only instance in 
which Ross varies from the Historiola Cant, is, the former 
makes the date of Cantaber's building Cambridge, A. M. 
4317; the latter, 4391. 

In speaking, in the text, of what Leland promtied, I al- 
lude to what he announced in Cofnment. in Cygneam Cant. 
8ub voce, Granta : Quin Grantse gloriam in opusculo, quod 
de Academiis sum propediem editunis, - coUandabo : of 
which, and a conclusion drawn from it. Bishop Nicholson 
observes, after Dr. Caius — *' When the sky falls, we shall 
catch larks.'* English Hist. Library, p. 125, ed. 1776. I 
spake from a belief, which appears to have been, also, the 
opinion of Bishop Nicholson and Dr. Caius, that Leland 
alluded to some intended publication of his own, as indeed, 
(though it was never published) by the Assertio Antiq. 
Ox. it api^ears he did ; for, as is well known, the Oxon. in 
Angl. Acmdemiss Descriptio, and the Oratio habita, Sec, 



I 

\ 



14IS SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

Cantabrigifle, whicbTare printed in his Itinerary, by Hcftnii^ 
were written by other persons. 

It may then appear to some not improbable, I think, tint 
Leland, from what he found in Ross, and the others, de Aca- 
demiisy did meditate to publish some work on the same sub- 
ject: though after all^ with. due submission to the abow 
learned men, I would humbly propose a question^ wheAer 
b6» might not have in his eye that elegant Letter de Acade- 
miis, written by Nicholas Fitzherbert, which, as already ob- 
served, if published in the Itinerary, vol. 9, p. 105, ed. 
Hearne. 

!!• p, £5, 1. 3. University Writers. 

There have^ also, been published various pamphlets, relating 
to the disputes in particular Colleges, of wfaicli the most fa- 
mous are the numerous ones between th^ Master of Trinity 
College (Dr. Bentley), and the Fellows. In 1684 were pub- 
lished extracts from the larger book of Statutes^ and repub- 
lished in 1714, with some additions: but a complete collec- 
tion was printed in 17B5, comprehending StatutaAntiqua; 
Statuta non in ordinem redacta; Statuta Regis Henrici 8^; 
Statuta Regis Edw. 6ti ; Statuta Regins Ehzabediae pHma 
Regni sui Edita; Statuta Reginse Elizabethan Anno Duode- 
cimo Regni sui Edita ; Statuta Reginald! Pole, Anno a Nati- 
vitate Domini 1557 • A very few copies were printed; and 
the Esquire Beadles, and two or three other public officers, 
possess each a copy : but such-like works, relating as they 
do, to the regulations of particular Colleges, or die govern- 
ment of the University, not being in die nature of histories 
of them, though illustrating some parts> it was not thought 
necessary to bring into the present Bst. 

H. p. 20, I. 14. Bede. 

I have elsewhere given, at larg^, a tranalatMHi of all Aat 
can be introduced into this queation from the venerable Bede. 



HISTC)RY OF CAMBRIDGE;. 147 

See Volttme Ist of our Hist. C&mb. p. 47 ; and agaio^ p. 156« 
It will be there seen^ that Bede never once mentioDS Cam* 
bridge ; nor have 1 rashly said here that Doctorum Homi' 
' num UnioerdtaSy Parker's Catal. 8u:. p. 1, (marked as a re- 
ference, and in italics) with Bede's name in the murgin, are 
not to be found in the venerable Bede. ' Vid^ Hist. Eccles. 
' Gent. A'ngl. L. 2, C; 15, L. S, C. 18. But I perceive the 
tack on which the Archbbhop went; he followed Dr. Caius's 
authority ; who in die same manner, tod the same order, re« 
iers to Lydgate, Beverley, and Bede, and affirms— Authorea 
prKterea esse, Cantabrum Athems edoctum, inde Philbsophos 
advocasse, et Cantabrigiae docendi gratift coUocasse: et ab 
his initiis ad suam (Bedte et Alfridi) menMnriam, prima 
Scholte et Unvoersitatis nomine, Cantabbigiam claruisse^ 
De Antiq. Cantab. Acad. L. 1, p. 56* But Bede does not 
■ay even this. 

Abraham Wheloc, the learned Arabic Professor, publish- 
ed at Cambridge, in 1644, Bede's History, accompanied 
vdth King Alured, or Alfred's Anglo* Saxon Version, together 
widi Annotations, selected from Saxon MSS. which he 
translated into Latin. Wheloc, as appears fropi the Dedica- 
tion to this work, was a strenuous assertor of die Antiquity 
of Cambridge, and on this passage in Bede — Quse in Galliis 
bene disposita vidit, imitari cupiens, instituit Scholam, L. 3, 
C. 18, (rev«e Scole; Alfred) he gives die following version of 
the Saxon annotation : Quae in Galliis vidit, hsec omnia Rex 
Aluredus ad Quhran s^l^apan] Caiholicam sen Orthodoxam 
fidem retnlit: Cupiens ergo CathoKcam Fkkm stt^ Ortho' 
daxam imitari, hanc Scholam Catholica Jidei, pro tota pro- 
vincia sua, normam constituit Nam Lib. d. Cap. 15, 
^ fidei Sacramentis provinciam totam, (in qu&Jhret hodie 
Cantabrigia) participera facere curavit.'* Kow from what 
has been said, it will appear, that in qua Jloret hodie Canta* * 
brigia is the gratis dictum of the annotator's, if indeed he 

wrote that line : for Cj^anraceap:^e and G;ianranbfiycs& are the « . 

%«fda ased in Bede aad the Sason Chroaide for Cambridge, 



148 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

and in later times Cantebrigia, or Cantibrigia, is commonl/ 
used in registers and other manuscripts, as Mr* Baker has 

m 

observed* 

But, at all events, we may collect, from what I have said 
above, how quoters and commentators often force out a 
meaning from an author that was, perhaps, after all, never 
meant. This is coining, for ready use, money that has not 
on it the royal stamp : and still further, even as to the 
Schola, it being so immediately connected with the CdthtH 
Ucd Fidesy it seems to have been only a Schola Monasticat, 
Monasterialis, Claustralis, ^* in qua Pueri deculares extra 
claustnim Monachis in Uteris instituebantur/* See Dii- 
fresne's Glossarium ad Script.' Med. & Inf. L^itiaitatis, 
Tom. 3, sub voce^ Schola. 

H. p. M, 1.8. FuUer. 

It hiay, however, be observed, that Dr. Fuller, beside 
what he says in his History of Cambridge, intersperses a few 
particulars, in his Church History of Britain, relating to her 
privileges. Cent. 2, ^^.^ Her Christian StudetOs. Cent. 
4, 9f and Persecution— Its foundation^ or radicr refounda^ 
Hon. Cent. 7, 46, and some other matters, on- which I 
have made occasional remarks in different parts of ike pre* 
sent work, and in the Hist, of Cambridge. 

H. p. 2% I 17. Miller. 

Rawlinsqn (English Topographer, p. IS) speaks pf this 
as a trifling pamphlet, and it certainly contains only d(X> 
pages ; still it answers to its character, and performs what it 
proposed. All our printed bistories of Cambridge are Uttle 
more than pamphlets ; and this Account^ &c. is liurger than 
Archbishop Parker*s History. 

H. p. 22, I. 23. Carter's ffistory. 
Mr. Carter's Hutoi7 of the Univeriity of Carabndge ia ont 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. J49 

volume 8vo. pp. 47 1» printed in 1753. 'JThis is now rather 
scarce. The same writer also/ published a History of the 
Town and County, one volume 8vo. of nearly the same 
' size ; and this is so extremely scarce, that the Library of the 
Jx>ndon Institution gave £10 for 'a copy : the British Mu- 
seum purchased one for £20. It is not printed in so incor- 
rect a manner as the History of the University. 

H. p. 46. Sigebert. 

Whatever is said concerning Sigebert and Cambridge by me, 
or by others, must evidently be taken cum Grano Salis. The 
Saxon Chronicle, the best guide, when it says any thing at all 
of the Saxons, though it speaks more ligrgely of Sigebert, 
King of the West Saxons, in the 8th century (A. 755,* 756), 
says noihioig of Sigebert, King of the East Saxons, except, 
diat (A. 604) the East Saxons received the lavei of baptbm 
under his reign; Heji ey% 8e«xe onpenson jelespao '} |:u1pihter 
\mp unbeji 6«byjihr cyninje*. Of Grantebrygg, or Cambridge, 
it only says, (A. 875) that three kings (of the Danes) led an 
army to it, and staid there an enture year ; and again (A. 92 1) 
that the army that was at Grantanbrygg chqse him (Edward) 
as their I/>rd. -j |-e hejie- 8e to GyuuicaDbjiycsfr byrt>e hme jeceaf 
rynbeiiUce him to blapojibe. Chronol. Sax. A. 9^1. Ed« 
Wheloc, Cantab. 1644. . But the- Saxon Chronicle, says not a 
syllable either of the School or Literature of Cambridge. 

Nennius^s Historia Britonum*" does not come down so far, 
and he says nothing of Caingraunth, except that he mentions 
it at tbe end, among the '* Nomina omnium Civitatum Bri- 
tannise.'* 

In Asser (one in the order of Gale's Scriptores Britan* 

. * It may be obaenred here, that the Saxon Chronicle, in fixing the date 
for the E. Angles receiving the Christian faith under Si^fbtri in 604, and 
yet making the date of Bishop Felix preaching this fiiith to the same not 
till 696^ aateriaUy diiEm as well from Bed« as from the other Chroni* 



150 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

Anglo-Sftz. &c.) we have (after Bede) the account of 
bert's tarning monk^ and^ when the country was laid waste 
by the Danes, of his being called from his retreat to bead 
the army, which he led forth with the emblem of his order, 
the virga pastoralis, instead of a sword, when he was shin. 
p. 146. He just speaks of him elsewhere, but turns adde 
"to dwell on Fursens's (an Irish monk, a perfect Sireden- 
bourgh) intercourse with angels and demons, and of bm 
building in the East-Angles a monastery in a place given him 
by Sigebert, called Cnobheresburgh (all after Bede); but 
not a sylfable of his Scholia and Grantebrygge. In short, 
, Bede is our only gtude, and what he sHys is extremely 
vague. 

In giving, as I have, in my text, a date (657) to Bede*3 
testimony, I spake memoriter; for' indeed the date is Bed^s 
commentators, not his. Schola sive Academ. Cantabrtgiens. 
circiter Ann. Ch. 637, fieri coepit Catholica, et Christiaiia* 
I had too in my recoUection what Dr. Fnller says; Church 
Hist. Cent. VII. B. 2, p. 75. " Here we omit the several 
^ testimonies of Bale, George Lilie, and Thomas Coo* 
** per, in dieir several histories. Anno 6S6, yrith many 
^ more, concluding Sigebert then the founder of the Um*~ 
'' versity of Cambridge." — ^Th^y seem to make an author 
rity of the Saxon Chronicles where \x is said. Here (A. 636) 
Bishop Faslix preached the faith of Christ to the East-^Aogli- 
ans.' 

Hume says but Ihtle,. and is of no great autb<Mity on the 
Saxon history : but we may take from him a hint very perti- 
nent to this place.— ^' After his (Earpwold*s) death, which 
^^ was violent^ like that of most of the. Saxon princes diftt 
^f did not early retire into monasteries, Sigebert, his success- 
'^ or, and half brother, who had been educated in France, 
'' restored Christianity, and introduced learning among the 
^^ £astpAugles. Some pretend that he founded the Univer* 
» . '' sity of Cambridge, or rather some School in that place* 

^' It is almost impossible, and quite needless, to be mot^ 



* 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 151 



« 

** ptrticular in relating the transactions of the East-Angles." 

■ 

Jlist. of Eng. 

« 
_ H. p, 39, Notes. Gildas. 

fiellannine places Gildas in the latter *end of the 5th cen- 
tury; others in the 6th. The works under his name, as 
published by Dr. Gale, in his Scriptores Britan., Anglo- 
Sax. 8cc. are, De Excidio Qritanniae (called Historia Gildae) 
ety Epistola Gildse : not a syllable occurs in either about 
Cambridge, under any name or form ; nor can the utmost 
subtlety, or even violence of argument, draw from them any 
thing which concerns our controversies : they can therefore 
prove nothing ; or rather, so far as silence and some leading 
facts alluded to can prove any thing, they are in the face of ' 
all our arguments. 

How, then, it may be asked, could Caius appeal to the 
authority of Gildas ? The answer is, he appealed to a spu- 
rious Gildas, called therefore, as Twyne (wrongly printed 
Twine, p. 44) observes, (Antiq. Acad. Oxon. Apologia, 
p. 26) by Polydore, nebulonem longe post homines natos 
impudentissimum, Libro. Hist. 1. It should, however; be ob- 
served, that after Gildas, as it stands' in the note at p. 39 of 
o|ir present volume, is, by an error of the press, placed 
wrong, for though in his Antiq. Cantab. L. 1, p. 14, Caius 
mentions 3588 as being the most probable date of the foun- 
dation of Cambridge-University, yet he does not refer to him 
on that point, either there or in the Histoiy. 

H. p* 45, L.l. JDeslroyers. 

It may be worth while to observe here, that the havoc 
made by the Saxons amounted almost to desolation: scarcely 
any thing can exceed Gildas's descriptioni the sense of 



154 SUPPLEMENT TO THE . 

tvhichdie retder will t-etidily perceive ; the Latin be m^ 
make out as he can ;. for, besides Gildas's barbaroiu Latin, 
DO \vriter has suffered more from a corrupted text. Confo- 
vebatur namque, ultionis justaB^prsecedentium scelerum caa- 
«a, de^mari mq. ad mart Ignis Orientalis (aU Orieniali) sa- 
crilegonim manu exaggeratus, et finitimas quasq. d?itales 
agrosq. populans, qui non quievit accensus, donee cunctam 
pene exurens inmUe. superficiem rubrd occidentalem trudq. 
Oceanum lingu& delamberet—- Ita ut cunctSB columns (al* 
Colonise) crebiis arietibus, omnesq. Goloni cum pneposids 
Bcclesise, cum sac^rdotibus et populo, mucronibus undiq. 
micantibus, ac flammis crepitantibus, simul solo steroeie- 
tur, et miserabili visu, in medio platearum, una tunium 
edito cardine evulsarum, murorumq. celsorum saxa, sacra 
^Itaria, cadaverum frusta, crustis ac si gelaodbus purpurei 
. coloris tecta, velut in quodam horrendo tor<:ulari mixta vide- 
rentur, et nulla esset omnimodis prs^ter honibilcs domorum 
ruinas beffti^nup volucrumq. ventres in medio sepultura, 
palva sanctarum apimarum reverentia, si tamen multe in- 
ventSB sunt, quit arduis coeli per id temporis a Sanctis ange- 
lis vehebantur (al. veherentur). Hist. Gildie, Sect. xxiv. 
Inter Galei Script; Britan. &c. Now amidst this general 
deflation of altars, temples, houses, dorauum Ecclesi®, 
custodum ecclesiacjim, &c. as described by Gildas here and 
elsewhere, how improbable is it that not the smallest hint 
should have escaped him of colleges (had they existed) in 
Cambridge, which lay in those eastern parts of Britain, in 
fvhicb this havoc first began, and in which it lasted so long I 

H. p. 45, last line. J. C. I229. 

More than £0 years after the first diploma known to exist 
of the University of Paris : Si TUniversit^ faisoit corps, eUe 
avoit un chef. Mais nous n* avons aucun acte oh il en soit 
fait une mention expresse avant Tan 1200. Le Diploma de 
PhiUppe Auguste donne en cette ann^ le nomme, &c. His* 



HiiSTottT QF Cambridge: 153 

Coire de I'lIaiTersite de Paris, par Mods* CreYier, Tome vii. 
pp. ill. 1 12. This is the^first royal dipfoma known to exist, 
diough the University, it is contended, was in existence long 
before : Le roi lui accorde un privilege, et ne dit pas un mot 
de son Origine. — Crevier. 

The^ first royal authentic charter mentioned by Mr. Ayliffe, 
and given at large by him in his History of the Universi^ of 
Oxford, Vol. %, Append, p. 6, is Charta Hen. d^H pro cpg- 
nitione Placitorum Universitati Oxoniae of the 28th year of 
that king, A. 1244: though I have perused among die 
archives in the Tower of that University a royal instrument 
and an authentic one, with the seal of the University annex- ^ 
ed, of the date 1201 ; tertio Johannia. It is a Composition 
between the Priory of St. Winifrede and the University, 
concerning Jurisdiction^ An engraving, of the seal, taken 
from the original, may be seen in Wood's Hist, et Antiq« 
Univers. Oxon. 1. 1, p. 18. 

H. p. 46^ L 9- Grekeland. 

The Assertor Antiq. Oxon. Acad, acknowledges, that he 
follows, in part^ the authority of the Historiola Oxon. and 
that.die reader may possess the marfow and substance of this 
matter, he will please to take from the Historiola the follow* 
mg passage, which is so full on this subject. Omnium au- 
tern inter Latinos nunc exstantium Studiorum UiiiversitaS 
Oxoniensis fundatione prior, quadam Scientiarum pluralitate 
generalior, ac pnestantior, invenietur, prout suse fundationis 
insinuaut historic Britknnicss perantiquss. Fertur enim inter 
bellicosos quondam Trojanos, quando cnm doce suo Bmto 
Insulam, tunc Albion, "postmodum Britanniam, ac demnm 
dictam Angliam^ triumphaliter occiiparent, quosdam Philoso- 
'phos adventantes locum habitatioois sibi congru« in ipsa In* 
sula elegisse, cui et nomen videlicet Grekelande, hi philoso- 
pbi qui Gjseci fuerant usq. in prsesentem quasi sunm vestigi- 
um reliquenint^ A quo qoidem loco non longe municipiam 



154 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

Oian« noscitur ease situm, quod propter amninm praloiiiiii 
€t BeiDonim adjikceotuim amoeaitatiun BeUositum olim anti- 
qoitasy postoiodtim Oxoo., a quodam vado yicino sic dictem 
populus Saxonicus BomioaTit, et ad locikiii stiidii pneelegit. 
— Ro88^ the Warwick historian, who was educated at Oxfiud, 
alid well acquainted with its Chronicles^ made up his accouot 
of that place (Hist. Regum Anglic, p. 26, as published bj 
Hearne in the tendi volume of Leiand's Itinerary.) partlj 
finom Geoifrej. of Momnoutb and Beverlej^ whom he uieii* 
tionsy and partly from this Histociola) that he does not men* 
tion; and k is given at large by Anthony Wood, Hist & 
Atitiq. Univ. Ox. L 1; p. 4, and Nicholas Pitzherbert, ibe 
audior of the work eotitled Descriptio Oxon. Acad, printed 
in the 9di volume of Leiand's Itinerary, looked to it aa the 
very Coronis Oxoniensis Historias. 

Yet, after all, this Historiola is a mere fragment of a 
single page, and as a learned antiquary (an Oxford mua) has 
observed, ^' though it is found in some of their MS. statute- 
*^ books, as old as the reigns of Edw. HI. and Hen. IV. yet 
^ it is not much insisted on by Mr. Wood, who was sensible 
^' that it was penned too carelessly to be of any great use in 
'' the grand controversy." Eng. Histor. Library, p. 126. 
Probably, after all said about it, it is little more than an ar- 
ticle made up after Geoffrey of Monmouth. 

H. p. 49 f I. 6. Saxon Langtioge. 

Tantum tunc AngUcos abominati sunt, ut quantocunq. 
merito pollebant, de dignitatibus pellerentur, et multo minus 
faabJes alienigenos de quacunque alia natione, qute sub cibIo 
^st, extitissent, gratanter assumerentur. Ipsum etiam Idio* 
ma tidatum abhorrebant, ifiod leges terrce, Statutaq. Regum 
lii^& GallicA tractarentur ; et pueiis etiam in Scholia prin- 
cipia literarum grammatica GaUice^ ac non AngUdf trade- 
rentur: modus enim scribendi Anglicus omitteretm> etmo- 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 155 

du8 Gallicns in Chartisy et in libris omnibiU; admitteretnr.— - 
Historia Ingulplii. .Gale^ P* 70, 71« 



H. p. 46, 1. 20. Bede. 

Bede himself, as already observed^ does not notice the 
date of Sigebert^s reign, and the Saxon Chronicle barely 
mentions his name. It is not even mentioned in the Genea' 
logiaper Partes in Britannia Regum Regnantium (ex Tex-' 
til RoiFeusi) nor (unless by taking Gilbertus for Sigbertus, 
or Sigebertus, as I suppose we must, the Saxon S and 8 much 
resembling each other, in the East Saxons — Gilbertus stands 
in the East-Angles — ) in the Successio Regum Saxonicorum, 
secundum Alfridum Beverlecensem, 8cc. See Galei Script. 
Brjt. 8cc. sub finem. These omissions perhaps were occa- 
sioned by Sigebert's resigning the royal authority for monas- 
tic privacy. 

H. p. 40^ L 23. Monumenii. 

I have not met with any one who has been able to trace such 
remains : and Dr. Bennetty the Bishop of Cloyne, who, in 
connexion with his inquiries about the course and limitf of 
the Roman roads, paid much attention to this subject when 
at Cambridge, assures me, he could never discover the 
slightest evidences to warrant the opinion. 

H. p. 59, notes. Cambridge.' 

I have rather played with the opinion about the origin of 
die name of Cambridge, than given a decisive opinion; and 
to leave the reader in possession of all the materials for 
think'mg that I have on this subject, I have resecved two or 
three more ideas for this note, which I )iave before commu- 
nicated to the Gentleman's Magazine, Aug. 1816. 



156 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

The most ancient names of the rivers of this countrj mask 
evidently have been derived from the British or Gaelic lan- 
guage, and probably had two princifftil sources, one, par1}> 
cular, from something peculiar in the face of the adjacent 
country; the other more general, from some provincial 
word, signifying water, streams, river, lake, of which are 
found numerous and undoubted proofs all over the island: 
and it is certain that Graunt, or Graunta, was the old Britisii 
name of die river long before it was known to the Saxons. I 
therefore am' rather surprised, as the country through which 
this river flowed was an arable country, that etymologists did 
not rather derives the name from Graun, the JBritish word for 
Grain, and Canta from Cawn, Reed-Grass, (in the same 
manner as Lombard conjectures, that Canciiun, or Cancia 
C»sar*s word for Kent, was framed from tbe British word 
Cainc, signifying boughs, ^' by reason that this countrie was 
in a manner wholy overgrowne with woode^'*), than from 
Gronsy a Saxon 'Word for marshy grounds. Camden, in- 
deed, speaks with caution ; a Gron Saxonica dictione, qne 
locum palustrem s^nificat, si deducerem, forsan errarem: 
Asserius tamen loca palustria xti agro Sommersettensi semel 
atq* iterum Gronnas paludosissAmas Saxonico-Latino voca- 
bulo dixit, et urbs Frisiae Occidentalis,- quae palustn looo 
sita, Groneingen dici, notissimum est Britannia, p. 
. . 432. Ed. 1600. Herodian, indeed, speakii^ of Britain in 
general, when visited by the Romans, says, that it was 

marshy : t» yo^ trXwr* tup n^trUvm x«eaf «iriia.u^ofAtv» w^ w «mi«rov 

•vyixw(«fA««Ti4r<y ixw^q yiyvirat. Lib. iii. and it was more particu- 
lady true of this part of the country, the East-Angles, than 
now: still, what makes directly against this etymology of 
Grant from Gron is, that the river was called Graunt, or 
Graunta^ in Hertfordshire, where it rises, long before it came 
to these marshy grounds in the East-Angles. 
On , the other hand, the appellative n&me for River, 

* Perambulations of Kent, p. 7. 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 157 

Stream, Water, &c. in a course of time, naturally enough 
passes into what is called a proper name: thus, nV^^ an 
Hebrew appellative (the River), became the Nile; Avon, 
or Afon, or Ammon, (a Brit, appellative for RiVer) becomes 
the River Avon, a proper name : on which word Mr. Rich' 
ards speaks thus : ^' Avon is the proper name of many rivers 
^' in England ;-*for which this reason is to be assigned, viz- 
** that the English, when they drove the Britons out of that 
*^ part of Great Britain, called from them England, took 
^' the appellatives of the old inhabitants for proper names ; 
^ and so, by mistaking Avon, which with us only signifies a 
*^ river in general, it came to serve for the proper name of 
'* several'of their rivers." Sub voce jifon, m Antiquat Lin" 
guce Britannicce Thesaurus. . 

The learned Mr. Luid had preceded him in these remarks 
on the names of rivers. See his Etymological Dictionary, 
Tit. 1, , and his Letter on the Names of Rivers, sub* 

joined to Baxter's Glossarium Britannicum ; and on some 
such ideas, ihy namesake, Mr. George Dyer, of Exeter, 
has lately written a book, on the names of Rivers and Hills, 
m which he aims to shew, that generally the proper names of 
all our rivers are but appellatives for waters, streams, &c, 
and by help of affixes and prefixes, he brings Granta and 
Canta under this system. I assert not, that this theory is 
universally true ; it is at least ingenious, and has in it, in part^ 
at least, much of probability. But that it is not universalty 
true in regard to the name of many of the rivers of antiquity, 
will appear^ on considering that they are actually specific 
names, founded on some fable, or something equally charac- 
teristic, as may be seen in a treatise (ascribed by some to 
Plutarch) concerning the '' Names of Rivers and Moun- 
tains, and of such things as are to be found in them." 

IVbhihg, however, to leave the reader in full possession of 
Mr. G. Dyer's idea, on the above subject, so far as concerns 
the lUver Granta, I add as follows. — With respect to the 
Cam and 6ranta> then, Mr. Dyer observes, thiit the Cam 



we SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

was yeigr early called Casta at Cambridge, and that Can aadl 
Canta both mean lake in the Gaelic language. In Graelic^ 
he says, water was Called an, which is preserved both jd 
Canta and Granta, C and Gr beyig prefixes, and a a post- 
fix of diftiinution ; so that Grranta, or Canta, accordny lo 
. this theory, would both alike mean the Liftle Sioer, or Lake ; 
jeind Can and Cam (an and am being synonymous) are one 
and the same word* ji Restoration of the AndtiU Modes ^ 
bestowing Names on the Rivers, 8^c. by.G. Dyer, of Exe- 
ter, pp. £99, 240. And it is certain, that appellative nooos 
in the easten^ languages did admit both prefixes and post- 
fixes, and th^ Gaelic too. The subject is well illustTated 
IB regard to the Gaelic and British in Luid's Comparatnt 

Etymology, already referred to. 

<■ 

H. p. 56, 1. 17. D'Ewes. 

w ^ 

m 

Though Sir Symonds D'Ewes' speech in the House of 
Commons (Jan. £,1641), on the antiquity of the University of 
^ Cambridge, was too inconsiderable a piece to go into the ac* 

count of its histories (see the Univ. and CoU. Camb. 
Introduction), yet, as I have said nothing distinctly of this 
gentleman elsewhere, and he was a man too d^ng\us1ied 
altogether, to be omitted, I shall say a word or two concern- 
ing him in this place. He was an historian; critic, and anti- 
quary, and a great, patron (being a wealthy person) of lite- 
rature in general. He possessed, ft large paternal estate iu 
Suffolk, being born Dec. 18, 1602, and was educated at 
St. John's College, under Dr. Holdsworth, July 9, I6l8. 
When he was not more than 18, he entertained the design 
of fprming the '^ Plan of. a correct and complete History of 
Great Britain ;'' he also projected, and in pait executed^ 
other works on* historical and antiquarian topics, of some 
aim and compass ; some of the volumes of which are in the 
Librvy of the Herald's College. His Transcript and Col« 
lation of the Records of ancient times in the B^ACK Bmk 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 150 

in the Exchequer, are in the Harleian Collection* The 
only piece kno^rn to be his, that was published in his life- 
time, was his Speech touching the Antiquity of Cambridge, 
London, 1642, and the manner of his handling the subject, 
^hich was rather flaunting, 'has occasioned Anthony Wood 
and Thomas Hearne to speak of. him contemptuously. 
There is also given to him an anonymous piece,- entitled, a 
Brief Discourse concerning the Power of Peers and Com- 
mons in Parliament, in point of Judicature, Loud. 1640; 
though by others ascribed to Selden. The book on which 
his fame rests, and reata fairly, without any dispute, is thus 
entided — '^ The Journals of all the Parliaments during the 
^* Reign of Queen Elizabeth, both of the Honse of Lords 
** and House of Commons ; collected by Sir Symonds 
'« D'Ewes, of Stt>w Hall, in the County of Suffolk/' It 
WHS revised, and published after his death by Paul Bowes, 
of the Middle Temple, Esq. Lond. 1662, fol. As D^Ewes' 
way of considering the antiquity of Cambridge made the 
Oxford antiquaries hostile to him, so .has his way of speak- 
ing of the inaccuracies of Camden's Britannia offended the 
admirers of -that antiquary. But the above work, not more 
important in itself, than elaborate in its execution, has placed 
his name above their contempt ; and in the Biographia Bri- 
tannia (vol. in. article* D'Ewes) there is a very reasonable 
defence of D*Ewes. He was created (July 15, 1641) a ba» 
ronet, by Cha. I. ; yet, on the breaking out of the wars, he 
was with the Parliament, and .agreeably to the order of the 
House, Feb. 3, 1643, he took the solemn League and Co- 
venant — though he did not side with the army, being of 
diose members that were turned out of tb^ Parliament by 
the ariny, Dec. 6, 1648 ; and he never sat diere again, but 
devoted bimsetF, from that time till bis deatb, winch was on 
April 18, 1660, to the arrangement of bis collections. 



ISO SUPPLEMENT TO THE 



H. p. 56, L 32. 



630 is an erratum for 636^ as vrill be perceived hj the 
reader, who is referred to what was said on . Sigebert and 
Bede a few pages before, pp. 146, 1499 1^^* Sigebert, bow'^ 
ever, lived longer than is mentioned by me, having conftised 
different accounts, and spoken memoriter. But things of 
tfiis kind are matters of uncertainty. 

H% 57^ L 16. Saxon Chrcmck* 

Here agun I spake memoiiter : the instruments alluded 
to are in Ingulphi Mist* Croiland; which instruments;, bj- 
the-bye^^ are most of them forgeries, as Dr. Hickes baa 
shewn in bis learned Dissertatio Epist., in his Septent. Ling* 
8lc. and they were, probably, manufactured by the pious 
monk himself, &s Dr. Hickes supposes) who therefore calls 
him veterator iste : for the times near the Conquest, and be- 
fore, were those most favourable to these impostures, not 
only on account of the general ignorance that prevailed, but 
of the confusion concerning property, generated by tbe 
wars and .devastations of the Danes, Saxons, and Nor- 
mans ; an observation this, however, which more properly 
appertains to the Dbsertation in our first volume. 

H. p. 67, 1. 31. (10100 

I have put the arrival of Swein at a little later period than 
Hume, who seems to place it in 1003, and he describes the 
country as reduced to the utmost desolation in 1007 ; and 
the death of Swein 1014. I have here taken A' sort of mean 
distance between Hume and other writers. Mr. Baron Ma* 
seres (who is more likely to be accurate on these matters, 
which Hume touched so lightly) dates the first invasion of 
England by Swein, King of Denmark, in 1Q13* Baroa 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. iCt 

m 

llif aseres' Notes in his Hist. Angl. Sekcta Monumentt: sub 
Emcomio Emma ttegina, p. 7, and Orderico Vilali^ p. 299* 
With respect to what I have said in my text here, or else* 
where, either in the History of Canibri^e^ or the Privileges, 
relating to the desolations of the Danes, and the effect of 
them on letters, I beg leave to subjoin, as connected with 
some of my reasonings elsewhere, the following passage 
fipom Ordericus Vitaiis : ^' Prolixam digressionem, sed, nisi 
fbllor, noB tntttitem, proCelavi, et de priiBcis aanalibua coI« 
lecta recevsui, ut causa manifeste pateat studioso Lectori, cur 
Aaglos agrestes et pene iUiteratos inveneve NQrmanni, qnoa 
dim optiroia Inatitutionibus solerles instmxerunl Pontifices 
Romani.'' See ms above : where, for several pages together, it 
will be seen that he is speaking of letters and discipline aa 
restored to monasteries and churches: no distinguishing 
marks ar^ given for Cambridge; nor indeed is it even once 
mentioned ; though he distinctly notices particular monaster 
lies, and particular churches, and also several men, who had 
been celebrated for tiieir learning and piety in both. Indeed, 
it is pretty clear, from this and other accounts, that schools 
and literature had been confined to monasteries, and the 
bouses connected with the churches of clerics. 

H. p. 58, 1. 11« Castle repaired^ er rebuilt the Castle* 

I speak thus, because some seem to tliink there v^as no 
castle here, till William erected one ; but the British name 
of the town Caergraiuit, Graatacester, (the Saxons taratng 
the old British caer iuto their Cspceii of correspondent 
meaning) seems to imply, that there was. Caer (coniing 
from' the Hebrew "t^p* a wall) meana a city, a walled or forti- 
ijfied city. Richardis Antiq. Ling. Britan. Thesaurus : 
and therefore there must, it sho«dd seem, have been some 
foitificaiiou or castle here long before the Conquest, aa in 
Ae other 2§ Civitates, aU of wt|ich bad Caei prefiaed to 
Aem ; and Mr. Luid obeervea, that in CaernMrtbensbire 

♦ L 



Ifia SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

the Wl of tbe chorch-yard is called Caer y Fynwent ; so 
that Caer was a generic Welsh or British word ; and the Bri- 
tons prefixed the word to all the places, where the Romam 
had raised a wall, or fcM-tification. Gildas, the oldest of our 
British writers, speaks de Britannise bis denis bisq. quatends 
civitatibus ac nonnullis Ca$telUs: Nennius describes them 
as innumerabilia: and so all the other old historians. Tbe 
fact is, that William did erect numerous castles, and, in some 
places, for the first time ; and, till this was effected, he could 
not entirely subject England. Still it is certain, that in inai^ 
places he only repidred the old castles : Eboracum revenua, 
■ complura illic castella restauravit, ac urbi et regioia commo* 
da ordinavit. Ordericus Fitalis de Gulielmo primo, Sege 
Anghrum. 

H. p. 73) !• ^* Pope. 

It is not meant to intimate here, that the Archbishop bad 
not a legantine character (as the alterius orbis papa, in his 
religious character) from the Pope. See p. of this vo- 
lume : but only that the king had his peculiar priviliges inde- 
pendent of the Pope, inherent in the crown, to appoint ¥1* 
sitations, agreeably to what is said on ttus subject in the text 
and notes above. 

H. p. 88. Elizabeth^s Charter. 

If I understand rightly the import of the following pas- 
sage in Blackstone, our great common lawyers do not think 
very highly of this Charter of Elizabeth : '' in the 14th year 
<' of whose (Hen. VIIItKs) reign the largest and most ex- 
'^ tensive charter of all was granted ; one similar to which 
'^ was afterwards granted to Cambridge in the third year of 
'' Queen Elizabeth. But yet, notwithstanding these char^ 
'' ters, the privileges grapted therein, of proceeding in a 
^ course different from the law of the land, were of so hi|^ 



€4 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 16S 

a naturci that they were held to be invalid ;-^for though the 
King might erect new courts^ yet he could not alter the 
*' course of IttWj by his letters patent. Therefore, in the 
'' reign of Queen Elizabeth an act of Parliailient was ob' 
** tained, confirming all the 'charters of the two Universe 
** Ues, and those of 14 Hen. VIII. and 3 Eliz. by name. 
^' Which blessed act, as Sir Edward Coke entitles it, estab' 
^' lished this high privilege without any doubt or opposition^ 
^^ or, as Sir Matthew Hale very fully expresses the sense of 
'* the common law, and the operation of the act of Parlia- 
^' inent| ^ although King Henry the Eighth^ 14 A. R. sui^ 
'* * granted to the University a liberal charter, to proceed 
'* ' according to the use of the University— •viz. by a courae 
^' ' much conformed to the civil law ; yet that charter had 
'' ' not been sufficient to have warranted such proceedings 
^ ' without the help of an act of Parliament. And there«- 
*^ ' fore, in 13 Eliz. an act passed, whereby ibat charter was 
'' ^ in effect enacted; and it is thereby diat at this day they 
'^ ' have a kind of civil law procedures, even in matters that 
^* * are of themselves of common law cc^izance^ where 
^ * either of the parties is privileged/ " Commentaries, 
B. 3, Ch. 6. 

H. p. go, L 4. MtabetVs Charter. 

m 

It is worthy of observation here, that Blackstone, neithet 
in the above chapter, where he speaks so freely of Q. Eliza* 
beth's Charter, nor yet in Book 1, Ch. 18, where he treats 
•o lai|^ly of corporations (under which class Universities 
and CoUqies rank), nor, as I am aware of elsewhere, says 
any thing about her Statutes; and his silence has a meaning. 
As a common lawyer he could not altogethe|§ approve these 
royal acts, in which, as I have shewn in the text, Q. Eliza* 
beth sets out and proceeds, in the high tone of the civil taw* 
For thou^ our Universities and Colleges retain enough to 
rtmiiid us^ al' kast^ of their ancient ecclesiastical character^ 



164 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

wch aa their holding lands formerly given Iheia in mort* 
main, and, in several cases, t^eir being subject to the visita- 
torial powers of Uie ordinary of ilie diocese, still he ccHia- 
dered them now merely nn lay corporations ; and he else- 
where observes, " though they were considered by the Pop* 
ish clergy as of mere ecclesiastical jurisdiclioD (whkhpra* 
ceeded on the principles of the civil and canon lawt)^ jet 
(hat THE Li^w or the i. and judged otherwise;" and that 
it is ^' now held a established by common law,** that Col- 
f' leges are lay corporations, and that the right of WaitalioB 
'' tk>ea not arise from any principles of the canon law, but 
^ of. necessity was created by the Conunoa Law -/* and ha 
more than once insists, that the bye-lam of a corporation 
(aad those of Colleges and Universities, made bj ipaerdy 
loyal authority, un^mctioned by the tc^gislature, are no 
more) are voidf ^ contrary to the law of the land. 

But all that I have said either here or elsewhere, on such- 
Nke matters, is with a perfect recollection that corporat]oD% 
as such, have their laws, binding in thexnseLvea, and that cer* 
tain abuses of them would imply the forfeitiwe at their chap* 
ters : though the statutes oi old inslitutioiis, Ulce tboae of 
Uuiversities, are, notwithstanding, considered, in practice 
and law, as liable to some latitude of interpretatioii, froo 
usage, custom, change of relijopon and government, as well 
as from the general consent of colleges, the Graces of tfte 
Public Senate, or the law of the land. I haiie apoken too, 
BO less under the recollection that the lu^ or queen for the 
time, being by law the primary founder and vitilor of such 
institutions, may occasionally interfere : though there is no 
reason in considerii^ occasional interferences as parpetaally 
obligatory, nor in suffering the freaks of aa arbitrary prince 
to take the ch#acter and force of the laws ofi the land; for 
old articles must be subject to the same restriqUoas as oU 
statutes. James I. indeed may be said to haioe exceeded the 
power of the royal authority in imposiajg articles of Cailh ea 
taking degrees ; nay, more, that die legislntwe iCaetf^ whether 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. ]6f 

heathen or Christian^ has no right to impose them. To 
make the utmost concessions, literary corpomtionsy that is, 
civil, require only civil tests, and to impose religious, is con- 
trary to right reason and to every principle of true reli- 
gion. 

James the First's- three articles (Vid. Privileges, Vol. I. 
p* 547) include the doctrines (i. e. the 39 Articles) as well 
as the discipline of the church. A learned prelate maintains 
these articles not to be Calvinistic, that is, that they do not 
hold forth absolute predestination (Bishop Pretty man on the 
d9 Articles), but admit of a more general acceptation. I 
have elsewhere given my opinion for believing them to be 
originally CalvinisHc» See Supplement to Hist* of Univer- 
sity, p. 109, and another publication of mine there referred 
to. But whatever their original meaning was, and whatever 
James*s private faith might be, this is well known, that he coun- 
tenanced the Arminian doctrine, that is, the doctrine of free- 
will, towards the latter end of his reign : and it may be seen, 
that he actually discouraged the-preatbing of the divine De* 
crees*. Consequently, he must have intended those articles to 
have been rather articles of peace, to be received m the more 
general acceptation. So that, if James's interference,in his fun* 
datorial and visitatorial character, is allowed any force in this 
case, it authorizes the more limited sense ; and there the 
matter seems to rest now, no alteration having been made by 
royal auUiority since. So that I apprehend, with regard to 
WT Universities^ of which only t am speaking, the original 
meaning of son\e c^ these articles is of as little consequence 
as the original meaning of some of our old statutes ; and 
that irfiat was taken as a privilege cannot be hedged round 
with vefy rigid restraints. 

* See this fully ihewn as w«1I from hi* iaajesty's directions concerning 
frtwAMt, as froa etlier etMteets Is ovr Bist Camb. Tol. II. piK 839, 
SH V«LI«^1^ 



jOe SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

H. p. 109, Notes, 

Dr. Arrowsmith had been Master of St. John^s, and died 
Master of Triuity : but in Supplement, &c. p. 79, 1. €9, 
1569 should be reversed, 1659. 

H. p. 119, 1. 11- ^!ff 

He was not ejected ; but he resigned his fellowship in 
1662, not choosing the terms of conformity. 

H. p. IS2, I. 6' Monuments of lAterature. 

Though Pliny's words, grammatically considered, would 
fidmit the sense I have put on them here, as clams ingenio, 
doctrin^, genere, and the like, yet that is certainly not the 
sense intended by Pliny in Lib. 4, Cap. 16, Nat. Hist 
where he means merely to say, that Britain was well knovrn^ 
and celebrated in the Greek and Roman writings, clara Gne- 
cis nostrisq. monumentis. The passage from Julias CaBsar, 
as far as it goes, is most to our purpose, and he is followed 
almost literally by Richard, Lib. 1. Cap. iv. De Situ Bnt. 

H. p. ]d9« College; University. 

As it is true, I apprehend, that these words were derived 
from monastic and ecclesiastical societies, it is no less true, 
that the monastic and ecclesiastical use of the terms (schools 
and monasteries being regulated by its principles^ is de- 
rived from the language of the Roman or civil law. Numa 
subdivided the Romans and Sabines into smaller companies, 
OT distinet fraternities of the several trades and professions. 
. The civil law, as Blackstone observes, '' afterwards called 
^^ Ihem Universitates *, as forming one whole out of many 

♦ Fl. 1. 3, t. 4. per tot. 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 167 

'^ individuals ; or Collegia, from being gathered together : 
'^ they were adopted alao by the canon law, for the mainte- 
^^ nance of ecclesiastical discipline ; and from them our spi* 
" ritual corporations are derived/' Conunehtaries, fi. I, 
Ch.]8. 

H. p. 140y L 17. Bistofy of Abbies. 

The references in p« 141, Notes, 1. 2, Petrus Blaensitf 
p. 73, and 1. 7. Hist. Man. Q3Q, 240, may be dele'd. It 
was Indultus who wrote a History of the Manasieries in 
England. Ingtdphm, spoken of in the text, wrote Hisi. 
Monast. Croylandia (much allied to the other) alluded to in 
the text, and this latter was the History continued by Petrus 
Blesensis, or Peter of Blois. Both are in Gale, to whose 
edition, therefore, the reader is referred for their separate ac* 
counts, p. 74 and p. 1 14. The account of the latter will be 
found quoted at large in another part of this work, 

H. p. 142. 

We may judge of the general state of literature, with re- 
spect to the clergy, even at a later period than this, from 
what lUchard de Bury, the author of Philobiblon, says of 
three descriptions of Clerics, in his Queremonia lAbrorum; 
he makes them say. Liber Bacchus respicitur, et in ventrem 
trajicitur nocte dieque ; Liber Codex despicitur et e manu 
rejicitur longe lateque, tanquam si cujusdam a&quivocationis 
multiplicacitate fallaiur simplex Monachica proles moder- 
na, dum Liber Pater preponitur Libro Patrum : calicibus 
epotandis, non codicibus emendandis indulget hodie Studium 
monachorum-— &c. (exceptis quibusdam paucis .electb)." 
Philobiblon Richardi Dundmensis, Cap. 5. The Queremo- 
nia Librorum extends, at length, to clergy, who cannot 
write : Revera mancus est iUe clericus, et ad multorum jac- 
turam turpiter mutUatus, qui Arlii ScribcnX totaliter est ig« 



10S SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

naras— 4Uid deigy aod books are agreed in the Pbilobiblon, 
Aat Laics ought to be kept ia ignorance, confined to their 
secular parsiiits. 

Riphard Aungervile, sometimes called Richard de Barf, 
was one of the most distinguished men and scholars <^ fcis 
age, viz. in the time of Edward IIL installed Bishop of Ox- 
ford, 1SS4. He is said to have had more books than all 
the other bishops besides. He founded a library at Oxford, 
and died 1345* Bale de Script. Britan. For more con- 
cemiDg Burjy see Reliquift Bodleian®, by T. Jame^ who 
dso edited the Philobiblon at Oxford, 1^99. 

H. p. 146, last line. 

There is no hii^age high enough, in the writers of this 
age, for Aristotle. Richard de Bury, in his Phflobiblon, just 
now referred to, calls him Ingenio Gigantis florens, Arclu« 
sophus, ApoUo Philosophorum, Deus Philosophomm, 8cc. 

H. p. 147^ 1. 20. Schooh at Cambridge. 

I have elsewhefe spoken of the three Sciences, (Trivialia) 
of the quadresimalia, and at length of the seven Sciences, as 
taught in the Schools 8 

In ftll the levm 9ci«nc«^ 

For to purchMe wndome woA svpiciice 

Hardixcb. 

The fdlowing appears to be the form diey took in their 4^ 
grees, in the ISth and 14th centuries : I shall copy Aadbony 
Wood, as follows ; though I suspect be makes the course too 
operose and difficult a matter : he iucliAes rather to magmfy, 
as in his account of Ae leafnkig of the ancient Brkoas, AI« 
fired at Oxford, 8u;. 

Gasterom Exercitia pro 6rad« Mi^stri olim praestaoda^ 
operosa sane eraat et dificaia : nam et piarisfsre fmq[«eattw» 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. IGO 

et Lectiones pubticas firequentare tenebuitur, qid ad hiinc 
Onuiain aspirabant, quem pauciores'propterea aifectabaiit : 
sic autem se res habtiit, priusquam Baccalaureatus constitu* 
eretiir; tuna enim aliquft ezercitiorum parte ad Gradum huDc 
novum tranBduet&, pauciora illis praestauda restabaot. Quo« 
mam vero de Scbolasticis, in Aitibus Magistratum ambienti- 
bus mentio mcidir, si Pmlectionum metbodum ac leges 
paucis tradidcroi baud alieuum a pxoposito fadurus videor. 

Liber Mttaphfskorum per iDtegrum aniium, diebus quo* 
que festis^ legeadus erat. 

UbtT Eikicorum quatuor menses, nee exclusis Festis, ▼ea<* 

« 

Aeabat. 

GeometriflB septem dabantur Hebdomads, sed diebus fes* 
lis minime connumerads. 

Algorismoy \ 

Spbsdrae, \. dies cuUibet octo, exdusis Festis, dabantur. 

CbmputOy 3 

Arithmetica Boetii tribus Hebdomadis^ praeterquam ubi Dies 
Festi inciderent, legebatur. 

Priscianus magiQ volutninis, vel Politicorum, vel x 
Libri de Animalibus, connamerando libros de motu et 
progressu animaliuin, 6 plenas Hebdomadas^ si dies Festos 
dempseris^ occupabant. 

Prisciano etiam de cotistructiombus partium, uti et libro 
cosli et mundi; nee non libro meteorum^ singulis singuli quo- 
tannis Termini dabantur. 

Qaartus Liber Topicorum Boetii. 

Item oportet quod legat 1 1 Libros Logicales ad miims, 
unum de Veteri Logica, et alterum de nov&, vel ambos de 
nova, et unum de Libris naturalibus, viz. Libros iv Coeli et 
mundi, vel tres Libros de Animalibus, iv Libros Meceoro- 
mm, vel 1 1 Libros de Generatione et Corrupdone, vel Li« 
brum de Sensu et Sensato, cum libris de Memorift et Re- 
miniscentifi, de Somnio, et YigiKA, vel librum de .Mota 
Animafium, cum duobus minutis Libris Naturalibus. 



170 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

Item oportet quod bis respondat etquater arguat io solem* 
nibus disputadonibtts magistrorum, nee non disputando in 
qtiodlibet, viz. bis qaseBtioni et semel problemati. 

Item oportet quod unum libram Aristotelis, teztum * ¥iau 
cum quflftsiioDibus iu Scholis publico rite l^;aty 8cc. 

Mr. Wood adds — Sic peragendus erat audiendi, pactunq. 
legend! cursus, plura mehercule comprefaendeiia quam qus 
deinceps in usua pud nos fuerant. Enimvero morem vetiis- 
tissimum ve] ezinde coUigas, quod^ didbus quoque fintis, 
audiendum legendumq. fuit, cum per statuta nostra oIeib 
eliam antiquata id minime licuerit^ velut e calendsriis de 
more prsefixis ediscas ; ubi dies interstinctos reperies per le 
et non le, dis et non dis et per le fe. 

Having, at the time this sheet was in the press, misJaid 
something that I had copied from a MS. on the same atrmin, 
relating to Cambridge, I thought the above extract from 
Anthony Wood, respecting Oxford, would answer the pur- 
pose, both being somewhat alike, and resembling the same 
course of literature that was followed in France— cujus, says 
Wood, very correctly, in plerisque ad Pi«electiones spectan- 
tibus sequaces fuimus Hist, et Antiq. Oxon. L. J, p. 22. 
Wood professes to have collected the above materials from 
a MS. in Mag. Col. Library ; from another, called A\goris- 
mus, in Merton College Library, and other MSS. 

Having noticed here, and elsewhere, some features of 
resemblance in the studies of Pans, Oxford, and Cam- 
bridge Universities, about this period, I cannot forbear 
quoting the following appropriate passage from Crevier, 
which is no less applicable to the studies of Cambridge, and 
of Oxford, (as appears from Wood's extracts) than of 
Paris: '^ La BuUe de Gregoire IX. in 1231, ne nomme 
pour auteurs qui doivent etre lus par les professeurs des 
Arts que Priscien et Aristote, Priscien pour la Gram- 
maire, Aristote pour la Philosophie ;->— — Ciceron, Virgile, 
Horace ne sont pas meme nommes soit dans Tun soit dans 

» It means not a CcmminUary, but a fAtin Texi, 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 171 

Tautre de ces moniimens. NuUe mention des Poetes. On 
avoit oublie jusq. a la prosodie et aux regies de la quantite 
des syllabes. Hist, de VUniversite de Paris^ torn. 1, p. 

376. 

♦ 

H. p. 147> 1. 8. Metaphysics. 

In p. 169, where mention is made of the Metaphysics^ 
and of some other books^ without the author's names, among 
the Schoolmen, we are generally to understand them to be 
the writings of Arbtotle or his principal commentKtors. Of 
the metaphysics of Aristotle there are l4 books; and I have 
chosen in what follows to illustrate my text from Burgersde- 
cius, because many of his theses seem to have been those of 
the more early ages in our Universities, and because, as he 
says himself, Uiough he has selected the subjects of dispute 
in the Schools from the commentators on Aristotle, the defi- 
nitions interwoven are principally from Aristotle himself. 
Burgersdicius's definitions, then, of the Metaphysics of the 
Schools are as follows: Scientiarum unitas, et distinctio, 
pendet ab unitate et distinctione objecti fornialis, sive a 
modo objectum considerandi. Modus considerandi sumitur 
abstractione rei considerandae a materift. Abstractio a mate- 
rift fit tribus modis. Res enim abstrahitur a materift singu- 
lar!, vel a materia communi, sed sol& ratione ; vel a mate- 
rift singulari et communi, non solft ratione, sed etiam reipsft : 
ilia Physicam, ista Mathematicam, hiec Metaphysicam con- 
stituit. 

Metaphysica inter Scientias speculativos ordine Naturae et 
dignitatis prima est, Physica secunda, Mathematica postreouL 

Metaphysica reliquis quidem scientiis piieest: reliquae 
tamen Scientise Metaphysics non subaltemantur. Franco- 
nia Burgersdicii Idea Philoaophias Naturalis, p. 12, Id* 
Edit Bat. 1627. 

In like manner, Aristotle considers Metaphysics as taking 

Ifae lead in the Sciences : Atx^nanrnTn h nmr n$rnfmf, ntn f«4»xxty 



IT« SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

«fX^ m; vm^ina-ns n yyovgtfovo-a rift; erfxtr t^ri vfawrni mafyp oXxpp it -rm 

What has been said above, or elsewhere, is to be co|isi- 
dered in reference to time ; at the Reformation the fonua 
were somewhat altered : nova deniq. says Caius, (Hist. Can- 
tab. L. 1), docendi, discendi, et disputandi forma. The 
principles of Deacartes's Metaphyncal Meditations came 
into repute some years afterwards. 

H. p. 147y !• &• Music. 

Mathematica continet sub se plures Scieutias specie diver, 
sas; Arithraeticam, Geometriam, Musicam^ Opticam, As* 
tronomiam, Geographiam, Staticam. Burgersdicius : and 
Caius notices Music among the Cambridge studies: pri^ 
mos anno prselegebat Arithmeticain et Musicam. Hist. 
Cantabi Acad. L» 1 !• 

H. p. 151, I. 21. Sums. 

The Suwima, as it was called, of Thomas Aquinas' 
(named the Seraphical Doctor) is a prodigiaMS folio volume, 
containing the Medulla of his Divinity. 

H. p. 148. Plutarch. 

^avc^oy oi/v fx rovrw, on ret; iraXaioic vnof EXXiivwy iixotw; fMoXi^a SttyfW 
t/utXifct viTcaiitvo-Bui Movtrixn^, Tan ya^ vfttfV ra; ^vy(a( orovro ^iiy im Maz^o'i" l 

xij; wXarriiy ti nut ^vSfxi^ttv it* t» f uo-xq/ixo?, Xfti^^ix^S *i|Xofor» ms M«t;ff»Knc 
vvafX^v(ni: wfOf vafra xcu w«wav to-vovicKrfxifnf t«rp»f »». Plutarchl dc 

Music&, 26 ; and in cap. 40, he says, that Homer taiiglit 
the particular utility of music, in that fine passage, where he 
introduces Achilles calming his anger, kindled against Aga- 
memnon, by music : 

Toy^^ tvfoy ^{fva Tfotiro/tAiyoy ^^fjuyyi Xiycttf, 
KaXtf, ^»i^aXfi|, iri ot ^*(»ayu^iey ^t/yoy nn. 



I 



T« »y»9vi*n ntfmtr muit !'.{<( Ai« imi^rK 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 173 

He closes some remarks on this passage, as follows:—- » 

Tomvrn «y n APXAIA MOTZIKH, xai t( Tsvro XS^'*/^*1* HeaxXia ei ya^ 
mJUvtfAif Ktj^ixttn Uw^ixn, xoi AX;iXXfa, x«u voXXo:;; aXXftvf, wy IIa«^fi/ri|£ 

him^9m\9(' See, also, Plato de Repub. Lib. 3. I have 
treated somewhat largely on this subject, in my Poetics^ 
vol. 2. 

H. p. 151, I. 27* Scholastic Philosophjf^ 

It is well known that the celebrated German nsetapbyai* 
cian, Kant, aimed to deduce the science of metaphysics 
from experience and ajiamSf in the same way as B^con bad 
proposed to pursue physical science, and that he th€«|^ 
even the modems*, down to his time, had not considered ine« 
tapbysics, a priori, in the natural way of science. This, 
however, he professed to do in his Critical Philosophy; 
though how far his '' Pure Reason," his ^ Transcendental 
Metaphysic,*' b true, or false, makes rq question here: it 
seems, in some respects, to approximate nearer to the me* 
taphysical systems of the Scholastics, than some modem 
systems do : in others, to be as wide from them as any sys* 
tem can possibly be ; and at aH events, whatever may be said 
of that which followed, it may be aaid of that which was at- 
tacked : quse detrahuntur, haud rem tai^int generis huma- 
BIS Bed Scholaram tantnm, quam sibi soils veservatam pota* 
verant, arcanam quasi disciplinam denudant. Kantii JVtf» 
fatio; in Crii. Raiionis pura Expos. Systematica. An- 
tore Conrado Frederico Schmidt Phiseldek. Hrfnim^ 1-79^ 

H. p. 150» I* 1—3* Poe/iy-^Xritifvlifre. 

Seaden of the few preceding pages on poetry must con- 
cede to me a little of the poetica licentia ; for what I have 
written there relates to the poetry of the island in general, 

* Locke, however, to considen it in his Fax, oh ih9 Bum, Undent, end, ' 

itill more profcftedly, Hume, in his Inj. into the Prineiptn ^ MofU. 



174 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

radier than of the University in particular, having introduced 
it for the purpose of variety, and of giving a sort of com" 
pleteness to the narrative, rather than as being the character^ 
istic, specific feature of the place, at the time : and what re- 
lates to the Saxon poetry from Caedmon, of the 7 th centurv 
(die first Saxon poet, of whose remains any thing is known), 
and downwards, to the Conquest, cannot belong to the UNt-» 
TEBiSiTT of Cambridge. 

Doubdess, poetry was read, and poetry might be written 
by individuals, for their own amusement, by some of the 
adbolastics; but from what has already been said, it appears^ 
diat no provinon was made in our schools for die Greek and 
Latin poets, in the 13th and 14th centuries ; nor am I aware 
that any thing like verse-making, or verse-teaching, was prac- 
tised in the College-exercises, except what might come in a 
page or two, under the head of Grammar, or, perhaps, of 
Rhetorica* I am the more confirmed in this opinion, on 
observing that Dr. Caius, where (in the first book of his His- 
tory) he gives the catalogue of the books remaining in his 
time, of the old library, gives only two or three poets, and 
they come in under the article Grammar. In his second book, 
where he gives some account of the studies, (by-the-bye, in 
the slightest possible manner) he says not a word of the 
Greek and Latin poetry, nor of poetry. 

And here, having published two volumes of Poetics, one 
of which contains Disquisitions on Poetry, in the form of 
Lectures, I may be allowed to refer those acquainted with 
the work to vol. 2, chap. Ist, « on the Connexion of the Arts 
and Sciences and the Relation of Poetry to them all;'' and, 
as possessing some respect for this divine art, to bear tcsti- 
inony against die defidency of this philosophy, tiiese Seoen 
Sciences, these Liberal Arts, these Faculties *, and to adopt 
the remonstrance of the intelligent Crevier, who had been 

• The word famUy, in the language of those times, vaa used as well for 
discipline, art, or science;, as for one company or order, existing separate 
^ from others, u the Pacnlty of TheoI<Wi of Medicine, &c 

6 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 175 

speaking on the same subject, and in reference to the VnU 
versity of Paris : — De pareilles etudes etoient bien impar« 
faites ; et telles seront toujours celles^ ou I'on cultivera un 
genre unique a rexcluaion des autres. Je ne me hisse point 
d'observer, que toutes les belles connoissances se tiennent, 
et oht be3oin de s' aider reciproquement. La Philosophie 
devient barbare, si elle n'est t^mperee par la douceur et 
Tamenite ' des lettres : et les lettres degenerent en amuse- 
ment frivole, si elles n*ont pour base la solidite philoso- 
phique* Histoire de I'Univer. de Paris, tom. 1. p*. S77. 

I must, howe¥er, add, that the Poetica Licentia, just now 
chdmed, has been carried perhaps too far, even to an inad- 
vertency. For the name of St. Godric (Hist Camb.) should 
not have been mentioned in reference to St. Nicholas (die 
name of the Cottle, founded by Hen. VI. )> unless we sup- 
pose tliere had been some religious house there, or church, 
consecrated to St. Nicholas (which prcbabhf there had 
been), as in the case of St. John's and Jesus CoU^^es. The 
word University, however, is certainly a misnomer. In both 
cases, perhaps, the words religious house, or school, might 
be admitted. Vid. Hist. Uoiv. and Colleges of Camb. voL ), 
pp. 15^, \51. 

H. p. 160, L 16. Writings of WiekUffe. 

Though he is principally celebrated as the Translator of 
the Scriptures, from Jerom's Ijatin Version^ yet he mote on 
almost all the subjects of theology^ logic, metaphysics, and 
civil polity, that were agitated in his time ; and his writings 
are prodigiously numerous ; though it is probable that some^ 
without his name^ which have been ascribed to him, were 
written by his disciples, whose names would not have stamp* 
ed such authority on their writings as Dr. W ickliffe's, or who 
might not have the courage to avow them. However, 
Wickliffe's writings were undoubtedly very numerous, as may 
be seen in an enumeration of them made by Mr. Faber«— 



ITS SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

Mknioirh of tie lA/e of WicUife, pp. 38, See. prefix ed 

to Wktife l^em TesiametH. 

H. p. 161. Notes, 1.9* fox. 

Tho«gh aoine have sud (I spake memoriter) jet . Foar Ae 
Martyfologist has not, that K. AKred traoslatecl the Sci^ 
ttties nto Saxon, but only dial be meditated traiislatiiip Ae 
Psalter, which, however, he never finished : and ihe opioieo 
that Alfred translated die Scriptures Into Saxon aeems fo leat 
ott no proper aathorkies. The oldest Saaoa M8S. of Ae 
New Testament \U% which refereace has abeady beea naAe> 
g^e BO iofermation that die translation was made by AHred ; 
and should the name be found in any one cooefaseoos widi 
Al/red— ^-wfaicb, however, I believe not to be the case^— it 
woald, probably, only be in the way, thi^ dig Athelstan's 
appears ia a curious Latta MS. of (he New Testamei]^ in 
the British Museum, as having belonged to Athektan^ ac« 
compamed with a testioKmy ia tf hand somewhat later thaa 
the MS., and a Latiti Psalter of JEthelbert*s, accompanied 
with his donation to the church of. FcAstene. This latter is 
in the British Museum ; but Athelstan^s donation is now cut 
out, and is, with a great many more such things, to be seen 
in a large vokime among the CottoaiaB> MSS. in the British 
Museum. Alfred wrote, and translated enough for any great 
king (see Turner's Hist, of the Anglo-Sax. vol. 2, pp. 581, 
8cc.) and he intended^ towards the latter end of his re^^ to 
translate the Latin Psalter iiHo bis own language, but was 
prevented by death. The authority on whidfr it iA mi that 
Alfred translated a great part of the Scriptures, is aa ancient 
MSv Hist, of Ely, called the Liber Eliensis^ so often referred 
to by antiquaries, ^vhieh, however, I have never seen; bat we 
must be prepared to admit that not every thing which ap- 
pears in a* MS. is Gospel. 

. A strong presumption that Alfred translated no entire 
biblical book, is, that he would have>llad<it ^fotributed in the 



HISTORY OP CAMBRIDGE!. 177 

different dioceaesi through the medium of the several biabopi^ 
as he did his other writiogs : (Mr. Faber's Pref. to Dr. Wick* 
ii/-*s New Testament) but of this there is no evidence. 

^fred prefixed to his laws a few portions of Scripture^ 
(see Spelmants British Councik, vol. 1) in imitation of 
urhom probably it was, that the publisher of the Mirroir des 
^Justices (that most ancient work) prefixed to his book a rule 
or two regarding the holy Scriptures^ together with a sum- 
mary of the Books of the Old and New Testament. Alfred 
trsnslated Bedels Hist, into Saxon, and Bede translated a 
great part of the Scriptures into Saxon : add to this, that 
iEldred and JElfric also (names somewhat resembling Al- 
fred), at or near his time translated many parts of the Scrip- 
tures into the Saxon; which correspondences and resem* 
Uaoces, perhaps, have somewhat fostered the mistake, that 
King Alfred translated the Scbiptuebs. 

I have been the more particular on this point, as well for 
the purpose of correcting the above mistake, as of saying 
further of Alfred (for it relates to University-History), that 
what Mr. 4nthony Wood (Hist, et Anttq. Univers. Oxon. 
Lib. 1) and others say, of Alfred's founding or r^enerating^ * 
endowing, and regulating the University of Oxford, seems, 
in like manner, to rest on no proper authorities. There is 
nothing like a charter for it, and no such account in 
College or University annals, which latter, as they do not 
go so high, can throw no l^ht on this subject. It may be 
admitted, for it cannot be denied, that Alfred repaired reli- 
gious houses and schools in England, and, among others, 
those at Oxford ; but what has been said relating to thb 
UHiV£B9iTr OP OxFOftn and him muit, as it should 
seem, be received with very considerable abatement. 

The Life of Ai»FBEi>, by Asser, who was his contem- 
porary and intimate, on a poiqt relating to that great mo* 
natch, would undoubtedly be proper authority : but here 
doctors differ, one aiming to destroy the other's authority, 
and to convict him of treachery. At the time the dispute 



^^ SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

concerniiig the antiquity of the two Universities was warm, 
Archbishop Parker first*, and, aftet wards, Camden, an- 
thor of the Britannia, published f editions of Ass br's LtiFS 
OF Alfred, from MSS. Parker's was undoubtedlj veiy 
ancient — ^in Saxon; therefore, raost probably before the Con- 
quest : this, and other known MSS. contained not the pas- 
sage on which the controversy turns. Afterwards, CaoDden 
published his edition of Alfred's Life by Asser, from a MS. 
wherein he said the passage in dispute was found. Yet 
Twyne, the Oxford antiquary, so deeply interested m ma* 
dienticatmg thb MS. never saw it, nor has it been seen by 
any one since Camden's time. Nay, though Twyne was 
importunate with him on the subject, all that we can collect 
amounts to this, tha^ Camden -informed Twyne be might 
proceed safely in the dispute about the antiquity of Oxford, 
for that a MS. in his library possessed the passage, and that 
he supposed it to be of the age of Rich. II. The passage 
ften rests entirely on the authority of Camden :|:. 

But should the authenticity of the passage in dispute be 
admitted §, it merely relates to a point of kndqaity, and by 
no means authorizes the deductions of Wood and Twyne ; 
and should the MS. be as old as Ridi. IL*s time, as Cam- 
den supposed f it could not settle a dispute reladng to a' point 
in Alfred's, more particularly one in which the interests or 
prejudices of a Monkish scribe in Rich, ll.^s reign might 
be concerned : for who knows not that such scribes made 
no scruple of inserting in their copies what was not in their 
originids? It may be added, too, that Asser, when giving 

♦ In lS7i»-«1^e nott «ncknt M& of aU, «Qo^ which if aaoiiP tiie Gottoniaa 
MSS. in the Brit. Museum, does not contain the pa«8ag«i 

f In his ADglico-Nonnannica. 
' X Twyne^s Antiq. Acad. Oxen. Apologia, L.2y p. 144; and Wood's 
RiBt and Antiq. Oxon. L. 1, pp. 9, 10^ 

§ Mr. Turner (Hiat Angl^-Sax. toL 1, p. 8S6) ask% <' Who that kaowf 
*< Camden's character, can ever belieTO that the. fraud, if any, «aa com> 
** mitted by him ? He may have been deceired, but he oonid not hare 
^ been the deceiver.*' 



HISTOAY OF CAMBRIDGE!. 179 

» 

is hk Annals that high enlogiuin of Alfred* (on occasion of 
his death), for his munificence to the cbnrchc8| and his* 
jNTomoting the liberal arts among his prelates and nobks, 
sever once mentions Oxford; never once throughout his 
Annals^ vrhere yet he says so much of Alfred f and Aat 
Ross, the historian of Warwick, wh«i speaking so lalrgely of 
Alfredt, as the Fauntkr of Oxford, never once appeals to 
the anthoiity of Asser. These are points, thoogh unnoticed 
by the above learned men in their disputes about the contest- 
cd passage, that deserved their consideration. At all events, 
die circumstances relating to Alfred, that I have been just 
now aUuding to^ seem to rest on no prcper aodiority. 

H. p. 164. 

In closing this chapter, which relates to the Cambridge^ 
literature pf the 14th century^ and will, also, apply to thai* 
of the 15th, I cannot forbear observing, that those who 
have written on the Cambridge^bistQiy have said scarcely any 
thing on its literature, at any period ;- and it has already beea 
noticed, that Dr. Caius, from whom most might have been 
expected, yet says almost nothing at all on the subject — a 
circumstance, which, it b hoped, will disf^ose readers to 
admit that samithwg has been attempted here, and elsewhere^ 
and to peruse my attempts with candour. The following 
passage, however, from Caius, as it throws some light on a par- 
ticular part of the academical discipline of those periodsir 
sha|l be submitted to readeri. 

^' Qui Scientias liberales profitebentur ordinarie et olim^ 
<< et nunc quoque, regentes erant, et numero tres^ qui per 
^* regentes tantum annis singulis in fine termini lestivalis eli« 
'' g^bantur. Teriminos vocant tempus publicsi profesttonis 
^ literanim, quos unoanno tres habent: Quorum smguli tree 

* Anerii Annal. Gale, inter Hiit. Britan. at AngL Script p, 173. 
t Hift, Kcf . Afls. LelMkd, yoI. 10, pp. 76» «(€,«*M 



1K> SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

'< fere mensei complent, et intertnisBiones Utteramm vacatio- 
^ nenif feriasi .et ascbolias nomiaant*. Honun Piofesao* 
<' rum unoa Literaa humaniores, alios Dialecti<:ain, tertiof 
'< Philoaophiam, praslegebat, hora octava ante meridiem, ad 
** horam miam siogulis diebua l^bilibua (ita enim nomioaie 
^ aoleot dies, in quibus publica professio literarum in scboGi 
'' est) recepturi singuli in siogulos terminos, seu trimefltm 
^ spatia, in mercedem £6 sol. 4 denarios tantum, hoc ea^ co- 
'' ronatos Gallicos qoatuor, cum triente, et denariis octo : 
'^ consdtuta enim pecunia praskgebant. £a enim ent olkn 
^ noatre Britanmse temperantia, ea rerum copia et abnndaa* 
^* tia, nt exigiins census secundmn natoram viventibiia sofike- 
** ret^ etglorise studium potius^ quam merces^ ad virtutem ac- 
^ cenderet. Solvebatur autem id stipendium non ex aarario 
" publico, sed ex collatione omnium et ainguloram Scfco/an- 
'< um per CoUegiorum pnefectos, et faospitionun piincipales 
^ coUigendnm et pendendum." Hist. Cantab. Acad. lib. II. 
it was after, tbat a professor of mathematics was appointed, 
-who was paid out of the public chest ; and his coarse of 
reading was as follows: '' Tempus prsslegendi fauic fuit hom 
** prima a meridie, pnmoq. anno pnelegebat antfamedcam 
'^ atq. musicam ; Secuudo Geometrism et Perspeetivam ; 
^ Tertio Astronomiam.'* But from the time of Edw. the 
. Ylth these things took a diifferent form ; and indeed there was 
much difference from the time of Hen. VIH. by whom were 
appointed the different professorships, as they now are. 

There was one feature of this period which I think deserves 
notice, which was, die office of a Tutor in a College. He 
was not, as now, one appointed by the Master, but the pu- 
pils chose for themselves any tutor in the College, who was 
most to his taste, or most distinguished in bis office: for 
which reason it was that in the Supplement to ^e Hist. 
p. IS, a is directed to be inserted before Tutor in p. IBS, 
1* 13, of the History. 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 181 



H. p. 173. 

The aboye chapter^ on the.Revival of Literature, does bat 
slightly toach the subject of Classics, it being spoken of 
more largely in the succeeding chapter, on the Progreu of 
Classical Literature. Whoever wishes to know more of it, 
may find, perhaps, something to his mind in the '* Schoolmas- 
ter^ of Ascham, who had been a Fellow and a Tutor of St 
John's, and Public Orator. He was afterwards Classical 
Tutor to Queen Elizabeth. See pp. 159y 170, 178. One 
feature distinguished this period, that of verse making, and 
of making plays in Latin ; the authors of some of tfab kind 
of composition are noticed in the Hist. Umv. and ColL of 
Cambridge. 

H. p. 176. Notes, 1. 18. 

<' Fanuluaris" should be '' familiaris;" and p. 177> notes, 
L 1, '' overlooked'' should be " overstocked.** 

H. p. 181. 

Among those distinguished at Cambridge for their ac* 
quaintance with Eastern literature, Robert Wakefield 
should not have been omitted, the most distinguished Hebri- 
cian in Hen* Vlllth's reign. See our account of Printing, 
&c. at the end of this volume. 

H. p. 184, at the end. 

It may be added, that George Villiers, Duke of Bucking- 
ham, when Chancellor of the University, presented to the 
University a collection of eastern MSS. which had belonged 
to the celebrated eastern scholar Erpenius, and which was 



I8t SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

deemed^ at the time, one of the best private collections of 
eastern MSS. in Europe. I am indebted to the learned Dr. 
Bennet, the Bbhop of Cloyne, for pointing out to me dni 
omissioD. 

H. p. 186. Notes, at the end. 

The person who was burnt for Tritheism at Berne, one of 
the States of Switzerland, was John Valentme Geoub^ 
whoae book was republished in England, with a ahoit ac- 
iount of him^ by (I think) the celebrated Dr. South (tbov^ 
witliottt his name), who designed it aa a banter against the 
altra-orthodoxy of Dr. Sherlock, who run the doctrine o{ the 
Trimty (a9 South thought) into Trith^m. For a more par- 
ticular account of Gentilis, of his doctrines, and cruel death, 
see ^* Nouveau Dictionaire Historique," tome 4. 

H. p. 190. 

As Lford Bacon's Advancement of Lieaming, first printed 
ifl 1605 (afterwards much enlarged in his book, de Augm^tis 
Scientiarum), in connexion with his Novum Oi^aum^ is 
considered by many as introductory to the agt of Science at 
Cambridge, and as the word *' Philosophy" seems sometimes 
in the old schools to have been made to embrace the \vbole of 
the Sciences, or the Idberai Jrts (which terms were some- 
times synonymous), and as Bacon professed to survey the 
whole system of philosophy, it may not be unacceptable to 
some readers to have, in addition to what is said in our His- 
tory, a slight sketch of the philosophy of the schools, a little 
before the time of Bacon. 

Though logic is not properly a science, as not cousistiDg in 
Cognitione Rerum, sed in tnodo Res cognoscemS (and is so 
considered by Burgersdicius, in hb Theses, in hia Idea 
Phihst^hia Naturalis), yet it was considered of prime 
account in the old schools: here Aristotle's Categories, 
Analytics, and Topics, or treatises formed by his interpre- 
ters, or the Schoolmen, were the Text Books. In like man- 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 189 

ner, in Physics and Metaphysics, Aristotle de Pfaysieis et 
,!Metaphysicis, de Ccelo, de Generatioue Animaliuniy de Cor* 
pore^ et de Anima, were principal text books, embracing their • 
whole philosophy of matter and spirit. Plato seems to have 
obtained but little place here till the revival of literature. 

This philosophy kept its ground alike in the Parisian, Eng* 
lish, and Scotch Universities ; till coming to the Chapter of 
£thicsy the English and Scotch churches, about the time of 
the Reformation^ quarrelled with Aristotle concerning Ethics 
and Theology : this difference is expressed in the Schools as 
follows, in one of their Theses : 

Aristoteles primum quasi fontem felicitatis, virtutis, delv 
berationis bonae, et electionis, constituit Rationem huma- 
naro, p# se puram, integram, et incorruptam. 

Nos itaq. quibus ex aguita veritate revelatum est, homi* 
nem bene intelligendi, volendi, deliberandi, et agendi facuU 
tate a lapsu primasvo penitus destitutum esBCy ab Aristotelis 
Sententi& de felicitatis, virtutum, et bonarum actionum fuo- 
damento recedere cogimur. 

It should be observed here, that Philosophia,, the generic • 
term, embraced Metaphysics) Ethics, and Theology, as well 
as Physics ; in short, divine and human subjects, so far as 
they could be known without revelation. 

We may form some opinion of the Scripture Theology of 
this period at Cambridge, by certain Theses of Dr. Chadder« 
ton and Dr. Baro*, in 1518; for, though not delivered in 
syllogistic form, nor exhibited as being delivered in the 
schools, they display the general features of the public dis- 
putations in James's reign, which, together with tnorab, not- 
withstanding the philosophy of Bacon, had more of a bearing 
to the Aristotelian Ethics, than it had in the preceding cen- 
tury. 

ITieir Physics, or Natural Philosophy, was formed ac- 
cording to these rule's; Ut Physica sit distributa in duas 
partes, in partem scilicet communem, in quft agitur de cor- 

• Dr. Fallcrh Hitt of Camb^ p. 146. 



'^ SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

pore natmali, ejusq. aflFecrionibu, in genere; et m »«,««. 
propr„n., .„ qua di««ritur de speciebus corporis o.^ 
ejusq^ pnncpm et affectionibus. This latter divi»on ^ 
to what are called the branches of Philosophy j-^rf 
the. A,.ro«>„.y had included ^uch that is call^tZ^ 
logy, and their Cbymistry consisted in what wj/n^^' 
called Alchemy, ^y had, too, the. Pe^pl^ JT ^j^^^ 

portion of their attention. ^^ 

Of their Astronomy, which seems to have been »!.• • 
cpal b^nch of philosophy, some idea, ^r^^ ^.T 
formed from the following Theorems : ^' ^ ^ 

« lr^i!T 'TT** "^ "^ "^^ "•*^' ••«« 'i"- its cen. 
verse-which ,s equally removed on all sidesfiomtAe Ae. 
^ns-which IS called by philosophers the center of G^: 

2' ^T'"' -»'-'' -» •'-'ytWnUstendbythriro.nl 
tur^ un ess diey are impeded by some extenud fo,.^ 

cies of the earth, but, on account of their in»h.^ 
« tbey cannot be accommodated to "^"^ "'tobihty, 

« But the superficies of t^ !? • ^T'^'^' ""*«"*: 
« account „/.,"" ^'^ *« ^^th » stable and finn, but on 

It IS not perfecUy spherical. • ^ 

" The nearness of the sun. when i* ;. :- n • 
" is fn„nA k " " " Capncom. as it 

«>"> i. *e.l,e„ „y oft™ "p^ " """"" "* 

"luier peiiods, some 6mt noUoa 

• rt wa,, tlierefore, often connected with fhr.t-ii- * 
what w„ deemed /-».Oca,i/.rt. sothltt. '^'•**""« '•"""« «»»«»». «ml 
C«.bridge. John Dee. of Wn' Co,?i V"°" "°'°"" ■""^''^'■•» <>f 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 185 

may. be formed, in the way of connexion, of some of the 
pbiloflophical ideas of those times. 

Aristotle, in almost every thing, had much swayed the 
schools. With respect to Mathematics, properly so called, 
according to the present language of the schools, it does not 
appear that Euclid, though known to a few mathematicians, 
as being in MS. was even printed till 1535 (at Basil). 
Xwo or three of what some one calls the raw mathema- 
ticians of die 14th century were printed towards the end 
of the 15th ; yet they were little known : Archimedes was 
not published till a few years after Euclid. Books in Alge* 
bra were printed still later. Diophantus, the famous Ara* 
bian in the 4th century, did not appear in print till 1575, at 
Basil. Ramus's Arithmetics et Geometria, et Schola Ma* 
thematica, were not printed till 1569i siso at Basil. In ge- 
neral, then, geometrical and algebraical books were among 
.the latest printed in Europe : I doubt whether any one, dur- 
ing the period alluded to, had been printed in England, cer- 
tainly not at Cambridge ; for Sibert, the first printer, put 
forth but nine books (in 1521 :ind 1522), and not one of 
lliem was mathematical; and from 1522 to 1584 no book 
was printed there at all *. So that works of that kind could 
only engage the attention of the more scientific. It is re- 
marked of Mr. Record, who is called the first public pro- 
fessor of Geometry and Algebra, in England, that when he 
published his Practical Arithmetic, he had nothing to copy 
after, but Bishop Tonstal's book, de Arte Supputandi, which 
was not printed till 1522. 

Of Dr. Robert Record and his works there is a particu- 
lar account given by Anthony Wood f • He was at first Ba- 
chelor of Arts at Oxford, and M. D. at Cambridge 1545. 
Wood says, " he read lectures at Cambridge and Oxford, 

« See Hist of Printiog at Cambridge, &c. at the end of this volume. 

f Atben. Oxon. toI. 1, p. 103. See, also, Mylei Daries's AUieoaa Britan. 
to!. 2. p. 343. 



186 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

'' both in Arithmetic and Madiematics^ which he rendered 
'^ so clear and obvious to capadties, that none ever <&d be- 
^ fore him in the memory of man." 'He published " the 
Grounds of Art, touchiug the perfect Work and Practjoe 
in Arithmetic, in whole Numbers and in Fractions — on the 
Extraction of Roots, the Cossic Practice, with the Roles of 
Equation, and Works of Surd Numbers-^i^n the first Priih 
ciples of Geometry, as they may be. most aptly applied to 
Practice, both for the use of Instruments Geometrical and 
Astronomical, and for the Projection of Plates in erery 
kind— 4he Castle of Knowledge, containing the Explicatioa 
of the Sphere both Celestial and Material." All his books 
were printed in London. His ^* Grounds of An, or Per- 
fect Work and Practice in Arithmetic," was corrected and 
improved by the so often-mentioned Mr. John Dee, of 
Trinity College, for an account of which most singular man, 
and his writings *, the reader is referred to our History of 
Cambridge, Vol. II. pp. 293, 2i94» 

In the year 1584 Sir Robert Read's Lectures were found- 
ed in Humanity, Logic, and Philosophyt (as Lady Marga- 
ret*8 had been a few years before) ; but for the authors most 
in repute in Queen Elizabeth's time, for lecture books, as 
well in Philosophy in general, as the particular branches in 
literature, the reader is referred to Queen Elizabeth's % Sta- 
tutes. 

But to return to Lord Bacon. The principles on which 
he advanced in opposing the Philosophy of many former 
ages, have been, though very slightly, considered in the 
Hist, of Cambridge. In his Second Book of his Normn 

* In the Lansdowne Collect of MSS. (from origioal hdtben ia Queen 
Elizabeth's reigo) he ia called Warden of Winchester, and Queen Elua- 
belh's Conjuror ; there is also a Petition of Dec's to Jaoies I. and the Par- 
liament, that he might be put on his trial, on the injurious cbarse that had 
been brought against him, for dealing with evil spirits. 

f Privileges, p. 44. 

; Privileges, &c. pp. 161, 102. 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 187 

Organum, de Interpretatioiie Nature (so called from Aria* 
toUe't Book de loterpretatione) be introduces a long seriet 
of aphorinmsj for the examination of physics: here he 
moved more as a philosopher : but that bis great mind might 
hare more ample room, he erected for himself a new world, 
called Novus Atlas ; and he moved in that both as a philoso- 
pher and poet; selecting spots the, most fiivourable to his 
operations ; piercing into the most secret recesses of nature ; 
bringing out her choicest treasures, as subjects for expeii-. . 
Aent; and fabricating, at his own pleasure, instruments and 
machines to assist his progress ;*-till, tfirough the regions of 
imagination and specidative philosophy, be thought he had 
reached the land of reality: ^< Finb Fundationis nostras^ 
said h^ est cognitio Caussarum, et motuum tnteriorum in 
natura, atq. terminorum imperii humani prolatio ad omne 
possibile: — Apparatus autem et Instrumenta hcc sunt 
Habenaus," &c. &c.* 

But, though Bacon's writings were so well received at 
Cambridge, it should seem, that Aristotle, for several years 
after their publication^ had soma ii^uence in our Schools and 
Colleges: for an edition of Boigersdicius was published at 
Cambridge some years after Bacon's works were known; 
and all Burgersdicius's Theses are formed either from Aris- 
totle, or his more modern interpreters f. 

Descartes (born in 1^96) flourished between the time of 
Bacon and Newton f . Though it does not appear, that he 

* Bacon's Kotos i^ilas. 

f — •— noD antiques illos Graecos et Arabet, et Latinos Interprttes, A- 
phrodiseurn, &c. qui autoritatem habent ab antiqoitate; sed Doctores 
Conimbricenses, Zabarellam> Pererium, Toletnm, aliosq. nooet Scriptores. 
Burgertdicius, 

X Sa Pbilosopbia ne trouYa pat momt d'obstacle en Aagleterre, et ce fut 
ce qae I'empecfaa de b* y fiier ua voyage, qo*!! y fit^-'A peine les Univer- 
lites i'etoient elies soumises a la doctrine de Descartes, auquil elles n'avoi- 
CDt pas voula d'abord sacrifter Aristote, qu'il a falla TabandooDer pour 
Neirtoo. DicUonaire Histonque, Tomt 4» Ikicaries, 



188 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

met with such a reception in England as he counted on 
yet his writings were soon veiy favourably received here ; 
for Whiston says^ when he returned to College, after taldn^ 
orders, to pursue his mathematical studies, the Cartesiao 
Philosophy was alone in vogue* : but it was soon compdled 
to yield. Bacon held the light, which Newton followed; 
and both Aristotle and Descartes were at the same time dis- 
possessed of the authority, which they had obtained io Ibe 
Schools, by Newton. 

Having spoken of Aristotle both here and in the Hist, of 
Cambridge, and of Bacon*s opposition to his writings, it 
may not be out of place, and perhaps it will be hot bar, to 
add, that Aristotle still finds a strenuous advocate among 
the modems; for Mr* Tliomas Taylor (not indeed a Cam* 
bridge man) has lately published a Translation of all AHsto^ 
tle*^ Works, and a Defence of his Doctrines. 

This, too, may be no improper place to observe, Aiat in 
Vol. I* p. 191, of my History, at the bottom of the p^e 
(in the text), I have improperly spoken of the Magna 1h- 
STAUBATio, as though it were the same work as the Novum 
Organum ; whereas the Novum Organum is but apari of that 
great work. 

* « 

H. p. 191, 1. 15. Iniposiure». 

Logic, Metaphysics, and Theology, may each, by help 
of the volaiiU spirit, called Sophistry, be converted into 
impostures, and logic itself become the greatest imposture 
of all : but there are two species of imposture, of the more 
temible kind ; which having been alluded to in our Hist, aa 
making a part of our old literature, yet without being suffi* 
* ciently characterized, it may be proper to notice more part^ 
cularly here ; I mean. Astrology and Alchemy. 

Astrology, which properly signifies the Doctrine or Sci- 
ence of the Stars, anciently formed the two branches, now 

* Whbton's Mcmoin of hit own Life and Writings, Vol. I. p. 3C 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 1«9 

ealled Astronomy and Astrology; for these two compre^ 
hended the ancient Astronomy^ then called Astrologer. The 
two branches now are quite separated. Astrology, natural 
or physiological, as well as judicial or judiciary, being al- 
most generally abandoned by men of science. 

*^ Astrology led men to consider the hea? ens as one great 
'' volume, wherein God had written the History of the 
^* World, and in which every man may read his own fortune 
'^ and the transactions of his time*." It superadded the 
power of foretelling future events, and of calculating nativities; 
it professed to reveal the ludden nature, and influential effects 
in stones, plants, trees, and, in short, all parts of nature, 
from the stars; and by persons, to whom, unfortunately, the 
laws and order, and coiu'se of the stars, were unknown. 
A^bove all, it professed, by the use of some cabalistic names 
for the Deity, to possess a more immediate and mysterious 
access to him, and to derive from it power over the stars^ 
angels, and demons t : and by a strange intermixture of re» 
ligioas formularies and ceremonies, accompanied with the 
absurdest practices, carried superstition, imposture, and 
impiety, to the greatest height. Certain it is, that some of 
the most learned men of their time, both of Cambridge and 
Oxford, gave into these practices : the presumption, there- 
fore, is, that in some cases they yielded, as other learned 

* Dr. Hutton'fl MathemAtical Dietioaaiy. 

f Hence oae of oar old poets :-~ 

Ai Indian Moort obey their Spaniih lordi. 

So aball the t^rita of erery element 

Be always serviceable to ns three : 

Like lions shall they guard os when we please; 

Like Almain Rutters, with their horsemen's staveSp 

Or Lapland giants trotting by oar sides; 

Sometimes like woisen, or -anwedded nmidsy 

Shadowing more beauty in their airy brows 

Than have the white breasts of the Queen of Love. 

Mabiowb's DocToa pAt'sTcs, in Lamb*t ^^eciment qf En^Ssh 



190 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

men \nte done in other things, to the prejudices of 
hind ; and, in tome, to the former notions superadded a fittk 
of their better light, which served but to spread a gloiy owtr 
the rest. It is unnecessary to account for these waMen; 
I only state them ; and one specimen will do : for name* 
rous are the MSS. which are in our public libraries oa Ak 

subject. 

Among the MSS. in the Lansdowne CollectioD, in the 
British Museum, are two MSS. entitled ** lea vrais Cisnri* 
culea du Roi Solomon." They are translationa into modem 
French : but they are said to have been written origioai/j by 
King Solomon ; and one is prefaced with an Address to bia 
Son Roboam, on the bequeathing to him this sacred volume. 
It was translated, we are told, by Rabbi Abagnazer, joto JLs* 
tin, and that, on the destruction of the Jews of Aries, ia 
Provence^ it fell into the hands of the ArchlMshop of that 
place, who caused it to be translated into French. Tk»i» 
much for its Hbtory. 

The performance of all that is required in this saered 
volume does not imply auy knowledge of what is now called 
Astronomy ; but consists, in the adaptation of Ae muDes o£ 
the planets to the days of the week ; in the drawii^ of lines, 
and magical circles, and the application of the occult names 
of the Deity, and Cabalistic s^s in certain places in tbdr 
magical circles ; in charms, talismans^ solemn preparatibns^ 
and awful ceremonies, closing with prayer, and bringing the 
disciple into complete subjecUon of soul : the Psalms of 
David, interspersed in this volume^ and the Athanasian 
Creed, with which it closes, are formed into charms and ta- 
lismans. One of the MSS. begins as follows : 

Solomon, Fils de David, Roi d'Israel, a dit, que la com- 
mencement de notre Clef est de craindre Dieu, de I'adorer, 
et de rhonorer avec contritiou et Tinvoquer dans toutes les 
choses que nous voulons operer et faire. Quand tu voudras 
done acquerir la connoissance des sciences ei de$ Arts 
Mogiques, &c. Les vrais Claviculea du roi Solomon. MS. 

3 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 191 

The following passage will shew, that a single clause in the 
Athanasian Creed possessed great power over the elements ! 
«— Quand le tonnere et la fondre s^eleveront, prenes le Sym* 
bole de St. Athanase dans votre mains et le leses jusq. a, 
'' Sans que lea Personnes soient confondues^' et aussitot ils se- 
ront dissesses, et si vous le lises sur une malade avec trois 
pater, et trois ave, il sera dellvra et gueri par la vertu du 
Dieu. 

It was usual, on these solemn occasions, for the master 
and the disciple to take with them into their holy retreat the 
Hebrew Psalter and New Testament, and the more akin to 
their mysteries, because they could not read them. 

Then baste thee to f ome solitary grove, 
And bear wise Baoou's and Albanus' works. 
The Hebrew Psalter, and New Testament ; 
And whatsoever else is requisite 
We win hiforftt thee, ere our conferenee cease. 

Mailowe's DocToa Fauitvs. 

Cbymistiy, properly so called, is the science which teaches 
the analyzing or dividing of material substances by fire. 
Alchemy was the art of purifying metals, or transmuting 
one less, into one more, perfect, as into gold or silver, prin- 
cipally into gold ; and of extracting the spirits of minerals 
and plants ; an art accompamed with magical and astrologi- 
cal matters, and, therefore, it may be presumed, an art, not 
as being, ministra naturae, but as the contriver of tricks and 
juggles, or strange resemblances, countenanced and accre- 
dited by superstition and fraud. The former is the peculiar 
boast of the modems; the latter was much practised 
(though the .word is of a later origin) by the Arabians and 
^Egyptians ; and Magic, in different forms, by the northern 
as weU as eastern nations*. 

Dr. Wilkms, as he, by his authorities produced, renders it 

• MMBHMiidct More Ner. L. 3, c. 29. SUnleii Hist Pbilos, Orient. 
U 1, c. S7^a0. Scefferi Lapponia. c. xi. de Magicis Lapponum. 



19« SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

highl; probable, not to say certain^ that the ancienta had 
die means of applying the mechanical powers to ao extent 
now impracUcable by us* ; so does he maiatain^ that those 
subterraneoiu lamps, which, as related by credible historaiis, 
kept burning for many hundred years together, were pre* 
served by some cbymical art^ now lost, of purifying and de- 
fsecating the oil. These, and other things of the like kind^ 
may be seen in the second part of Bishop Wilkins*s Mathe^ 
matical Magic ; and Dutens, who is in the habit of assert- 
ing more roundly, and of being more copious in his quota- 
Uons, goes the length of saying, '' that the ancients nolon/j 
« knew all of cbymistry that we doj but had such inngjht 
^* into it, as we have not at present t. 

Chyniistry, however, may, with propriety, be called at 
* least the boast of the moderns ; for even Bomcluui^ the 
advocate of the ancients, as quoted by Dr. Wotton, admits, 
that Hippocrates, Aristotle, and Galen, knew not how even to 
make rose-water :^. The applications of the various chymi- 
cal preparations were unknown till the time of Basilius Va- 
lentinus and Paracelsus : antimony, and some other of the 
metals, were unknown to the ancients; as, for certain, were 
all the gases : these latter, with their properties, being as^ 
certained by the experiments of Priesdey, Schule, Caven- 
dish, Lavoisier, Bertholet, and others §• 

Taking, however. Alchemy in the sense laid down above, 
we must conclude, both by the course pursued^ and the 

* To what Bisbop Wilkint gays^ about the mechanic attainmeotiy I 
take leave to add what the acute Mr. Northniore, late of Emmairacl Col- 
lege, says, of the Telegraph, which was ceitainly known to the Greeks : 
an account of it is given by Roll in, in his Ancient History, fhmi Pnljbius. 
Mr. Northroore observes, << that Polybins gives an accucmte aocooat of a 
iMKtumal Telegraph, invented by Cleoxenus, or Dettioclitus. A Quadn^tu 
qf Inveniionu, 2nd ed. by T. Northmore, Esq. 

f Dutens's Inquiry into the Origin of the Discoveries attributed to the 
Ancients. Partlll. Ch. 5. 

X Re6ections on Ancient and Modern Learning, p. 185. Ed. 1604 

§ Aikin's Dictionary' of Chymistry and Mineralogy. 
Oaf, 



HISTORY Ot CAMBRIDGE- • m 

events that it pos^ssed much of imposture; for, as pro* 
fenaed to this country (and we have to do only with that), it 
was pracdaed in secret, the adepts being bound by oath * to 
concealment; and hence it was called the occult art: it was 
conducted with all the cabalism and mysticism of superstition, 
the grand instrument of deception in all ages; nor, after 
vast professions, did these philosophers, in a single instance, 
realize a grain of gold; for the philosopher's stone was 
never found oat ; the fixed volatile, that portion of the 
dirnne, universal spirit, to he fixed in a transparent body^^ was 
never procured ; and gold, youth, health, and immortality, 
all vanished, like a South-Sea dream; while the Alche* 
mist, though several centuries had been employed in matur« 
ing the great secret, instead of growing rich, turned out a 
vagrant, a beggar, and " lousy lout,'' the sport of punsters, 
and the laogbing-stock of the stage. 



A chetter and hit punk ■ ■ ■ 
Much compaoy Uiey draw, and much abuser 
In easting figores, telling fbrtuifes, newt, 
Selling of flies, flat bawdry, with ike Stone;^ 
Tin it and they, and aJI in fume are gone. 

Ben Jonean's Argument io the AkhdmisL 

It may be added, diat natural magic, and necromancy, and 
witchcraft, have an alliance with alchemy, being all influ- 
enced by «itractioaa from plants and minerals, mixtures of 
medicinal compositioDs for potions and philters ; and, that 
alchemy, as its name imports, proceeded from Arabia, ibat 
country of die Gay Science, called, Romance f • 

• So says the &moos Cornelius Agrippa, who had himself been sworn* 
He obsenres— '^ Many things I oould say of this art, to which I am no great 
'' enemy, were I not sworn to silence^ a custom imposed upon persons 
^ newly initiated therein, whick has been so solemnly and religiously ob« 
" served by the ancient writers and phil5^phers, that there is no phiioso- 
** pher of approved authority, or writer of known fidelity, who hath in any 
'< plaee made Mcaftioo tberM)f.'' Vmrnl^^ MimiSsimeet. 

t Moos. Haet*ii IVratise of Romances. 

•n 



194 StJtPLEMENT TO THE 

It will be now asked, did alchemy ever make a part <rf 
academical learning at Cambridge f And the answer must be, 
no. Chymistry, in any form or name, is not mentioned in 
Q. Elizabeth's Statutes (though the other branches of lite- 
rature are, and the authors to be read in each), nor in any 
other ancient Statutes : and, though there appears the name 
of Cardan, who was a great alchemist, it will be found in re- 
ference only to arithmetic : academical lecturing in sdcbemy, 
indeed, there could not be ; for what was to be 50 studiously 
concealed,' could not be publicly taught. 

But alchemy and astrology were much studied both at 
Cambridge and Oxford, in the middle ages ; and later down 
the celebrated Friar Bacon of Oxford*, and John Dee of 
Cambridge, each, perhaps the most extraordinary personage 
of his age, were deep in the occult art. Ma<A of science 
they unquestionably possessed beside ; and with their alche- 
my, no doubt, intermixed much that now bears the pure 
name of Chymistry. 

• 

* Though Roger Bacon was of Oxford, yet I cannot forbear adding 1 
word or two more of him immediately connected with astrology and aJche* 
my. He was bom at Ilchester^ in Somersetshire, in 1213: a man he was 
of uncommon genius, and conversant in the ftcienas ai well as the Uo- 
guages, far beyond the times in which he lived. BraclLeT observes of Lid, 
" that he was master of many curious processes in chemistry, and would 
** doubtless have produced greater discoveries in this branch of science, had 
" he not been drawn aside from the path of trae science by tfaephilosoplu- 
<' cal Ignis Fatuus, which led the philosophers of this time to attempt the 
<' transmutation of inferior metals into gold f ." He bad great acquaint- 
ance with mechanics, statics, and optics : his matliematical and astrono- 
mical knowledge led to discoveries which occasioned the refonnation of the 
Gregorian Calendar. He was acquainted with the use of gunpowder. He 
attempted to square the circle; and to his skill in what was called Natural 
Magic, he added that of judicial astrology; and Natural Magic he defend- 



f Dr. Enfield*B Hist, of Philosophy, as abridged from Bruckerj votii. 
p. 877. 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 105 

Some readers, whife on this subject, perhaps, would be 
satisfied and pleased with the observations of Dr. Johnson, 



ed * to a certain extent, as did Lord Bacon, tbougb in a way very different 
from that laid down in books of magic f. 

That be should have been charged with holding conTerse with evil spirits, 
and brought to answer the charge before the Pope, and imprisoned, is not 
surprising, in an age when, as Anthony Wood expresses it, " it was be» 
** lie ved that no one would acquire the learned languages, but for the pur* 
** pose of holding secret converse with dssmons ; when the best property of 
** a circle was, that it bad the power to exclude from it an evil spirit ; and 
** when tKe angles of a triangle could inflict a wound on religion." But in- 
tercourse with evil spirits he never avowed ; and he has been defended from 
the charge by Sclden, and Bayle though against his own countrymen; and 
Bale himself, a violent and bigoted writer^ though he had imputed such 
converse to Bacon, retracted the charge. 

No doubt, much of his ingenuity consisted in what is called mathematical 
magic, or a peculiar skill in discoveries and inventions, made by hu know- 
ledge of the mechanical powers; yet, to say nothing of the head of brass, 
which he was said to have made, and ho! den converge with, and other things 
of the fabulous kind, if he maintained (as John Pic de Miranda says he 
read in a book of Bacon's) that a man could become a prophet, and foretel 
future events by means of an alchemist's mirrour, composed according to 
the rules of perspective {, provided he was under a good constellation, and 
kept his body temperate by chymistry, he deceived. He says of astro* 
logy — Voluit Deus, res suas sic ordinare, ut qussdam, quss futura praeyi* 
derit vel destinaverit, rationabilibns per planetas ostenderentur. Ibid, p, 
156. — How much this sort of subjects was formerly pursued by our acade- 
mics, may be inferred from the great variety of writings that lie in our li* 
braries on them. Friar Bacon wrote besides on every branch of literature: 
but of the list made out by Leland, the presumption is, that not half of them 
were written by Bacon, who has been similarly circumstanced with Wick* 
lifie, in baring many works ascribed to him that were written by his follow- 
ers. See S. J ebb's Preface to the Opus Migus. ^ 

The Vita Jobannis Dee (by Dr. John Smith) is curious, and bears ho- 
nourable testimony to the character of Mr. Dee, but a very different one to 



* In Librp de Utilitate Scientiarum, MS. as quoted by Anthony Wood, 

HisL & Antiq. Lib. I. pp. 138, 139. 

f Advancement of Learning, p. 204. Philip Mallet*s edition. 

X As quoted by Bayle, Dictionnaire, Hist. & Crit. ArtkU, Roger Bc" 

ssn. 

•n 2 



•*-N 



^50 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

prefixed to Macbeth ; wkere he deemed it proper to apcdo- 
gise for Shakespeare^ in conductiiiC the machinery of his 
witches, (and it will apply equally well to his Faery-Ma* 
chinery, in the Midsummer's Night-Dream) which he does, 
by ezamwing '< the genius of his age, and the opimoiisof 
** his contemporaries/' 

Ibat of ho confident Kelly. For more concereins Mr. l>ee, see our HK 

of Camb. Vol. II. p. 2^3. 

Boger Bacon also speaks of makir.g astronomical Ubles, in whidi afi tke 
motions of the heavens might be certified from the beginning of Che vorld 
to the end ; et tunc, he says, omni die possemns considerare is ooslo can- 
sas omnium, kc Oput M€^, So that he was probably in the habit of 
using n little duplicity, or, in accommodation to the i^nios of the times, 
of adopting, occasionally^ something of the Professorial language. Si po- 
pulns Tult decipi, decipiatur. 

Our John Dee, of Cambridge, who awmed^ himself held coorerfe with 
spirits, wrote an apolog;^ for Roger Bacon, against the charge of his hold- 
ing converse with the devil* j and there is a most singular vindkalion of Mr. 
Dee, in the preface of a work, written by the learned Meric Casaubon (in 
1659), himself a great believer in Aogclography, Demonology, &c. 

The Opus Majus of Bacon is considered a very extraordinary woTk. T>r. 
Sam. Jebb, formerly of Cambridge, who published a fine edition of ilia 
1733, says, in his Preface, Qusecunque vero novs ad Scieotiamin Aug- 
menta Baconus unquam excogitaverat, ea omnis fste in hoc opere dispersa 
legebantur. The great principle (which, however, it does not teem, ihat 
N either he, or his disciple, ever could realize) was this: Ilia Me^cina (the 

Elixir f ) quae tolleret omned immunditias et corroptiones meiaUi vilioris, 
ut fieret argentum et aurum purissimum, sestimatur a sapientibus posse tol- 
lere corruptiones corporis humani in tantum, ut vitam per multa s»coIa 
prolongaret. Opus Mig. p. 471. Jebbi Edit. 

* In his Dedication to his Propasdeumata Aphorittica, as referred to by 
Bayle. 

f This Elixir, however, was never made, tbongh be gives n recei^ for 
making it, in his Mirror qf ^leArrny.-— Speaktog of one of his openUoniB^ be 
says — ^this secret is to be kept more secret; and again, if any thing docs 
not succeed accordiug to the experiment, it will be owing to so met h in g 
wrong in the process. I here quote his sense, though not his very words, 
not having at present his ** Mirror of Alchemy" before me. 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 197 

But as to Astrology and Alcbemyy they have had Atir 
day^ and gone to rest. Those who now look into eurming 
bo^hsj as curious persons may now and then from love of 
novelty^ and in remembrance of ancient days, are not likely 
to become conjurors: in our Universities die charm is 
quite dissolved. Astronomy, disengaged from astrologyi 
•htiies with a greater splendor, and with her proper ma^ 
jesty : Chymistry, too, has churned for itself eveiy thing tfait 
is nsefitl for arts and manufactures ; but as to Alchemy, in 
Syllabuses of Lectures at Cambridge, and the most ap* 
proved modern Dictionary of Chymistry, there is not found 
a place even for its name ♦. 

H. p. £04, Mathematics atul Jlgebra. 

As Algebra is properly a sort of more general arithmetic, 
represented by flogns and letters of the alphabet (but perhaps 
»o called from the name of the Arabic invent(H*, or from an 
AralMC word, meaning by eminence, the exeelkmt), as weH 
na numerical figures, and applied by mathematicians in 
their problems, both geometrical and arithmedcal, being 
called emphatically Arithmetica Universalis, it forms a part 
of mathematics ; and, therefore, for nuUhematies and a^ebrm 
ebould rather be substituted ^* pure nuUhemaiies, ami the 
mathematical prineiplei of natural philoeophj/^** after the 
title of Sir Isaac Newton's Piincipia* 

H. p. 194* Metaphysics. 

For Metaphysics I have not thoagfat it necessary to form a 
distinct chapter. Formerly it vras considered as a sulgect 
distinct from matter^ individual and common matter, non sola 
ratione, sed re ipsas I prefer Kanfs idea of it, aa, Crittca 



« la Pntaisr KMbb% flf llabas o# Uekmm, aad lfr« Aikm'B VMrn^ 
sqr or Qiyaiiitijr, tiMia is as sitisla oa McaauT. 



^98 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

RatioDB puree 8peciiladv»^ circa cognitibnum originem, cer- 
titudinisq. secundum objectorum varietatem difFerentiam spe* 
cificam. This idea of metaphysics seems to keep in view Ba- 
con's nodon of it (distinct both from what he calls Philosopkia 
prima, and Theologia, both natural and revealed), as a bfanch 
'' or descendant of natural science ; taking metaphirsic fbrtfaat 
'' which is abstracted and fixed, and contemplating phjnc as 
<' that which is merely inherent in matter, and transilofy;'' 
and further, '' as handling that whidi supposeth in natnie a 
'^ reason, understanding, and platform, while physk^ that 
'' which supposeth in nature only a being and movii^.*' For 
this view of it will comprehend matter in its specific diffei^ 
^ "- ences, as well as mind, with its essential properties, and 

distinct affections, as perception, judgment, memory, wil- 
ling, with Love, Hatred, Hope, Fear, and the like, la 
short, as Mr. Locke's Essay on the Human Underatanding 
is a sort of metaphysical treatise, proceeding mucVi ou New- 
ton's and Bacon's principles as applied to physical science, I 
thought it sufficient, with what is elsewhere said on Metaphy- 
sics, to refer to Mr. Locke's Essay on the Human Under- 
standing, being, as well the best exeoip'ii^catjon of tboae 
principles, as the standard book at Cambridge; and for Lo» 
gic, to refer to Duncan's Treatise (thoogVi Watte' s is some- 
times used), as being the summary, formed from Locke, 
and most favourably received at Cambridge. 

Sir Isaac Newton is a person whom some have, from the 
beginning, almost idolized, and whom those who differed 
fi-om have yet always held in the greatest respect: for, 
though his philosophy now reigns in the schools, stUl there 
have been some, and Cambridge men, who from the begin- 
ning did not agree with him in alhparticuiars. 

Mr. John Aubrey, to whom, in a few instances, I ac- 
knowledge myself indebted, and who was Pioneer General 
to Mr. Anthony Wood, has noticed some interviews and 
letters between Sir Isaac Newt«m and Mr. Rob. Hooke, 
from which it appears, Ifaat Newton received some hints from 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 199 

that eminent mechanic, on which his great genius knew how 
to improve. And Aubrey, in a manner equally coarse and 
.untrue, exclaims against Sir Isaac Newton as having acted 
dishonourably by dropping the name of Hooke in the case 
alluded to*^ 

* LetUr$ wr'UUn hyeminmt Pertom qf the 17<A and ISth Cent, by John Au- 
hrey, Etq, now {1813) J!rst published from the Originals in the Bodl, Library and 
Aehmolean Museum, Oxford, Vol, IL Part I, p, 403—406. On mentioDiag 
this to my learned friend, Mr. John Hammond, of Fenstanton, Hunting- 
donahire (being then on a Tisit to him)» be immediately referred me to New- 
ton's Principia (Sect. 2, Scbolittm« p. 4A)f where Hooke's name it mention- 
ed ai having made distinct collections on the subject alluded to— at Mor/ttm 
coUegenmt etiam, nostrates Wrennus, Hookius, & Hallieni: there will 
be found a few remarks in the Gentleman's Mag. (Jan. 1816) on Aubrey's 
X^tar. 

I must here further obsenre, that Sir Isaac Newton eoM have had no wish 
to conceal what was known to all the learned of his time, as, -according to 
Aubrey's narrative, Mr. Hooke's (of 1678) own account to Newton, and 
Newton's answer to Hooke, were read before the Royal Society : and, fur- 
ther, Mr. Whfston, in ** Memoirs of his own Life and Writings (Vol. !« 
ppu 3d, 36), relates the process of 3ir Isaac Newton, in reference to his 
Theory, as he received it from Newton himself — wherein the latter speaks 
** of the Postulatum that had been thought of before, that the Power of 
'* Gravity might decrease in a dnpKcate proportion of the distances from 
** the Earth's center.'* On which subject, being at first somewhat disap- 
pointed, he returned to it again, after receiving some new light with fresh 
conviction. 

Anthony Wood has admitted Aubrey's Account of Mr. Hooke into his 
Ath. Oxon. (Vol. II. p. 1039) but without his reflections, or regard to his 
raw appeal: " Mr. Wood! this (alluding to what he had said of Hooke) 
** is the gi«atest discovery in nature, that ever was since the world's crea- 
^ tion* It never was so much as hinted by any man before f ." 



f Which, again, is* not true. The Aubous Leibnitz found out the very 
same law of GraTitation, by which the Planets are retained in their Ellipti- 
eal OrbitSy namely, of being reciprocally proportionate to the square of 
the distance from the focus, about which the revolution is made. Greeu's 
Priociples of Nat. Philosophy, p. 72; for which he appeals to Dr. Grego- 
ry's Astron. Prop. 77, L. 1. The only difcrenee was, that Leibnitz pre* 
eeeded on the supposition of Vortices hannonically cifculatiog about the 
9n»i Newton on the Hypothesis of a void and immoveable Space. 

5 



^ 



900 gUPPLEMENT TO THE 



But, u an obiervation was made in tfie Hiatorj off Ctflh 

bridge, that some Cambridge men dijfered, in several parlicn- 
Ian, from the Newtonian philosophy, it may be proper to be- 
stow on it a little illustrabon in this place, acoooipaase^ 
too, as it will be, with a little more of biographical noteea. 
Pr, Rob. Green, then, published the Piinciples of Ntta- 
tal Philosophy, in which he aims to shew tiie insoffidcacj 
of the present systems (meaning thereby the Cartesian aad 
Newtonian), to give us any just account of the Sciences, aad 
the necesnty there is of some new principles, in order to 
furnish us with a true and real knowledge of Nature. C$m* 
bridge. 1712, 

J have only read the Preface and Table of dontenii 
(which are themselves copious), and here and there gJanoed 
my eye on a few topics handled in this volume, wfcjcA is of 
considerable extent* But Dr. Green maintained there is 
neither a vacuum, in the sense of the modems (Newton, 
Baphson, Keil, &;c«) nor a Plenum, in the sense of Deacartcs 
w^he held some peculiar notions on Gravity^-^e maintained 
also, and offers proof, of the possibility of squaring the 
circle. He examined also various other doctrines that are 
comprehended in Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophy, as that of 
Bound, Light, and Colour, the Rainbow, Tluida, file. Ha 
thought that the new systems tended to undermine the an- 
thority of Revelationj in which he appears to have been a 
sincere and zealous believer. Rob. Green, whose name I 
have just mentioned dsewhere (Hist. Camb. Vol. 11. p. 56)t 
was Fellow, and, I suppose, Tutor of Clare Hall (for he 
makes honourable mention of two of his pupils, who copied 
his MS.), A, M. 1703. D. D. Com. Reg. 1728, 

Mr. Hen. Lee, a Fellow of Emmanuel Coll^, had, oa 
Ae same ground, a few years before (viz, in 1702), opposed 
Mr. Lockers Essay on the Huipan Understanding, in a large 
volume, containing Notes on each Chapter of that great 
"Work. He does not indeed directly oppose Sir Isaac New* 
ton ; but Dr. Green opposed Mr. Locke's Theory oa the 



History op Cambridge. «oi 

lULind, very firmly : and both Greenes and Lee's book hat the 
same end in view, in attacking that great admirer and follow- 
er of the Newtonian Principles. 

Previously to these two might have been mentioned Dr. 

Henry Moor, and his followers ; for, though he died the very 

year Sir Isaac Newton's Principia was published, yet he left 

behind him some prodigious admirers of his doctrines. Even 

Whiston, whose words I borrowed, left him with, Sic obtit 

divinus ille Philosophus Cantabrigiensis. See Whiston's 

Memoirs of his own Life and Writings, Vol. I. p. £4* Dr. 

Moor's favourite philosophical doctrine was the Spiritus Na* 

tura, which is the same as the Anima Mundi of Plato, and 

other doctrines, not more congenial with the Newtonian Phi- 

loaophy, arising from his Cabalistic Theology and Philo« 

sophy. 

Notice also was taken of Mr. Parkhurst (Hist, of Camb.) 
and hisHutchinsonian Doctrines of Eloheim, Fire, LighLand 
Water, the Material Trinity^ Mr. P. was a Northampton- 
shire man, and Fellow of Clare-Hall i he appears to haviq 
been a most upright, conscientious man*. But Mr. Hutch- 
hison himself was of Oxford ; and his philosophy.has met 
with most encouragement there: Dr. Patten, Bishop 
Home, Mr. Jones (who wrote his life), Mr. Romaine, 
8cc. were all zealous Hutchinsonians, and of Oxford. But 
it is well known, that Mr. Hutchinson's Mosis Principia was 
opposed to Sir Isaac Newton's Principia; and as Mr. Park- 
hurst^s writings maintain the same doctrines, and Mr. Park- 

4t In proof of which I mint take lesTo to mention, thtt by the death of 
•a eMer brother he became post ened of haiMbome property, and with H 
of the patronafe of a liTinf wbieh he did not pteseni to hinttlf» as ha 
night have done, nor advertize for porchasert, at tome gentlemen vonld 
htTe done, with intimationt of ttt being in a fine tporting country, near a 
fashionable watering-place, flee. He inquired after a gentleman who had a 
Urge family, and tome principle, by whom he knew would be futhfuUy 
diicharged the datiet of the clerical profesaiom 



aoa SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

burst was a Cambridge-man^ it fell in tbe order of my woii 
to notice him here. 

Dn Wilkins, author of the Voyage to the Moon, and a 
work entitled '^ Mathematical Magick/' or the Wonders 
that may be performed by Mechanical Geometry (allowed to 
be an ingenious, if not a solid, work), was contemporarr 
with Sir Isaac Newton, though the above works were first 
printed several years before the Principia : but so singular a 
work as the Mathematical Magic must not be passed umo- 
ticed in this brief account of Theories, 

Dr, W. was Master of Trinity College in 1668, and one 
of the first Registers of the Royal Society, that was founded 
for the express purpose of pursuing experiments in philoso- 
phy * ; though his Voyage to the Moon, and some things in 
his Mathematical Magic, were thought by many to dlscredu 
them, and do them injury f. 

Dr. W. being a great mechanic, and knowing, by his ac- 
quaintance with the writings of the ancients, that sonae of 
them had given greater effect to the mechanical powers, tban 
any of the moderns, began to reason consequentially^ in 
cases, too, where he must have known he was going wrong : 
for he knew that what might be true to a certain height, and 
on known principles, could not apply to c^es of uuUmited 
height, and unknown, inconceivable distances. To speak 
the truth, though he was a grave, sensible man, he vffos 
taken with a little of the Lusus Pfailosophicus ; for, to 
carrj his powers out of nature, was to go where they could 
not act ; unless (as indeed he speaks) the motions of his flying 
chariot will still be easier, as it ascends higher, « till at length 
it shall become utterly devoid of Gravity^ when die ieast 
strength will be able to bestow on it a swift motion/' A 
poet or two might safely enough mount in this chariot, and 
sail about very pleasantly from one planet to another ; and 

* Bishop Sprat's Hist, of the Royal Society. 

t Book the 3nd, Cb. 2, of a Sailing Chariot Ch. 7, Art of Fljioj. 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. £03 

certain it is, that Baron Swedenbourg ^ did ascend, and took 
with him one who bad been formerly of St. John's College If 
But no Newtonian would venture in it. Probable, how* 
ever, it is, that our modem aeronauts may have been assisted 
somewhat in their first excursions by this ingenious and 
learned man ; but before he can raise them to the regions of 
tethereal air, both nature and art will have left them. 

Besides the Theory of Sir Isaac Newton, that contem* 
plates the great Laws of Nature in general, and the mo- 
tions of the planets, there have been others proposed by 
Cambridge men, to account for the different appearances on 
the face of this terraqueous globe, and the probable issue, 
to the consummation of all things ; such as, Dr. Burnet's 
Theoria sacra, published in 1680, and in Engl. 1709i and his, 
Archasologia Philosophica, sen Doctrina Antiqua de Rerum 
originibtts (169^)^; and Mr. Whiston's new Theory of the 
Eiorth, published about the year 1696. Though these 
Theories were not opposed to the Newtonian, and indeed 
Whistonsays, that he laid his Book before Newton, (on 
whose principles it depended) and that Newton well-ap* 

* See bis Arcana CaUilia^ and covcBtmtso the Eur/hs in onr Solar System, 
which are called Planets; and the Earths in the Starry Heavens : together vo'Uh 
an Account of their Inhabitants, and also q/* SpirUt and Angels there, 

f See p. 63 of this yoianie. 

X Dr. Thomas Burnet was a Yorkshire man. He afso wrote de Stata 
Mortuorum et de Restitntione Judeorumi a poathamous work, genninaot 
parts of bit Hieory, and both therefore what may be called Tbeoreticai; 
His Theoria Telluris was criticized by Mr. Erasmus Warreo, who was A. M. 
Christ's College, 1764 (in Exceptions against the Theory of the Earth), on 
scriptural as well as philosophical principles .* but Mr. Warren and Dr. 
Kelt both opposed the Theory, as not founded on the principles of a true 
philoBopby. Dr. Burnet was a man of mncb genlas : most of his works am 
written in Latin. He wrote also one or two small pieces, nnconuected with 
these subjects.— The above Mr. Warren wrote a Defence of his Exceptions, 
kc. and Dr. Burnet replied, in a Short Consideration, Stc. Pre6ved to 
Dr. B.'s Theory, &c is a Latin Complimentary €>de» of much merit, by 
Mr. Addison, written when he was of Magdalen College, Oxford^ dated 
1099. These Tenet iqppear^aJio, in the MQs«DAnfli«aa«i 



«H SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

prored it, yet both the one Tbeoiy aad die other were €|h 
poted, ip part, by one and the same man, and he a New- 
tonian, Dr. Keil*. 

Dr. Woodward, though not originally a atudeot of Cm- 
bridge, yet highly to be considered of in reference to i^ and 
of whom some account therefore will be found in ttk 
Tolume, opposed Dr. Burnet's Theory, in an Esst^ tamwrii 
the Natural HiUory of the Earthy pMUhed in 1605; and 
in 1714 appeared hb Naturalis Historia Telkuis lUuitnta. 
One writer opposed this theory in one or two points, in whiob 
he said, it was not to be reconciled to the Newtoniaa pUIoao- 
phyf. 

We come, at length, to one who would seem Co reject aH 
hypotheses and theories of natural (^losophy alikei, Mr. 
Thomas Baker, of Saint John's College, of wbom we bmwe 
had occasion to say so much. Whether he spike from his 
. greater depth of philosophy, or from a consciousness that it 
was but superficial, or in the order of his establidi'mg hia own 
** Reflections upon Learning, and its Insufficiency, in order 
, to evince the Usefulness and Necessity of Revelation," let 
others determine. The drift of his opinions will be easily 
perceived by the following extracts — ^ It will be well (aayn 
*^ he) if Theories be not as much out of (aduon m the next 
** age, as hypotheses are in this ; for so many experiments 
** are required to raise a Theory, that I despair of ever seeing 
'' one, that will bear the test."— And again, ^' another incom* 
^ parable person, who has added mathematical skill to hit 
^ observation upon nature, after the nicest inquiry, seems to 
'< resolve all into attraction, which, though it may be trtte, 
« and piouSf withal, perhaps will not be thought $o fhilost^ 
*^ phicalX:"^ which latter distinction, by*theJ>ye, has not in 

* Wbiston's Memoira, Vol. I. p. 44, sad Buiaei'i Theory, Bsplyto an 
BusiiMtson, 4(C. «ft tho oad of Vol. 11. 
t Dr. Wud'i Uvci of tbo Profoiiefs of Orftbam CoU^^ pj^ ^B5, 

t ReAadioiisiipoBlatraiiif* HMU pp. 84, 86. Without ft Bsm«^ bat 
known to be Beker^. 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. SOS 

il much of sense; nor do I think that men of pwtj will dumk 
him for it; though Mr. B. may be right, in die main, for 
what I know to the contrary, as to the principie he wished 
to establish. 



With these imperfect hints on natural philosophy, in ad« 
dition to those introduced in the History of Cambridge, it 
may not be out of place to connect a few remarks on Alge- 
bra. 

Cuthbert Tonstall, a native of Hatchford, in Yorkshire, 
first. Bishop of London, and in 1 630 translated lo Durham, 
was a person in his day distinguished on many accounts; of 
whom, as well as his writings, notice has already been 
taken, Hist, of Camb. Vol. II. p. 990. Bishop Godwin 
describes him as Mathematics uaq. ad miraculum scientisn^* 
mus, ac Arithmetics prssertim^ de qua ab eo libeUos con- 
scriphis raultum celebratur ^ : this book (and it is the only 
thing that concerns this place) was the Ars Supputandi, 
printed by Py nson in 4to. in 1 5£2 : it was remarkable, as 
introducing a considerable improvement on Boetins*8 Arith- 
metic, that was in use before, and as supplanting it: fiir* 
ther, it was remarkable, as being the first book that was 
printed in England on Arithmetic. So he is mentioned 
again here, merely in connexicm with that change introduced 
by him in the Ars Supputandi. 

Dr. Robert Record, one of the earliest public Lecturers 
in England on Arithmetic, and the principles of the Matbe* 
matics, and who taught them, as Wood says, bodi at Oxford 
and Cambridge, '' in a way so clear to capacities, that none 
<< ever did the like before him in the memory of man," was 
overlooked in our History of Cambridge, though some ao» 
count of him will be fonnd in tbis volume, with the proper 
references to the AtbensB Oaomenses and Davies's Athena 

* X>« Pxmulibiui jUisIubi P< 7^« 



me SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

Britaii; where more may be seen concerning him. Dr. 
Record*8 mode of teaching arithmetic and algrebra diiferedj, 
of course, from that in use now, which could not have been 
introduced till after the time of Harriot, who, about 16 15, 
adopted it from some general conclusions drawn from some- 
thing advanced by Vieta, the father of modem Algdwa: 
though Harriot's book was not published till after his dcAtfa, 
in 1631. 

Of the eminent Algebraists, Brigges, Saunderson, War- 
ing, and others, who have taught in the jway followed in the 
University since that time and the time of Sir Isaac New- 
ton, there will also be found a short account in the proper 
. places. 

There is^ however, a striking omission in r^^ard to one 
eminent man, contemporary with Newton, and of bis 
school in Natural Philosophy, and who was allowed, also, 
to be one of the greatest Algebraists of his time, Mr. Jo- 
seph Raphson. 

Joseph Raphson^was author of several books on Natural 
Philosophy. His book de Spatio reali was much comment- 
ed on, though in the way of objections, by a writer just 
now noticed. Dr. Green. Mr. Rapbson also wrote ou 
Algebra, particularly the Analysis iEquaUonum Univer- 
salis. It somewhat differed from the way followed by other 
Cambridge Algebraists, but is pronounced, by very compe- 
tent judges, to be far the best. There is a short notice of 
Mr. Joseph Raphson in Dr. Hutton'd Mathenmtical Dic- 
tionary. He was of Jesus College, though he does not 
appear to have taken a first degree ; but was A. M. by 
Royal Mandate, in 1692. 

John Colson, A. M. F. R. S. vras Plumian Professor, 
and Vicar of Chalk, in Kent. He was originally of no 
coHege, but, according to Mr. Cole », was an old bachelor 
when he was first brought to Cambridge, through the mflu- 

*Atb. Cantab, p. SCO. 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 207 

ence of Dr. Smithy Master of Tnnity Col. when he pro- 
cured at first chambers in Sidney College, and gave Lec« 
tures in. the Mathematics. Before he resided at Cam* 
bridge, he had been employed by the booksellers, and in 
conjunction with Mr. Sam. D'Oyley, Fel. and A. M. of Trin. 
Col. translated The Historical, Critical, Geographical, and 
Chronological Dictionary of the Rev. Father Dom. Angus* 
tin. Calmet, the learned Benedictine, with Occasional 
Remarks. In Professor Saunderson's Elements of Alge- 
bra, 2 vols. 4to. Cambridge, 1740, may be seen Professor 
Colson's Palpable Arithmetic prefixed. When a candidate 
for the Professorship, he was opposed by Mr. De Moivre, 
being then an infirm old man. Mr. Colson died aged about 
80^ at Cambridge, in 1 760. 

Francis Maseres, A.M. now Cursitor Baron of his MajestyV * 
Exchequer, while Fellow of Clare Hall, published (in 1 758) A . 
Dissertation on the Negative Sign in Algebra ; containing a 
Demonstration of the Rules concerning it : the design of 
which is, to remove from some of the less abstruse parts of 
Algebra the difficulties that have arisen therein from the too 
extensive use of the Negative Sign, and to explain them 
without considering the Negative Sign in any other light than 
as the mark of the Subtraction of a lesser number firom a 
greater. The first part of the work contains the demonstra- 
tions of the several operations of Addition, 8lc. in the way of 
using the Negative Sign ; the second part, the doctrine of 
Quadratic and Cubic Equations. In 1800 the Baron pub- 
lished Tracts on the Resolution of Affected Algebraic Equa- 
tions by Dr. Halley, Mr. Raphs*n, and Sir Isaac Newton. 
This volume also contains Col. Titus's Arithmetical Pro- 
blem; and another Solution, by William Frend, A. M. then 
Fellow and Tutor of Jesus College; with the Baron's 
Observations on Mr. Raphson's Method of the solving 
affected Equations of all Degrees by Approximation. 

In 1798 Mr. Frend published his Principles of Algebra, 



a08 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

in whick he opposes the received uM of Nc^tire Quanti* 
ties, and impossible Roots ; and from a coovictioo, Umc A^ 
language now adopted tended to confuse and perplex A» 
science of Algebra^ which is in its own nature built on tbe 
clearest principles, he tried whether every ligbt sotofioB 
might not be deduced by a mode of reaaonfag, to wUcb 
there could be no such objection : and he thooi^t tiie event 
answered his expectation. In his Priociples of AlgAn, 
therefore, he too has, in like manner, altered the langaage 
of Algebra in these particulars; and farther, iostau} of 
using tlie terms quadratic, cubic, biquadratic, as applied 
to equations, he divides equations into cksaes and orders ; 
those having only one term he makes of the first cjaae; 
those having two differently affected, of the second, and bo 
Qn« Again, equations capable of having only one toot be 
makes of the first order ; those capable of having two, of 
the second, &c. 

In general, then, both these writers proceed on certain 
principles, in regard to the language of Algebra, different from 
that now adopted, conceiving that quantities cannot be less 
than nothing, and that there can be no subtraction of a 
greater number from a less ; and tha^ as to negative roots 
of an equation, they are, in truth, the real and pontive 
roots of another equation, consisting of the same tenns as 
die first equation, but with different signs, + and — prefixed 
to some of them : and Mr. Baron Maseres, when makisfg 
Observations on Mr. Raphson's Metliod of resolvi^p affect* 
ed Equations of all Degrees by Approximation, and speaking 
veiy highly of, and recommending, his Analysis iEquatio- 
num Universalis to young persons, in preference to tiie me- 
thods of Harriot, Descartes, Sir Isaac Newton, and other 
learned Algebraists in modern times, yet adds, that in this 
tttcellent Treatise of Mr. Raphson some difiictihies occar 
from the doctrine of negative quantities and negative roots of 
equations: and, in general, bofib Mr. Maseres mfd Mr. P^nd 



1 



HISTORY OP CAMBRIBOE. »0Q 

are te be considered as joint opponents to the doctrine of 
Quantitates Negativae^ sen Nihilo minores*. 

IBminent Algebraists had^ no doubt, their reasons For intro« 
ducing at first, and for the continuance since, of negative . 
quantities, and impossible roots, in their solutions of Alge- 
braic Quantities ; as, that they are mere symbols ; and Mr, 
]^f aclaurin and Dr. Saunderson, it is well known, undertook 
a formal defence and illustration of them, by comparing 
them to book debts. There is too, a learned French work, by 
a late mathematician, Monsieur Clairaut, The Elemdkts cf 
jtlgebra, wherein he treats on this subject, ia reference to 
Multiplication: though, in the Appendix to Mr. Frend'a Prin* 
ciples of Algebra, by Mr. Baron Maseres, there is a remark by 
tbe latter on an error in the above author^ in his reasonings 
tvhere he endeavours to prove the Rules of Multiplication laid 
down by writers of Algebra concerning Negative* Quanti* 
ties. 

With respect to myself, it will be understood, that I speak 
on this subject, Neg. Quantities, historically, rather than criti« 
eally, and agreeably to my leading aim in the History of 
Cambridge, pursuing the way father of variety, than of 
regular system, and strict uniformity. 

And, as in early life, through other favourite pursuits, I 
|Mud but little attention to Algebra; and as, when I returned to 
it again, and, more particularly, for the purpose of inquiring 
into the literature of Cambridge, I found the above mode 
fiicilitated a task which I had imposed on myself,— I make no 
apology for pubUshing the following paper, avowedly for the 
sake of those who may have been any way similarly circnm- 
stanced with myself, and the more cheerftiUy, because the 
observations are written with as much perspicuity, as judg<« 
ment. 

* Newtoii'» Arithmeticft UuiveriAlit, p. 3. 



110 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 



*^A C&MPMBnoJf bitwem the Mbtmod imoeniediyljBwu 

•> FsBBARi^br reMohing UHam Biquadratick Efotttumtf 

tjf tht Mediation o^ CuMck Equations, and the Method 

aftawardi given bj/ Dss Ca&tes in his Gsomstmt fi^ 

the same Purpose^ ^ 

'< Jrtkk 1. ABOUT the jrear 1545 a leanied andingeH- 
Oits Itftlim Algebriuflty named Lewis Femnri, (wbo 
dKiciple of the celebraled Cardan of M3an) inteated a 
dMd of reaoltiog aajr biqiiadratiek equation, in wltich Aie adbt 
«f dia unknawn qnaatitj was wantu^, (aa^ for example, aa 
^^piataoa of thia form, rx -f fi* — or* ss a,) by Ae media- 
ion of a aibick equaliaA deiived from it hj a traia of joat 
and intelligible reasoaimi, mtbont a^y mentioii of vegiLliTe 
quantities, or quantities less than nothing, or any other suMe 
afewl <iiflicti^ if not unintelligible^ conoeptioas. And bis in- 
ntntioa was generally admired and adopted by matfaenuitici- 
Ms for almost a hundred yeara together^ and was copioody 
eapkjned md illustrated in a treatke of Algebtn pnUssiied 
in the year 1579 by another learned Italian, naomd BomfteUs. 
jtut after the publication of Des Caitet'a celebrated treatise 
an GaQmelry in Ibe year 1637, and more especially after dia 
aecQnd edition of it pubhsbed by Schoolea in the year 1659^ 
with die notes of Monsieur De Beaune (a great Fiencb Al- 
gebraist ef that time,) and with Sdiootea's own learned 
eommeiu on it, and those of some other emine&t matbema- 
^iaos of that age, this in^ation ef Fetrari seent alinosl t» 
have been foi^ottea, and another method inveated lor the 
same purpose by Des Cartes, and deli^erod in his amd tiea- 
use of Geometry, was adopted in it's stead, and inserted b 
almost eveiy book of Algebra that was published after that 

Sr' r.t!'"'^ " ^'^ ^^'"^^- ^^^-^^ Sir Isaac 



HISTORY OP CAMBR1D(}E. 

Clarirtut's El^mens d'Alg^bre, und Mr. Thomas Simp^oti^ft 
Algebra; iniK^bich last book^ bolirevery in the second and 
other subseqnent edMons of it, we have also a description of 
the more ancient metliod of resolving these eqoations invent* 
ed by Ferrari. 

** Art. 2. This adoption of Des Cartes^s method, and re^ 
jection, or neglect, of that of Ferrari, has always a good deal 
surprized me ; because Ferrari*s method of resolving these 
equations has always appeared to me to be much clearer and 
easier to understand than Des Cartes^s method^ and not at 
idl more difficult to practise, as the arithmetical operations 
which are necessary to be performed in order to obtain th^ 
root of any given numerical equation of the proposed form 
to a given degree of exactness, are nearly the same in b<Fth 
methods. And the only circumstance that I can conceive to 
h«ve been the gronnd of this preference given to Des Cartes'!^ 
method, is, it's connexion with the doctrine ot the generation 
ofequatiom onefnmi another by multipUcaiion, upon which 
It is entirely founded. For this doctrine of the generation 
of equations by multrpfication (which was invented by the 
famous English Algebraist, Thomas Harriot, in the begin- 
fling of the 17th century, and was published in the year 
1631 in the edition of his celebrated Algebraical work, in- 
titled Arti$ Jnalytka Praxis, given by his frieird Warner 
ten years after Harriot's death), was received by the madie* 
maticians of that age with great approbation, and was very 
generally adopted by tlrem, and continues still in the same 
degree of favour with most of the Algebraists of the present 
times. And therefore, when Des Cartes pubHshed his me- 
thod of resolving biquadratick equations of the aforesaid 
kind, (or in which the cube of the unknown quantity is 
wanting) which is founded on this favourite doctrine, that 
circumsUffice may probably have been the cause of it's being 
so generally adopted by mathematicians in preference to the 
more antient method of resolving those equations that had 
been invented by Ferrari. This, however, was, in mj 

*o 2 



^^. SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

opimon, no just ground for «uch a preference; because da 
▼ery doctrine of the generation of equations one from tbc 
otlier by multiplication, though it has been so eagerly and » 
generally adopted by writers on Algebra as a wondeiiid im- 
provement of that science, has, in reality, proved a detri- 
ment to it, and has been a great obstacle to it's beii^ more 
generally studied and better understood, by introducing into 
it a prodigious deal of subtlety, obscurity, and perplcxitj, 
from which it had before been free. It is owing to this veiy 
doctrine, and to that of negative quantities, or quantities /»$ 
than nothing (which is nearly connected with it), that Alge- 
bra has sunk from the dignity of a science, or object ot the 
understanding and reasoning faculty, to the condition of «& 
art, or knack of managing quantities by the eje and the 
band, witii litUe or no interference of the understanding, 
as is well expressed by tlie following words of Des Cartes, io 
his Dissertation De Methodo, page 11, where, spea\nng of 
die state of the different sciences and branches of knov' 
ledge cultivated in Europe when he began to study them, he 
says of Algebra, Algebram verd, ut solet doceri, ammadced 
i^ertis regulis et numerandi formtdis ita esse cotdentani, iU 
tideatur potiits Ars quadam confusa^qua lugenium quodani' 
modd turbatur et obscuratur, quam Scitniia^ qua excolaiur 
et perspicacius reddatur. This opinion, which is so happily 
expressed in these words of Des Cartes, I take to be per- 
fectly true ; though I think at the same time that Des Cartes 
himself may be jusdy charged with having increased this 
very obscurity^ for which he censures the books of Algebft 
published before his time, by adopting this doctrine of Har« 
riot, and founding on it his own new method of resolving 
biquadratick equations, which derives the greatest part of the 
obscurity which belongs to it, from the circumstance of it* 
being grounded on that doctrine. • 

" As I have ventured to express my disapprobation of tb* 
celebrated doctrine of the generation of equations on« froD* 
another by multiplication (which was invented by HzsxyA 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. Ihld 

and adopted by Des Cartes and most other writers of Alge« 
bra since his time); as tending to change Algebra from a 
science, or object of the understanding, into an art, or 
knack, to be conducted by the eye and the hand with little 
interference of the understanding, I will here cite, in sup* 
port of this assertion, the following words of Mont. Mon^ 
tucia, the learned anthor of the Histoire des Mathima* 
tiques, who was a great admirer of thitf doctrine which I 
condemn, and who mentions this very effect of it as a great 
improvement of Algebra, which I consider as a degradation 
of it. His words, however, prove the truth of the fact 
which 1 have alleged ; and the rest ia only a difference of 
opinion between us as to what should be considered as con* 
stituting the merit of Algebra, namely, whether it should 
be perspicuity in the ideas and the reasonings used in it, or 
the facility and dispatch, with which, without understandings 
the several processes we make use of in the investigation, we 
can arrive at the solution of any mathematical question that 
we wish to solve. The words I allude to are as follows. 
La prindpah cause qui rend tanalyse ancienne msuffisattte 
dam des questions dun certain ordre, est son assujettissement 
nicessaire i une suite de raisonnemens divelloppees. Si ton 
ne peut les surore qu^avecpeincy a plus forte raison lespeut on 
former sans une contention extrime desprit, sans des efforts 
' extraordinaires de mcmoire et ^imagination, Faut-il done 
manner que la mime mithode qui dans certaines questions 
prisente une chrti lumineuse, devienne obscure et impriti^ 
cable dans cPautres, oH la complication des rapports est fort 
supSrieure. 

" Le premier pas a f aire pour mettre Canalt/se en itat de 
surmonter ces difficultisy itoit done d^en changer la forme, et 
de souUtger Pesprit de ce fardeau accablant de raisonnemens* 
Rien de plus heureux pour cet effet que FidSe qu'on aeude 
riduire ces raisonnemens en une sorie dfart^ ou de proeUfy 
techniques qui, apris les premiers pas, n^ exigent plus aucun 
travail ^esprit. See Montuck's Histoire des Math6nM^ 



f 14 SUPPLEMBNT TO THE 

tiquet, lit editioii in the yetr 1758, voL £, book 2, sect 1, 
page 75f The author here couuiiends the new diacoveriM 
and eonlrivances of modern Algebra (amongst which kt 
leckons this docdine of the generation of equadoos one 
from the other by multiplication, invented by Harriot, ai 
one of the moat uaeful), ^' because they relieve the onder* 
<^ atandiog from the oppreasiTe burthen of eucceaaive rea« 
^ aoningSy which were neceaaary in the former naethods of 
^ aolving Problems, and convert those reaaonmga 'mta> a sort 
^ of art^ or iet of technical proceneSf which, afler a kw 
^ of the first steps of die investigation, require no fivther 
^ exertion of the understanding/' This ia the very thing 
that I have asserted above of these discoveries and oontriv- 
4ncea of modern Algebra : only, instead of ptaifing and ad* 
miring them on this account (as Mr. Montucia does), Z 
blam^ them, and Uiment their mtroduction, and wish th^ia 
to be discarded from Algebra, that it may again become a 
aciVffce, and proceed by the exertion of the understand]^, or 
reasoning faculty, instead of these technical proceasea which 
have been invented, according to Mr. Montucia, for the pur* 
pose of relieving us from the fatigue of thiakhg* 

** When these two unfortunate, though niuch-4ipplauded, ii^ 
ventions of modern Algebiaists, the doctrine of Negative 
Qumitities, and of the Generation of Quadratick, and Co- 
hick, and other higher, Equatiops, from simple Equations by 
Multiplication, shall have been totally discarded from Aige* 
bra, and not before, we may expect to see it become a clear 
and easy science, that will be considered, by men of a just 
taste for accurate reasoning, as an amusing and inviting sub- 
ject of contemplatiim, instead of being an object of their 
aversion and disgust, on account of the unsurmountable diffi- 
culties with which it is now surrouuded. And ttien, aad not 
before, w^ may, with propriety, apply to it the three fol* 
Wing elegant Latip versus of Mil(ui^ m hia Epistle |a his 
father, which are by Milton applied to science in general, 
but. whicl^ iu such « case, would be peculierly wdl^uited 

4 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. tlS 

to tiie f deuce of Algebra, whea the clooda dmt obfcmed it 
had beea thus remOTed : 

Difnotd^qw venit hpectanda ScienHa nuhe ; 
Nuda^uecompicuoi inctinat ad oscula vulius, 
^i f^gi^^c velim, ni sit lib&sse moiesiumn 

** jtrt, 3. I have already observed, that Mr. Des Cartes'g 
method of resolving biquadratick equations in which the 
cube of the unknown quantity is wantingi is much less clear 
and easy to understand than the former method that had beea 
invented by Lewis Ferrari for the same purpose : and I be-» 
lieve, that this is owing to the circumstance of it's being built 
upon the above-mentioned obscure doctrine of the genera* 
tion of equations one from another by multiplication, in- 
vented by Harriot and adopted by Des Cartes. But, whe- 
ther it be owing to this circumstance or to any other, this 
method of Des Cartes appears to me to be much inferiour 
in point of clearness and elegance to Ferrari's method^ or 
much less fitted to satisfy the mind of a lover of simplicity 
and perspicuity in investigations of this nature. This opi* 
nion, however, may, perhaps, appear to many persons very 
singular and bold, seeing that so many eminent Algebraists 
have adopted Des Cartes's oousthod : and therefore I will en* 
deavour to support this opinion by comparing the two me« 
thods with each other. And, as the fairest way tliat I can 
think of for making this comparison, I will take one of the 
biquadratick equations to which these two methods relate^ 
to wit, the equation rx + qj^ ^ x* = s, and resolve it in a 
very full amd distinct manner by each of these methods suc- 
cessiveiy, to wit, first, by Ferrari's method, and afterwards 
by that of Des Cartes ; to the end that we may be able to 
perceive distinctly which of tba two methods is the clearer 
and easier to understand,*' 8lc. 

See further, Tbacts on tbb RBSotuTiON ow Cubick 



218 SUPPLEMENlT TO THE 

AND BignADAATICK EQUATIONS. By Fit AMCIS Ma- 

8EBES, EsQ' F. R.S. and Cursitor Baron of the 
Exchequer. 

H. p. ]85. Theological Literature. 

As in the old schools they were so apt to intermix tfaeir 
Ethics with their Theology, as to make it rather dif&cnit to 
consider them apart, and as^ at the same time, Kthics of 
morals, even when considered by itself, com prefaeoded alto 
what Aristotle calls the Great Morals, relating not merely 
fo the private, but the public, or civil, man ; on the one side, 
being a little perplexed, on the other, too comprefaensave, 
for our present purpose, I thought it best, not to enter on 
Ethics, or at least not to speak of it under a distinct bead : 
stilly what concerns all, and goes beyond the Scbooh, lays 
claim to a little additional and more general notice, in these 
my Additions. 

It is usual, in treating of this branch of Philosophy (for 
such it is), when speaking of the ancient Schools, to notice 
Socrates, as first calling Philosophy from her speculative 
heights to the more sober, practical purposes of life; and 
Plato, as his copy. Their mode of philosophizing con- 
sisted not in asserting, or systematinng, but in denying, 
sparring, as it were, and questioning ; so as to make the 
inquirer answer his own questions, and sometimes, ense suo 
seipsum jugulare. Plato's Dialogues are considered as 
admirable specimens of this moral, called, from the great 
ikioralist, the Socratic, mode of reasoning:. 

As Plato was Socrates*s disciple, so was Aristotle Pla- 
to's ; and if, in some other matters they differ, they do not 
materially or essentially in morals — ^though Aristotle was 
more close and systematic, and intermixed less of divine 
things witli human, than Plato*. The other Pagan Moral-> 

* Aristotle's books, vrpx Hdtxwv Ncxo/uax^"^* aQ*^ MiyoXcify, tnd tac^t A{«r«Bfy 

compared viUi PUto'^ Dialo|;aes, edit Forsteri, and de ^ebus X>iriD»> ed. 

Korthl. 



HKTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 817 

istSj, as they are called, the Stoicsy the Epicureans, and the 
Sceptics, were less favourably received ; and in morals, Ari- 
stotle's mode of pbilosophinng was recmed as the best 
node of moralizing by the Schoolmen* 

We have shewn, in the Hist, of Cambridge, what follow* 
ed the mixing of Aristotle's excellent morals with the dubi* 
ous theology of the dark ages ;-*that Aristotle's distinctions 
-were rendered more perplexed ; his subtleties more subtle ; 
till, at length, pure morality was nearly lost under logical 
quibbles, metaphysical divisions, and theological ambigui- 
ties and evasions. 

Moral Philosophy was, at length, confounded by her own 
distinctions, and might, with more propriety, have put over 
her own Theses, Sur je ne scai quoi, than (as Mons. Pascal 
relates it) a wag did over one, on die fiimous disputation 
about Grace, between the Jesuits and Jansenists. For, in 
truth, the morals, systematized in the Schools, in the dark 
ages, were brought into such narrow, metaphysical limits, 
as to be properly exemplified by a Thesis afterwards formed 
by the Jesuits : Peccatum Philosophicum, seu Morale, est 
Actus humanus disconveniens Naturae Rationali,' et Rectas 
Ration! : Theolc^icum vero et mortale, est transgressio libera 
legis Divinae : Philosophicum, quantumvis grave, in illo, qui 
Deum vel ignorat, vel de Actu non cogitat, est grave Pecca-, 
turn, sed non est offensa Dei, neque Peccatum mortale, 
dissolvens amicitiam Dei, neque astema morte dignum. — I 
mention this, it lying ready to my hands in Baker's Reflec- 
tions on Learning, as illustrating the Ethica Theologica of 
the dark ages : others more subtle, and less moral, might 
readily be produced, with others, that included questions 
relating to the. church and ecclesiastical claims. But, as 
fwe morality, and pure theology must be equally averse to 
such distinctions, while a mixture confounds both, so a 
pure logic would set them both aside, by t/ie Reductio ad 
absurdum* 



«18 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

Atj and for several years after, the Reformation, mofal% 
as we have elsewhere seen, took a aomevrhat diffaretA 
ground, though Morals and Theology were still too mudk 
intermixed. But, as there are eternal relations, and uoalfer- 
able reasons, so are there as clear, unalterable dtstinctioof 
in Philosophy. These relations arise oat of necesaty, ibe 
irery nature and fitness of things, the foundation of all law; 
and to law, as Hooker well shews, even tfie Deity bbasdl 
is subject, though, as relates to his infinite perfectiaas, re- 
solvable into the counsels of his own will*. 

The relation to man, as man, privately considered, jjt as 
rdated in c^vil society, and to himself, is one relafion \ his 
relation to (^od is another; and therefore, though practical 
Philosophy may be divided into two parts, the Pais Comma* 
m — ^to borrow the language of the Schools — wlncb is 
EthicB ; and the Pars Specialis, which is Politics and (Eco« 
nomy, or, in one word, Political (Economy — both stiU be* 
ing comprehended under one Philosopbia Practica; — y^ 
with respectv/jo the Deity, there the subfectum, Principiag 
et affectiones, are different, and therefore it had its specific 
differences* 

But here, too, men, in their theological cfisputations, were 
not content with that broad basis of. Amor Dei eat Punda* 
mentum Virtutis. It was too much the fashion of those 
times to make certain differences, of opinions on doctrines, 
and those even much disputed, the very basis of moral virtue; 
and the consequence was, that, as cue party made the other 
to be much on its guard, to be shy, and iiequently to smart, 
so they sometimes, by briuging persecutions on themselves, 
smarted uiider their own distinctions. ^Fhe evil originated in 
the schools ; the poison spread to the people ; and hence 
was generated an immoral Theology, properly called in 
the Schools, Antinomianism, and destined stili to infest some 
chnrches. 

* Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Politie, Book I. This curioai floljeet 
is iosenionsly discussed in Dr. Bal^y's Tracts. 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 819 

lo the middle of the l6th century, many of our phikwo* 
phen saw the error and danger, in not making this distiuc- 
tion. Bacon was taught, as a philosopher, to distinguish 
iMoral Philosophy, and Natural Religion^ from Revealed Re* 
ligion ; and that is all the distinction that Ethics had a right 
t<» claim for itself in the literature of the Schools. 

About Bacon's time, flourished at Cambridge a moral 
Pbilosopher, though of a very different school. Of Dr. 
Henry Moor I have had occasion to speak ekewhere : he 
had peculiarities enough of his own : he was a great Platonist, 
m great CabalLst, and had been, and still continued, in part *^ 
m great Cartesian ; but he held a pure system of Ediics, 
distinct from his theology, and was himself an upright good 
XBiao, and a sincere Christian. 

^ Speaking of Des Cartes'f Vortices, Dr. Moor says, Mihi rero Funda* 
mentam Mlad non arridet ullo modo. Turn quod ratiooet illae, quas pro eo 
■ddueii Cartetios non tails Talids sunt, prout fuse in Uteris meis probari ; 
turn quod innait materiamaut per se iodependeoter eaiatere, aut salleoi ab 
omni sternitate, siniul cum Deo ezttitisse, necessario ab ipso productan 
eiqae cocvam. J^itlola H, Mori ad V. C, qua Apoiogiam eopipUctitur pro 
Cartesh ; sabjoined to ike EnehiruHum Eihicum. Des Cartes was, notwith- 
ataoding, a pure Theist, at appears from HIh Metaphytieai MeStaiiens, 
vbereitt he maintata^ there it a Ctod, and that nan's mind is really dbtincl 
^m the body» (to which Thomas Hobbet, of Malmesbury, made some 
objections, and Des Cartes returned answers). So that, in these points, 
and some others, Moor continaed his adherence to Des Cartes, though he 
Aiffsied with him aboat hit Vortices, and other physical subjects. 

In bis Tbaoloyital and Cabalistic opinions, Dr. Moor appears to have 
been allied to the school of the famous Jacob Behmeo, as appears from ' 
what he says of the SpirUus Natura, compared with Bebmen's Mysterium 
Magnum, being an Exposition of the Book of Genesis, on very singular 
principles. Literal, Spiritual, and Divine, &c. written in 1623, and trans- 
laUd into Englith a few years after : and, indeed. Moor himself wrote on 
nearly the same principles a book, entitled CoHectara CabalisMca, Sive 
Mentis Mosaics in tribus priinis Capitibus Geneseos, Secundum triplicem 
Cabalaro, Literaiem, Phiiosophicam, et Divino-Moralem, Interprctatio ; 
cum singulamm Cabalarum Defensione. The writings of this extraordi- 
nary man, containing his Philosophical and Theological Works, were col- 
lected and published in three volumes folio. 



MO iSUPPLEMENT TO THE 

Dr. Moor lays down hu Thesis of Ethics thus ; Eihk^ 
est Jrs bene beaieq. vivendi : he proceeds — per Aj^tem intd- 
ligp, Methodicam comprehensionem praeceptorum HomO' 
geneorum; ac proinde, cum Ars^ quam hie tractamus^ 
E&ica sit, oportet omnia praecepta esse vere Efhica, ad 
ejusq. finera rectd conducere ; alioqai non essent homogenea: 
Unde nuUa preecepta hie expectanda sunt qus inutili dis- 
putationiy sed ea sola, qua vita recte institttenda inser- 
viunt. 

This distinction, too, may be collected from another emi" 
Bent writer, of a different school, Dr. Wilkins (Mas^cr of 
Trinity College), in his Book, of the Principles and Dalies of 
Natoral Religion : for though, in his conclusion, he shews the 
excellency of the Christian Religion, and the advanfag^es of 
it, both as to the knowledge and practice of our duty; yet 
he had previously, as the ground-work of ail, laid down a 
scheme of natural principles ; which piinciples are perfectly 
distinct from any doubtful points of speculative theology *. 

Some Cambridge men, of high attainments in literature, 
have drawn comparisons between ancient and modern iearo- 
ing ; such as. Sir William Temple, of Emmaoue/ College ; 
Dr. William Wotton, of Catharine HaU; and Mr. Thomas 
Baker, of St. John's College ; and it is as remarkable, that 
Temple, when speaking of law-givers, should have passed 
M'ithout notice, Moses and Jesus Christ, as that Baker 
should Locke, in his Chapters on Moral Philosophy and 
Metaphysics, and in his Chapters on Natural Philosophy 
and Astronomy, even Newton, except in some allusion to 
" an incomparable person." 

But of the above three writers. Dr. Wotton makes dis« 
tinct Chapters of Moral and Political Knowledge, and of 
Theological Learning : and he has written on each distinctly, 
with much judgment and learning f. 

♦ L. ], c. 2. 

t Reflections on Ancient and Modern Learning, clu ii. SS. 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDOE. t«I 

Mr. Baker is, io my opinion, less judicious ; be makes a 

distinct chapter for Moral Philosophy, and buries Theology 

under Scholastic Philosophy ; and by his Appendix, it ap* 

pears, that he was aware of this himself, freely owning, 

^' that he had neither time nor opportunity to redress il *." 

He had better have kept the course of Henry Coroelins 

J^grippa, whom he^ iu many other respects, both as to 

matter and manner, evidently followed. Agrippa gives a 

separate chapter to Moral Philosophy ; but besides a chap* 

ter on Theurgy, he gives one on Scholastic Theologie; ano* 

ther to Interpretative Theologie; another on Prophetic 

Theologie ; and closes with another on the word of God t* 

Here I close this inquiry into the Moral Philosophy of Cam* 

bridge : for to pursue it through the writings of Balguy, Ru« 

therforth. Law, Paley, Watson, Hey, and others (of whom 

and their principal writings a brief account will be found 

either in our Hist, of Cambridge, or in this volnme), would 

be to pursue it to an extent that would be unreasonable. 

Generally speaking, Mr. Hume's excellent *' Inquiry into the 

Principles of Morals," has been favourably received, which 

maintains, that Reason and Sentiment concur in almost all 

Determinations and ConcluBonM; and that the Foundation 

{^ moral praise lies in Utility: and these distinctions will 

be found, though occasionally under different terms, in most 

of the abovementioned writers. I must, however, just 

notice here, what Bishop Warburton says of the writer of 

an " Essay on the Nature and Obligation of Virtue," — and 

the learned prelate knew how to make distinctions—'^ But 

if it be only a sordid view to interest; an idle itch for con« 

troversy, or the vanity of shining," &c. " I will only say this, 

if he knows no more of Theology than he does of Morals,'* 

&c. " the affectation of being singular has made him a bad 

moralist : will the affectation of being orthodox make him a 

* Refiectioot on Learningi &c. 3d ed. p. S39. 
f Tbfr Vanity of ArU and Sciences. 



SVPmLEMESt TO TlIB 

goo4Divi»«? I win pardon the joke m hk prefiwe, 
pn/lftmia to no new discoveries, for tbe sake of his 
sober earnest as good as his word*.'* 

The above remarks seem to accord with die veflectioos 
which 1 JMSt now made, and therefore I quote 
thongh m; business is with tbe remark, not widi tbe 
It appears to intimate, that in the above Essay there if 
seme display of Uieological ovtbodosy, with mora of pa- 
litical desigoy itan is required, or is connslent, in a nonl 

essay* 

The reader, o» turaiag to tbe History of CsratMiiiee, witt 

see, that a dbtinct chapter was there given ta Theoiofpcal 
lilcratttre ; though it was considered rather Kghtl^, and not 
at all systematically. The omission of Moral Philosophy, 
m a distinct branch of Literatore, I have eadeavomwf io 
supply IB this place; and 1 have kefrt in sight the <taiiiction 
alreaxfy referred to, laid down by Lord Bacom, m his AA- 
vanceouat of Learning. 

This view of Ethics by no means predidea tbe ne of 
those wridngs which teach the best morak; ^ which men 
of different religions will have different exeinphrs; the Jem 
the Law of Moses, and the Prophets, with whatever else 
they deem of <Hvine authority + ; die Platonista tbe Theolo- 
gies of Plato :^, Plotiaus, Procltt^ and lamblicbns; Chris- 

* BUkop Warburton's Letters to Bishop Hufd, p. 49. 

f Though the Jews hold, aud always held, th^t nothing was to be fain 
from the Law of Moses, nor added to it, yet they believed in the di^'mc 
authority of ccrtam exptitiiu 4»f it, and also of certain ira^timtt banded 
down from Moses : — '* Sic etiam Expositio Legis, mam haii 7XcIsum<;— ««< 
ex ore Dei." Liber AbravanclisdeCapite Fidei, seu de Princlpiis R«'ir*o * 
nis, p. 7; Edit. Vorslii Franequertp^ 1684. This was also the opinion of the 
famous Maimonides, the author of More Netochhn. But Abravanel, in 
examiniog certain points, that be thought MaioMoidea bad left doubtftil 
in his book, dt FHndavurUis Legn, asks— Qua^n non nio&ernvertt TradMa* 
Rem ; quod oporteat sequi traditionem Patrum ? Cum 6>t Articulos Uni- 
versalis de omnibus divinis Legibus, ncque possit concipi existentia earum 
absque ilU? cd. p. 13. 

X Many Pbilosopbers and Christians bare equaity admired tbe parity of 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. tiS 

tMiMy die writings of the Old and New Testameot : but Aen 
i such writiogs era at best expand, they cannot demorafize, 

PIato*9 tDorali ; and while many, both PhilosopheiB and Christiant, have 
thought that Plato, in hia Tbeologies» treats of labjccU above the bnaian 
facaltieSy oihen have thought that in those very particularsy he spake so 
well) that he must have partaken of a divine influence: Et si Plate, says 
Cicero, de rebus a civilibus remotissirois divinitus est locutus, quod ego 
eoneedo. De Oratore. Lib. 1, p. SO, ed. 17S3; and therefore he elsewhere 
calls him, the tSmne Plato. 

Maay of the Christian Fathers often speak very highly, in part, of thf 

Platonic doctrines, and Juittin Martyr, who had been a Platonist, and in 

■ome particulars continued so, though be shews some theological points, in 

'whioh Plato and Aristotle's Theologies are at variance, and even Plato, 

with himself, yet thoaght, the* seme of his doetriaes resembled those 

tanght by Moses, and even by Jesus Christ : Ov% or* aXkor^im t^t va 1IX«h 

rmmt iii»YfAmTm rw X^tf^v, aXX* erx ovx tft waini o/aomi. Apol. % pro 

Chnstiaois Op. Vol. S, p. 34. £d. Oxoo. and having specified many such, 

which Justin Martyr refers to the Mosaic writings, he says, that Plato 

learned them from the testimonies of the ancient prophets, which he pa- 

rused in ^ypt Justin Martin belii ved in the Inspiration of the famous 

Cnmsean Sibyl; and Plato, Justin suppo^^es, derived some of his opinions 

from her Oracles : Trnv^nc '« rus ZiSvy^Xns *»f Xf^f^^**^ woXX*i ^ly nau mkXu 

kortaiio. p. 1225. 

A celebrated writer, of the Platonic School, (of the later Platonists, as 
they are called) has written a curious book de Mysteriis £gyptiorum, of 
which our learned Dr. Thomas Gale (formerly of Trin. College) published 
an edition in 1678 : and it is clear enough from it, that Plato's Theology is 
of eastern extraction : it is no less clear, from another work, written by 
one of our learned Cambridge-writers (Mr. Stanley), translated into Latin 
by Le Cierc, and entitled, Historia Orientalis Philosophic, with the Ora- 
cles of Zoroaster subjoined in Greek (which, though many were certaialy 
fabricated by Christians, contain some undoubted remains of the Oriental 
Theology), it is no less clear, at what springs Plato drank. And, as the 
Platoniits believed, that men, in proportion to the greater purity xd their 
souli, and contemplations, partook more immediately of the divine na- 
ture, and were united to some higher order of spiritual Beings, so they 
not only called Plato divme, but the later Platonists called each other so. ' 

The other parts of their Theology, agreeably to lamblichi Mifsterium, d&c. was 
of smore complex and mystic cast: but, as to the Sibylline Oracles, of 
which an entire editioD was published at Basil, in ^525j and to only a part 



MSA SUPPLBMENT TO THE ' 

virtue; they may «treiig^en the diaracter, but not lovaE- 
date the diatinctiou ; this amalgamatiQii — if I speak pro- 
perly — ^tending not to destruction^ but to vivificatioD^ and 
enlargement. 

Accordingly, Lord Bacon, after considering die morafa 
of the ancient philosophers, and pointing out (after admit- 
ting that much in them was good) some defects in tbeoi, 
preferring at the same time, both for their charactier and 
their motives, the Christian morals, claims a place for 
in his Moral Philosophy : yet, notwithstanding, in bis Ch 
sification he considers moral philosophy as distinct from di- 
vinity : and even where he says, that ^ Moral Philosophy 
** ought to give a constant atteation to the doctrtnes of 

bf which, probably* Justin Martyr alluded, they verc^ uoquestionab/jr, 
the fabrication of Platonic Chr stians of some enterprize aod ingenuity. 
' It fell ia with Lactantius's views to quolc the ErythisanSibyl, in tfistU 
inony of the Unity of God, and he enumerates, after V^arro, ten Sibyls; 
and he gives a short account of them, De Faha Religione. Lib. 1. Cap. 6; 
which reminds lne,\hat though Justin Martin speaks, as we have seeti. some- 
what favourably of Plato's Theology, that Lactantlus strongly reprobates 
his Morality, maintaining, quod dogma Platonis non esse nisi cricaiais fbu' 
ten), et fomitcm, etvirtutum omnium extermiDium: which he illustrates in 
Lib. 3, Cap. 12 j attacking Plato's book de Republics, on the same ground 
as that on which Aristotle had opposed it at large before, in the 2jid Book of 
his Politics. But neither Aristotle nor Lactantius oppose Plato's morality, 
in general, but only in his book de Republica, which, like More's Utopia, 
may be considered as a political romance \ both having in them, after all, 
much that is truly excellent 

When Aristotle was the highest name in our Schools, Plato's appears to 
have been but little known ; and at, and after, the Refurmaiion, though be 
had many admirers, he was not generally received : nor am I aware that 
his writings are now taken much for Lecture Books in the Colleges. Bat as 
there have been published by Cambridge-Critics editions of his most ad- 
mired Moral and Theological pieces, (one of which is a faTOurite scbooU 
book) and lately have appeared in a splendid edition of Mr. Gray's works, 
published by Mr. Mathias, some Remarks on Plato's Writings, with other 
original pieces, from Mr. Gray's MSS. in Pembroke Hall Library; and as 
Mr. Thomas Taylor has, also, I perceive, just advertized, The Theologies of 
Plato and Proclus, in English; with these associations in uiy mind, I 
have vestured to say thus much of the Theology of Plato. 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 925 

^ Divinity/' jet he adds — " and yet Moral Pbilospphy maj 
'' of herself f ivitbin due limits,- yield many sound and pro- 
f^ fitable directions*." Accordingly, in his Classificatipi^ 
he assigns to each a distinct place* Moral Philosophy is 
properly a branch of humanity. '^ Sacred Theology/' as 
£acon expresses it, " is Divinity ;" and within that space 
ample room is left for what may be known,. or taught of the 
Deity, for criticising all sacred writings, for discussing all 
doctrines, and every variety of speculative opinion. 

Dr. Henry Moor, who, against Spinoza and Descartes, 
maintained the Spiritus Natura, a universal infusion of the 
divine Spirit through matter^ Free«will against Mr. Hobbes's 
Philosophical necessity, and tlie Universality of a divine 
LJghty through the Intellectual World, against many divines 
aa well as philosophers, formed his Manual of Moral PhiIo« 
sophy (Ethicum Enchiridium) almost entirely out of the 
vfritings of the ancient Moralists ; for he thought that they 
contained what was truly good, and that many of the Hea*^ 
thens even practised morality better than somef Christians ; 
but he proceeded on this principle, that the excellence of 
such morality was to be referred to the Divine -Logos, the 
light, that coming into the world %, enlighteneth coerjf matu 

* A^Tancement of Learning, p. 336. Phillip Mallet'i Bdit. 

-f* Pateor eniin» me omnem prenaitasse occaaioDem exponendi ante oca* 
loa ChristiaAi Orbis sanctum ilium Yirtutis Mosum, qui etiam Ethnico* 
mm animis tarn a^te inscdit, quemq. per divinas illas rocet otq. tenten* 
tins qiias literit mandarant, tarn luculente testati sunt, vti merito nos 
Christianot pndeat, e nobis tarn pancos esse, qui aut tam juste vifere, aut 
fam sapide loqui. Est enim rera Virtus divinsB qusedam Natune 

partieipatio; nnde et prfectpua Christians Rcligionis pan est jure merito 
cxistimanda. Enchiridion Ethicum. Ad Lectorem. 

J Numine prsBennte, sponte mea, si non diWniori aliquo institictn, in 
earn tententiam incidi, ut i^x'^fAnov uf rot M<r/uioy ad « ♦■»; to a\if$tfvi refe- 
rendum prorsas existimarem. Quam postea a Grotio iotcllexi veterum qucH 
Tnndnm opinionem foisse, Cyrilli puta et Augustini, nostrnmq. JTammom^ 
dum eo propendere mox observav!. In this SchoKum, Dr. Moor somewhat 
alters hi* opinion as to the Logos, at least so far, as to suppose, that tba 
ft ^ rs «Vi9im esse Animam Munm cum fetemo Logo nottraq. demum 

• » 



««6 



SUPPLEMENT TO THfi 

Upon W» principle, therefore, Moral Plolosopby was 
«n h«rmony of tnond doctrines, m, though received by 
«(i«Tetit natiDBB, were to be conridered as one and die sane. 
His Elhictim Enchiridbra, acconfingly, being confined to 
Moral Philosophy, for his Theology he finds tfaor proper 

places in other •works. 

The Sebhon on the Moukt, considered as a sum- 
mary of Christian monas, does not go to neotralize a fiuma 
rule, but to render it more complete : " think not that 1 am 
come to destroy the law and the prophets : 1 came aot to 
destroy, hut to fulfil, («x,f«»«,» to fin up, or make more 
full, as a rule of doctrinal and complete morab). What ye 
woild diat men should do unto y&u, do ye even bo to diemj 
for this is the law and the prophets * Matth. v. 17. vi 

But 1 proposed to distingaish, not to criticise or refine ; 
«nd, in endeavouring to supply an omission, 1 have, perbaps 
committed an excess. 

eame noiu qu« apparebat Patriarcliis tub nomia* Jebovm et D^ lOTaf&- 

if qui et ^T Hl£)0 flicitur apud Chaldeum paraphrMtem, Tquem Gtmci mp- 
pelUniWt >•>•» ^•««'- Scholia ia Cap. x. Bocbirid. EtliteaiD, p. 280. Edit 
1711. Of the gtiil further extent of thU light. Dr. M. speaks as fottowic 
Jesas vero Nazarenus Lux totius mnndi, turn Gcnti^inm turn JudaorMii 
euam ob causam dicitur omnem hominem Ulustrart. 

♦ Thus commcnUtors of very different theological opiniona explain ths 
wotd wxngw^r*.. Eui Christus, qua fuit vit« perfecUone^ jactare merito 
pourat, ae Tenisie ad implendam Legem, hie tamen de dpdniwhgitBr.mm 

4e wUt* j»ro tesUtur, adeo nullum «sc doctrine warn cumi^ 

dissidinm, ut optima consentiat cum Lege etprophctia: neqne id inod(% 
Md ut iolidum emplmentum asserat. Calvini in Hanaon. Bvaofd. n 
Loco.—" To All op, to give a more complete system of morals." ^A«t — 
ike Ckmtwi Religion, p. 203, as quoted by Dr. Barwood, « *» £«•&«» ^ 
ike Greek Tettamenl. According to Dr. Hammond, the anoent fathrn o^ 
plained this word by a ressel, which had some water in U before, but ii now 
filled to the brim -, and also by a picture rudely drawn before^ with onl; the 
lineamenU, but to which, when the painter draws it to the life, he theasddr 
the {>7^»Knp to the vmoyfmfim. In Loco. 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDQE. t27 



H. p. 209. Notes, 1. 6, (l66l). 

My edition of Dr. Harvey's Exercii'ationes jtnatomica, 
has two title-pages, the first, accompanied with a prin^ 
dated Roterodami, 1661 ; the other, Roterodami, 1671. 
The Dissertatio de Corde, is 1671* I perceive, hy Dr. De 
Back's ** Alloquium ad Lectorem/' that the Rotterdam 
printer. Leers, had printed a copy of the latter hook be- 
fore; which accounts for the different dates in these two 
title-pages. 

H, p. 215> 1. ]2. Newton gave no Lectures himself. 

This is incorrectly said ; he liad given Lectures, and ia 
the Public Schools, where Whiston speaks of his having 
beard one or two delivered by Newton, on his own Princi- 
pia, ''though'* Whiston adds, ''I did not understand them at all 
at tlie time.** Whistou's Memoirs, 8cc. Vol. I. p. 36. 

H. pp. 221, &c« Saxon Professorship. 

Some observations on Saxon Literature have, though but 
inciditntally, and briefly, been introduced in their proper 
place ; and since the Saxon language sunk into English, it 
has at no time been made a subject of much study at Cam^ 
bridge; so that it seemed scarcely necessary to make it an 
article of distinct consideration. But that we may not fall 
under the censure of such, as, with Verstegan^ and Cam-^ 
den, and Mrs. Elstob, treat those with great contempt, who 
affect to think lightly of it, I shall add a few more words 
here. « 

What Dr. Hickes says of the Saxon, in his famous The- 
saurus Linguarum Septentrionalium, relates principally to 
its language, its charters, igad its laws : we have a moder^ 

♦ p 2 



a^ SUPPLEMENT TO THET 

writer*, who treats more copiously and satisfactorOy on tlic 
Saxon literature, in general, than any writer it has fallen in 
my way to peruse. But what will be tere offered will re- 
late solely to Cambridge ; and little more than a transhdon 
of what Wheloc says, in his pieces prefixed, in the form of 
Dedication and Preface, to his Latino-£>axon Eldiliofl of 
Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the Englisb Nation. This 
work was published at Cambridge in 1644. 

Abraham Wheloc, as will be seen in the proper place, 
Hist, of Univ. and Coll. of Camb. Vol. IL p. 46, was a 
Student and B. D. of Clare Hall, Sir Thomas Adamses first 
Professor of Arabic, and afterwards a sort of Professor of 
Saxon,-'— OB the recommendation smd under the patronage of 
Sir 'Henry Spelman, a little before his death : be accordit^j 
gave himself diligently to lecturing on th^ Language and 
Ecclesiastical History of the Saxons. This has been shewo 
from some particulars relating to this appointment from 
MSS. at Cambridge, and in the British Museum, which 
I have introduced in the History of Cambridge. 

I shall further add here, that in the ahove'mentioaed DecS- 
cation and Prefece, Wheloc says,. Aat Spelmau'a recom- 
mendation was further enforced by the learned Archbishop 
Usher, who coming from London to the Cambridge Com- 
mencement, strongly recommended him, in the presence of 
the most eminent members of the University assembled at 
Sydney College, to give Lectures on the Four Grospefs m 
Saxon : Whefoc e:Kpre8ses his^ hope that thb example will 
not be lost, and as a specimen of his gratitude, he published 
Bedels Anglo-Saxon History. Thus fer he goes in his De- 
dication to the Chancellor and Members of the University. 

In his Address to Sir Thomas Adams^ speaking of the 
philosophy of the Arabic as consistent with drat of the Sax* 
en, he professes that the Saxon Muses owe gratitude to him 

* History of Uie A9glo*Saxoiu, 3 volt. 4to. By Sharon Turner, F.S.A. 
Mr. thgram, also, the Saxoo Professor of Oxford, is doiog maefa Id tbit 
vajr in hU Translation of the Saxon Chronicle. 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. ^^ 

for . their Sister Arabic ; but observes, that while the Sazdn, 
aw our vernacular language, more easily found a typography, 
for the foreign worda of the Arabic he was %vanting both in 
types and a typograplier : so he left the glory of having these 
advantages to OjLonians; but that, finding our ancient mo- 
numents reflected light on tlie Catholic faitli^ and wishing to 
follow the recommendation of Sir Henry Spelman^ he had 
giveu the more diligence himself in the study of th^ Saxon. 

In his Preface to the Reader, after speaking of the na^ 
ture and importance of the work he had in hand, and the 
2(1 S8. which he followed, he speaks more fully of his ap* 
pointment to read Lectures in Saxon, and of the salary 
given by Sir tl^nry Spelman. It seems, this was the first in* 
stance of public encouragement given to the study of $ax* . 
00 2 for, tlHKigh there had been Lectures given from very 
ancient time, in that language, in Cornwall, to prevent the 
language from becoming obsolete, through the corruption of 
the Normans, this it seems was the first attempt to introduce 
tb/e «ti|dy pf ^t at Panibndge, 

H. p. $23, last line. Fuie Jrts. 

It will probably be thought by some readers of our His** 
tory, that I have given more dian the due proportion of at- 
tention to the subject of the foie arts, when it is recollect- 
ed, that they make no part of our academical education at 
Cambridge. I think, too, I have found it necessary to apo* 
logize somewhere for such work of supererogation, intimat- 
ing, at the samo time, that if a time should ever arise, 
when the.arts M-ere to be more brought into notice at Cam* . 
bridge, that the remarks, which I have occasionally intro- 
duced relating to them would be found less out of place. 

Without pretending to the second sight, or to any thing be- 
yond a sort of lucky presentiment, I cannot, however, help 
feeling gratified that such a time has arisen : two or three 
words, therefore, on that subject cannot be out of season 
here. 



450 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

Rkhatd Lord Viscount FitzwiUiam, of Iidand, F. R. & 
finiflhed bis education «t Cambridge, wbere he had the de- 
gree of A. M. conferred on bim in 1764» He was leanied, 
and died possessed of disposeable proper^ to a gmt 
amount. He had one of the most valuable cabitt^ coDec- 
tiotts of pictures in Europe, a most sumptuous libraiy, mad 
a very grand collection of ancient music. He died a bache- 
lor, and was succeeded in his tiric and Irish heredb'lauj es- 
tates by bis brother, John Fitswilliam. But his several 
collections, incUiding books, paintings, prints, statues, bugis, 
bronzes, 8cc. he bequeathed to the Univerrity of Oambrii%e. 
The books are valued at £MfiOO : the other collections at a 
much greater sum. He also beqoeadied large property to 
•Ae University, sufficient for the purpose of huOdiogr a Mo- 
0eum, and of paying salaries to a librarian, wilfc other ap- 
propriate officers, and for hiring a house, to deposit tfiena in, 
till such Museum should be erected. 

Accordingly, a Grace passed the Senate, at a Convoca- 
don held April 16, 1816, appointing a certain nnmber of 
gentlemen, Syndics, for providing a temporary recepdoir for 
such valuable articles, till, agreeably to the will of Ae noble 
donor, a suitable Library, Pictuie Gallery, and Muaeam, 
should be erectf^d. — They are, for the present, deposited in 
the School-House, in Free^School-Lane. Of Lord Fitz- 
v^illiam it is intended to say something further under our next 
' Additions to Trinity HalL 

H. p. 246. EasUm Side of the Pubiic Library. 

(Copied from Mr. Rob. Smith's MS.) 

<< Upon. Tuesday, the 29th day of April, 175^, his Grace, 
Thomas Holies, Duke of Newcastle, Chancellor of ihe 
University, arrived at Cambridge, and the next morniug the 
Heads and Doctors, and almost all the Members of the 
Senate-House, waited on liim at Clare Hall, where, in s 



HISTORY OF CAtfBRIDQE. ^&i 

short speech, he expressed his great satisfaction at the good 
order he observed, and had heard did prevail^ in the Univer* 
sity, and assiured them, that they could not more eiFectu« 
ally recommend themselves to him, than by studying to pro- 
mote learning, and discipline, and good morals, among the 
young gentlemen under thehr care. 

From Clare Hall, his Grace went to the Senate House, 
and thence proceeded to the Syndics for die New Library. 
He walked to the place where the new building is to be erect- 
ed, and tliere his Grace, after a short address in Latin, to 
l)ie auGceas of the present undertaking, laid the first stone, 
lA a hollow part of which was a great number of gold and 
ulver piecea of bis Miyesty Geoi^e ll.'s coins^ and in aiH 
Qtber part of it, i^ copper-plate, with the foUowing ifUM^rip* 
tion:-— 

G)nstantifle jSltemitatiq. Sacrum 
Latus hoc orientale Bibliothecas 
Egregia Georgii j"" 
Britanoiarum Regis 
Laberalitate locupletA 
Vetustate obsoletum instauravit 
Georgii IL^'* Principb Optimi 
Munificentia 
Accedente 
Nobilisumorum Virorum 
Thomse Holies Ducis de Newcastle 
Academise Cancellarii 
Philippi Comitis de Hardwicke AnglisB Cancellarii 
Academise Summi Seneschalli 
Ac plurimorum Pnnsulum Optimatum 
Alionimq. Academic Fautorum 
I Propensa in Rei Literariae incrementum 

\ Splendoremque Benignitate 

f % Lapidem hunc immobilem 

,t Operia Bxordium 



qsi SVrPLEMEtfT TO THE 

Ipsiuf Auspicus Suscepti 

Authoriute Patrocinio Procurationc 

Feliciter Deo propitio perficiendi 

Circumstante frequentissima Academicoram CorQna 

Prid. Kalend. Mail MDCCLV 

Sua manu Solenniter posuit 

Academic Cancellarius.'' 

H. Appendix, p. 264, 1. 13. CarmeUies. 

Anthony Wood observes, that the first of this order, who 
graduated at Oxford, was the iiinious Simon Stock, who was 
the most noted and religious brother that ever was. Com- 
pare Athen. Oxon. Vol. L p. 4, 5, with Hist, et Anti^. 
Ox. p. 99* 

B« App. p. 265. Graduates in Grammar. 

For the procedure in regard to Graduates in Grammar, 
at Cambridge, see the Statuta Antiqua. They graduated, 
in like manner, in Grammar, at Oxford; and Mr. Wood 
observes, " that at this time (viz. Mar. \7, 1508), and be- 
yond all memory, no person in this kingdom could teach 
Grammar publicly, until he had been first graduated in, or 
authorized by, either of tlie Universities." Fasti^ p. 1£, ia 
Vol. I. Ath. Ox. 



HISTORY OF CABfBRIDOE. «3S 



ADDITIONS AND EMENDATIONS 



TO Till 



HISTORY 



«* TB« 






P H i»» 



PETER HOUSE. 

H. Vol. II. p. 9> 1- 11* For one Master, ^c. 

The original mode of appointment of the principal offi* 
cers in the University, was, for the University to choose, and 
the Bishop of Ely to confirm. Thus, Nov. 7, 1388, W. 
Colville, D. D. was elected in Cancellarium dictse Universi- 
tatis secundum morem et consuetudines ibidem pertinentibus 
ut antiquitus observaUs, &c. The Chancellor appeared be- 
fore John Fordham, Bishop of Ely, at his manor of Do- 
dyngton ; et electionem de se facta m per Rev. Patrem pre- 
dictum viv& voce nomine totius Universitatis confirmari pe« 
tilt. MS. Bodi. 

The same rule was observed in the appointment of offi- 
cers at Peter House. The Master and Fellows chose, but 
th« Bbbop of Ely confirmed, in his ^double capacity, a» the 
Ordinary of the Diocese, and as the original Founder of the 
College ; and with respect to the latter, the same rule conti* 
nues to the present tiay. — ^And here it may be proper to ob- 
$ert€, once for all, that io the public instriioieats alhided te 



«S4 SUfPLBMBNT TO THE 

abovci Scholares la synonymous witb Socii : thus, £c Ses* 
lares CoUe^ (Petri) pnesentabant William Irby ia Deact 
Licenciat etTho. de Castro Bernardi Rector de Colc» 
haiD, &c. MS. Bodl. 

H. p. £0. 



/ 



Copied from Bhn^ld^s first FqL p. 2B6. BoiUtm 
Library. E. Lib. MSS. CoU. Can Cmmt. N. 12i. 
CHd Catahgue, B. 93. Coil. M^. Kam. 

As$enm$ n{gjs ad/undaiionem CoUegU S^i. JPeiri Cani. 
per Dom. Hugouem Episcopum BiUensem^ Sdwanke ^ 

5 



\ 



** I have a MS. in 4to. written by Mr. John Raamjr, 
** sometime Fellow Commoner of Peter House, txM3ma% 
" the following treatises: — ^The Author's Life, p. J. l>e 
'< Instimtiooe NobUis Geoerofli. De Peregrinafcme^ p. 9. 
" CatechismuSy 13. Prosopopoeias, by Spenser. A Book 
** of Caesar's Commentaries, translated, 46. The Praise 
*' of a Country Life. The Genealogy of the Ramsejs, 7ft 
** Methodtts Studendi, 80. De Obitu — Epitepib. DomiiBae 
*^ Ramsey, 95. De Ramseorum Familia. De Oxoo. & 
*^ Cantab* Carmina. — ^He describes himself as conung to 
'< College in l601, but withdrew at the coming in of 
*^ James I. and at the earnest request of the HonouraUe 
" Knight Sir John Ramsey, of the King's Bed-Chamber. 
•* But being fond of a retired life, he left cour^ and travel* 
<< led, though he had a family. He was related to the gremt 

" Benefactress of the College, Lady Ramsey. He went 

^' a voyage to Guiennei in the continent of , America, in 
" 1633." 

Copied from Blomjield^s MSS. in the Bodleian JU6r. 
Oxford., ^ 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. tas 



GmAm, Rex Aagliae, Dommus Hibernie, et Das Aqiul»> 

nisB, omnibus ad quos presentes Irae pervenerint Saltiteniy 

I>ax inclytus Hebres Geatis, quein omnipotent ultra capa* 

cntatem comprehensionis intellectus bumani, prerogativa s»» 

pientiae ciBlitus insignivit,. promisao sibi a Domino mnnarey 

quod optarety circunispecte considerans sapientiam, terrenis 

relMia singulis prsvalere ipsam expediit : pnidenter attendens 

quod illam omnia bona pariter subsequerentur. Quapropter 

decet regiam excellentiam, exemplis Qptimis informatam li- 

beater aasensum impartiri, ad ilEicta favorabilitarpersequenda^ 

per que viri fiant pro utililate Reipublicae sapientea: quo* 

runa prudeutia Regimini regni et sacerdotii provide consular 

tur : et in bis agitatione Studii, Doctrina sapientitt jttgitet 

amplietur ; Nos igitur attendentes Tenerabilem patram lingo- 

nem Eliensem Episcopum, proposito laudabili concesaease^ 

quod loco fratmm secularium, in hospitio sno sancti Johan- 

nia Canteb. Scbolares studiosi fabrc^ntur, qui secvndtim 

regulam Scholarium Oxon. qui de Merton Cognominaban- 

tur, in Universitate Canteb. studentes, per omnia eonversen- 

tur, perpendentes ex biijusmodi studio, per eminentiam sapi- 

entiflB posse reipublicm multa commoda provenire, ptm^ 

ia(» subrogatiooiy mutationi sea translation!, ex causA su^ 

pradict& faciends, nostrum regium asaensum prebemas: 

Noleatea per hoc, quod Elemosyna pauperum ad dictum 

hospitaie confluentium, quas a sacris prioribusq. Episcopis 

Elien. Ecclesis est antiquitus constitata, in aliquo defrau« 

detur. In cujus rei Testiyonium has literas nostras fieri fe* 

cimus pateates. Teste Rege apud Burgum xxiiij^o die No- 

vembris, anno regni Nostri nono. Ex Rotulo patentium de 

Anno ix^ Regis Edw. 1*^ in Turre London, 

Supplement, p. 19, I. 28. 



Siaieoa should be Simmons : besides Mrhat is there said, 
Simmons wrote against the famous Socinian (called the Ra« 
eoviaa) Catechiani| a woifc ealided, lucrqpatio Bar-Jesu, 



(S6 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

and tbe Scotch Covenant^ and also Letters to several leanpd 

Men* 
lUd. Insert— David Stokes, D-D. FeL wrote »i»enl 

tbeokgical works : Veru8 Cbristianus, Truth's Chanipuii, as 

Expoution on the Minor Prophets, and some Sennons. He 

is said also to have assisted Walton in his Polyglott £fe 

was a great royalist, and suffered iu the cause. He died 

Ma; 10, 1669. 

Ibid. Lazarus Seaman, D. D. l644, and Master, beug 
put in by the E. of Manchester, on the ejecUnent of Dr. 
Cosens. See Walker's Sufferings of the Cleifj, &ۥ 
Pert IL p. 152. He was a Leicestershire man, aaAasktt- 
dent of Emman. Col. which he was obliged to qui^ on ac- 
count of narrow circumstances. He became aftenranb t 
qiau of eminence among the presbyterians, one of the As» 
sembly of DivineSs, and also of the Commissioners, who 
were sent to treat with Charles I. when in ibe ls\e of 
Wight; he was particularly conversant in the subject, 
which so n^uch exercised the Divines of that age. Church 
Government, and his arguments on it msj be seen in 
Charles the First's works. »Dr. Calamy speaJ^s highly of im 
abiliUes and learning. Hist. Eject. Ministers, VoK II. p. 16; 
though the only works of his extant are, a Sermon b«fore 
the Lord Mayor, April 7th, 1650, against Divisions, ands 
Vindication of the Judgment of the Reformed Churches, 
concerning Ordination, and the X4aying on of Hands, 4(c. 
1647. Dr. Calamy remarks, th^ he had a very valuable 
library, and that it was the first that was sold iu England by 
way of auction, and fetched £700« 

At the Restoration in 1660, Dr. Seaqfian was ejected, and 
Dr. Cosins reinstated ; so that Dr. Calamy's date of the 
time of Dr. Seaman's death (1657) must be an error of the 
press for 1675. — I have already observed, p. 19 of tbis 
yolume, that Dr. Seaman's name is not in the Admisiion 
Book. 

Ibid. No less famous as a divine and preacher (a Calvift* 



HistORY OF Cambridge. *» 

ist, too), though on the opposite side of the questioD o«i 
Church Government, was, John Standish^ B. D. 1064, 
' and Fellow, incorporated also at Oxford ; see Wood's Ath. 
i Oxon. Vol. II. p. 1 1 10. He was Rector of Conxngton, 
I Oambridgeshire, and Chap, in Ordinary to Charles II. He 
^ publiahed Sermons, '' which prove him to be no ordinary 
I Cmiviaist," according to Wood, who calls him, afterward, 
(Fasti, 178) I apprehend incorrectly, Master of Peter- House* 
I He proceeded, afterwards, D. D. He was the second son 
I of David Standish, one of the Vicars General of Peterbo- 
rough, and died 1686.-— There was also another person of 
^ •ome celebrity, of this i»me, Robert Standish, L.L. D. 
, wbo received his education at Cambridge ; he was parson of 
Standi^, in Lancashire, and died in 1552. He was a Ro- 
man Catholic. 

H. p. 31. 

Bishop Law was a native of Cartmel, in Lancashire, and 
was first admitted of St. John's College : after taking the 
degree of A. B. he was elected Fellow of Christ's. He 
was presented to the Vicarage of Gray-Stock, 1 7S7, by the 
University; to the Archdeaconry of Carlisle, 1743; to the 
Mastership of Peter House, 17M; to the office of Head 
Librarian of the University, 1760. — By the interest of the 
Duke of Newcastle, he gained a stall in the church of 
Durham; and through that of the Duke of Grafton, the 
Bishopric of Carlisle. He died Aug. 14, 1787, aged 84* 
— ^Bishop Law^s edition of King's Origm of Ely was only a 
translation. See further, a Memoir of his Life, in Hutchin- 
son's Hist, of Cumberland, by Du Paley, Vol. IL p. 636. 



H. p. 39. 

Insert— ^Miles Atkinson, A. B. was a Yorkshireman, one 
of several of bis family, or name, m that county, <fistinguish- 



^3g SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

ed hy Uior zed for justificaUon by fidlh mliMie in tlie 
of Christ; i^reeably to which doctrine were poMiaked^ ir 
1812, «ftcr Mr. A.*b death, 2 volumes of Practical Serwmau 
He was A. B. 1763, but does Dot appear to have pio» 
ceeded A. M. He was of the same turn of thiiikiagwi& 
the fanK>us Mr. James Herv^, with whom his father imi 
been intimate at Oxford, being Mgaged io a aimilar ceatM 
of religious pursuit and study with him. — He m Heak 
Master of Drylington School, near Leeds. 

Though a Methodist, Mr. AUcinson was a zealous charch* 
mtm, and laid die first stone of « new church at Leed^ 
SepU 26, 179i> the Bishop of Bristol, Dr. Wilson, gnatang 
the grounds It was supported, like the Melhodiat*s cbapd% 
by subscriptions, having been consecrated hj the Arch- 
bishop of York, Sept. lOtb, 1793. Mr. A. was Vfraroi 
Kippax, Minister of St. Paul's, his own chapel, and Lectu- 
rer of the parish church of Leeds. 

Prefixed to Mr. A.'s Sermons are his Memoirs, in whid 
is introduced a very minute diary, kept of his religious feel- 
ings and exercises, agreeably to the practice of the early 
Methodists. 

Having made mention of a Diary, I am reminded, that the 
celebrated Dr. John Jebb, nearly contemporary w\t\i Mr. A. 
and of lliis College, kept also, for a considerable time, » 
strict diai7, though in a different strain, the MS. of whicfc, 
as written by the Doctor, is in possession of Mr, EUis, a 
member of this College. 

Add— Edward Morris, Esq. M. P and F. R. S. a nafii* 
of Middlesex, first of Trinity Hall, and admitted of lU^ 
College Dec. 17, 1784, was A. B. 1788, A.M. JTPl; 
Member for Newport, 1816, and a Master in Oiancery. 
He was son of Dr. Morris, F. R. S. an eminent ph>^ciao, 
the first who gave Lectures'on Chemistry in the melropoliSi 
and Chairman of the Committee at the Society of Arts aod 
Manufactures^ Mr. Morris himself lived in intimacy ^^ 
some of the most eminent scholars, and men of genius m w 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 

tnd as la tftttdenty m « speaker hi the HouM of Com* 
1 «nom, and a Master in Chancery, was himself not more dis* 
1 t in g uiah ed for his talent, than his worth. He also put forth 
t ettfy promise of being a snccessfiil writer for the stage, and 
\ -wrote three Comedies, which were very iavonrably received^ 
i find had a conriderable ran: !• The Adventurers, acted at 
, Dniry Lane Theatre, 1790. £. False Colours, acted by 
I Ae Driiry Lane Company, at the Opera House in the 
Hay market, and published in 1793. S. The Secret, acted 
, -mt Drury Lane Theatre, 1799* 

Mr. MorriS) having obtained, as a reward of his literary' 
ttierit at Cambridge, one of the Travelling Fellowdiips, 
•pent the greater part of Uiree years in France, and, having 
paid much attention to the French Oeconomiques, he pulv 
lished, on his return, a valuable pamphlet on MoNOPO|*Y, 
on the principles of Dr. A. Smith. He married a daughter 
of Lord Erskioe ; but is one of the many noticed in our li- 
terary survey, whose premature deaths have disappointed 
and affected the friends of literature. 

Add — John Disney, D. D. and F. S. A. an eminent Uni- 
tarian clergyman, was a Lincolnshire man, born Sept. £8, 
1746, and admitted of this College June 1 5th, 1764; was 
Li. B. of Cambridge University, but the degree of D. D. ho. 
obtained from Edinburgh. 

Dr. Disney was Vicar of Swinderby, and Rector of Pan* 
ton, Lincolnshire^ bat reagmng, on emlM^cing the Sociniaa 
or Unitarian principles, he became Assistant Preacher at the 
Unitarian Chapel in Essex Street, London. 

Dr. Disney was editor and author of various publica- 
tions, to some of which references have already been made^ 
in these volumes ; particularly the Memoirs of the Life and 
Writings of Dr. Arthur Ashley Sykes, 1785 ; of Dr. Jebb, 
1787 ; of Dr. Jortin, 1792. He also published, at different 
intervals, some single Sermons, eight of which were inserted 
in two volumes of Sermons, publbhed by him in 179S.«^ 
Juit before his death, viz. at the latter end of the year 18l6, 



£40 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

he coDkbued diis series of Sermoas in two mcMre ^oIoba 
A renitrkable feature in these two last volumes, is, tbe adsf 
Uon in almost every text be preaches from, of Mr. WakefidA 
New Translatioa of the New Testament ; and diat Ifce a* 
dior, while he maintains the doctrines peculiar to iheSoav- 
ansy does not overlook the more general priociples of cni 
and religious liberty. 

Of two or three smaller pieces published by Dr. D. t 
may be proper to notice one as relating to a fomer Muter 
of this College : ** A Short Memoir of the Life of Ednaiad 
Law, D. D. Bishop of Carlisle; by William Paley, D.D." 
(extracted from Hutchinson's Hist, of Cumberland^ VcLU 
p. 636—638). Reprinted, with Notes fcy Anonyaioos, 
(Dr. D.) 1800. Dr. D. had formerly been Cbaphuo to 
Bishop Law. 

CLARE HALL. 

(Additions and Emendations conlinued.J 

H. p. SQ^ Notes. 

• The Statuta Antiqua of this College were given March 25, 
1359; and had every peculiarity that cou\d authentictls 
them, the seal of Lady Clare, with those of Ae College, 
and of the University; witnessed also by the Bishop rf 
Ely. The name of the Master of the College at the time is 
not to be found in the list of Masters ; but it was Nicolas * 
Brunne, and ought to come in between Kerdiogtoo and 
ponewichc. 

H. p. 38, 1. 26. Benefactors. 

As there seems to be a dearth of names, in our HistcHj 
of Cambridge, under Clare Hall, and particidarly of Bene- 
factors, I shall here give> in addition to what wa» there saii, 






HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. £41 

a complete Hat, taken from the College Register^ of Ben^ 
fuctors. Founders of Fellowthipe^ ScholarshiiM^ tu. « 

Walter Norlicfae^ and Eliz. his wife. 

William Marshall. 

Ralph Scryvener. 

Thomas Cave.— All four. Founders of Scholarships. 

Thomas Cecil, Earl of Exeter, and Dorothy his wife, 3 

Fell, and Scholarships. 
John Freeman, of Great Billing, in the eounty of North- 
amptonshire, 9. Fell, and 2 Scho. and 2 poor Scho. 
Rob. Johnson, B. D. Archdeacon of Leicestershire, eihibi- 
tions for the benefit of his £ Schools at Okehamland, Up- 
pingham, Rutlandshire. 
John Borrage, of North Boieham, Northamptonshire, Scho- 
lar here, 1 Fellowship. 
Joseph Diggons, of Lysse, in Hants, Esq. Scholar also, 
JglSO. to augment the Scho. and Fel. 

Phillipot, of Kent, £ Fel. 

Rob. Hancocke, Fel. 1 poor Scholar, and Jg)5 towards re^ 

building the College. 
Thomas Fyke, at Cambridge, 2 Scholars. 
Daniel Wilson, of Bramhill, in Wilts, 2 poor Schol. and 
Jg20 towards rebuilding the College. 

Moiieri, who were Benefaetan* 

Dr. Donwych« 
Dr. Storyte. 
Dr. Natares. 
Dr. Leeds. 
Dr. Scolt, £30O in money, pictures, and books. 
Dr. Paske, £300, towards rebuilding die CoU^, besides 

his interest in procuring benefiictors. 
Dr. Dillingham, a good benefector to the Lflhraiy, widl his 
own books, and jC^Ote purdiasa aaooa. 



£42 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

Dr. Blythe, £^00, towards rebuilding die CoDege, aii 
about jS600, to purchase advowsons for the FeUomUfi 
of the Clare and Exeter Foundation. 

Dr. Morgan left his Library to the College, ig400 to oiiBt 

Other Benefactors. 

Thomas Cropley, Fel. 

John Woodward^ Fel. 

John Harleton. I 

Rich. Morden. 

Rich. Danvers. I 

Geo. Walpole. 

Rich. Maycent. 

•^ Cramond; Vicar of St. Peter's, Colchester* 

Rich. Thexton. 

Edith Greene. 

Will. Duckett. 

JohnTaptoo, Mast, of Catharine Hall. 

Will. Butler, M. D. Principal Physician to James L m 

money, plate, and books, £500» 
George Ruggle, Fel. £400, in the same. 
Eliz. relict of Robert Fly, Esq. alderman of liondon, j^lOO^ 

to maintain the fire in the HalL 

JBenefaetors to the building the CoU^ and CkaptL 

William Spyers, Rector of Clapton, jglOOy for the Ckt/»eL 
Henry Hopkins, Esq. Warden of the Fleet and Fd. £i(^ 
Tho. Winston, M. D. Fel. and Physioa Lectuier at Gieih- 

am CoUeg^i jC7dO, for die. College. 
John Steavor, D. D» Fel. jg740, for the same. 
Geo. Payne, Esq. Fel. Commoner here^ a legacy of £?f^ 

foi t})e awe* 
Bishop Gunning, £^00^ for the Chapel. 



HISTORY OF CAMBiai>GE. <43 

H. p. 37, 38. Portraits. 

The portrait of Elizabeth de Burgo, Dame of Clare, is 
not in the Master's Liodge of Clare Hall, but io the Com- 
bination Room : bot there is no portrait diere of the Lady 
of Thomas Cecil; Earl of Exeter, as I have stated. 

H. p. 43, 1. 10. Masters Lodge^ 

This Lodge is entirely confined to the western side of the 

building, and no part of the north side belongs to it. 

« 

H. p. 45, I. 8. Organ. 
There is no organ in Clare Hall Chapel. 

H. p. 46, 1. 18. Dr. Boys. 

John Boys, the 6th Dean of Canterbury, besides his fa- 
mous Defence of the Liturgy (Postiih), published also 
Lectures, printed in the 2d and 3d (the folio) edition of die 
Postilb, printed in 162£ and 1699. He was indebted to 
James I. for his Deanery ; in his Dedication, therefore, to 
the King, he follows up the spirit of those times, calling 
James ** the Common Atlas of the reformed Heaven on 
** Earth— not only the Scholars* King, but the King of 
^ Scholars."^-He was one of the most zealous preachers 
against Popery in his time. In one of his Sermons, at 
PauPs Cross, he turned the Lord's Prayer into a strange 
execration against the Pope, thus: ^' I have,'* said the 
Preacher, ^* another prayer ; and forasmuch as it is in La- 
<' tin, I must intreat all such (if any such here be present) 
^ who love Bonaventure's Psalter and the Romish Service^ 
^ to join me in thb Orison : ' 

•C 2 



444 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

'^ Papa Noster, qui es Rome, maledicatur nomeii tmra^ 
'< intereat regnuni tuum : ionpediatur voluntas tua, ncot n 
'< coelo, sic et in terii. Potum nostrum in Dominici Cce- 
'< nfc da nobis hodie, et remitte nummos nostros, qnof tibi 
<' dedimus ob indulgentias; et ne nos inducas in hsreH^ 
** sed libera nos a miseriSli quoniam toinn est infemiiv^ 
'^ pix et sulphur in s9cula ssDculorum/' See more coor 
ceming this singular but learned, and as he was geoeraDj 
reckoned, pious, divine, in Mr. Todd's Account of (fae Deans 
of Canterbury, p. 91- 

Boys was a Kentish man, was first admitted of Bese't 
College, and proceeded there to the degree of A. M. « 
1593; about which time he was elected Fel. of Clare HsD. 
He died suddenly in his study, Sept. 28, 1625. There is t 
very elegant monument of white marble erected to bis oie- 
mory in Canterbury Cathedral. 

H. Vol. II. p. 51. PhUipoit. 

Thomas Pbilipott was a Kentish man; he published t 
sqnaU volume of Poems. The title-page read.»— '' Poeav 
" by Thomas PbJRipott, Master of Arts, some time oi 
'< Clare Hall, in Cambridge: printed by R. A* 1646.^- 
J}e was the son of John Philipott, Esq. Somerset HeraU in 
James the First's reign, a very eminent and learned writer o« 
heraldry, whose numerous MSS. are in the Herald's OSot^ 
London. I have seen diree lai^e volumes of his oo He- 
raldry, relating wholly to Kent ; and it is supposed, and it ii 
probable, with respect to the Villare Cantianum, and hii 
work on Heraldry (if they are not the same book^ beariQg 
Thomas Philipott's name, that they were made fiom papers of 
his father, who published nothing, that I am aware of, bat 
the Lord Chancellors of the Kings of England, 4to. 163S» 
and several additions to the 4tp. editions of Camden'i 
HsMAiNs concerning Britain: London, l6S7» With rs* 
8pect*to Thomas, the son, he published, beside the PoBiif 
^ 2 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. US 



' jtist now meiitioiiedy Elsies to the Memory of Willkm 
^ OioTer, Esq. 1641,410* and a Congratulatory Elegy, offered 
' up to the Earl of Essex, apon the iovestitore with the dig* 
> iiaty of Lord Chamberlain: and m prose, beside what have 
^ been mentioned, he published The Original and Growth of 
t die Spanish Monarchy united with die House of Austria ; 
1O04. 8vo.— Antiquitas Theologica et Oentilis, and one or 
tmo other pieces* He died about the year 1684. 



H. p. 38, 1. 4, and Suppl. last 1. Butler. 

Dr. Butler was a native of Ipswich: no author; yet, 

faavBig been so singular a man, and the most popular physi* 

cian of his time, I am induced, besides what has been said 

in the above places, to add one or two more words, in the 

way of anecdotes. Being sent for from Cambridge, where he 

resided, on bearing the case of his patient, he assumed the 

tone of vtolent rage, telling his wife, that she ought to be 

hanged, for murdering her husband ; and abruptly quitted the 

room. Walking through the yard of the house, he observed 

some cows ; when, returning, lie asked her, whose cows they 

were ? when she replied, her husband's ; '^ Will you then,*' said 

Butler, *' give me one of them, if I recover him ^'— .^' Most 

wilhngly,'' said the wife. He then directed the cow to be 

killed, and the husband to be put into the warm carcase; 

and his patient was shortly restored *. The following aoec« 

dote is a good testimony in honour of my favourite herb to» 

bacco. Butler being applied to by a person who had a 

great defluzion in his teeth, he informed his patient, ** that a 

hard knot must be spht by a hard wedge ;" ordering him, at 

the same time, to keep smoking tobacco without any inter- 

mission, till he should have used an ounce : the man having 

been accustomed to the use of this herb, smoked M pipes 

s See Biotnphicia Memoin of Medicin* in GrMt Britain, p. 188. By 
])f.Aikuk 



^(j SUPPLEBIENT TO THE 

at -A sitting ; wbidi, though it brought on sickness, yet 
sioned such a flux of salivai that it gradually stopped dbe 
pain, which never returned till after 17 years *• 

He was a most slovenly, odd man, who never gSfCi nor 
received coBspliments ; rude and rough to a proverb : aad a 
witty joke could do more with him, among his pataeota^ dm 
a serious statement, or a present in money. Periups onr 
late Dr. Glynn, who also constantly resided at Camhric^ 
might, iu some instances, make him bis model ; for, with 
much inteiior kindness, be was accustomed to put on a mde 
exterior of manners. Dr. Fuller says of Butler, that he had 
morositatem sequabilem, a|id kept the tenor of the amne ««r« 
liness to all persons. He died Jan. 99x I6l7-18« 

H. p. 47, 1- 7. 

Add-'-^Isaac Bargrave, Fellow, took his d^reei of A« B« 
and A. M. at Cambridge, and was A. M. at OxSord in July 
l6l 1. In March 1614 be performed a part in his Fellow- 
Collegian's (Ruggle's) Play, Ignoramus, before J^mes h; oi 
which performance Dr. Fuller (Ch. Hist B. 10, 70) justijr 
remarks, *' that while many bughed aloud at the nuililk 
thereof, some of the graver sort were sad, to see the cominQn 
lawyers made ridiculous therein* Bargrave obtained consi- 
. derable church preferment, and on being promoted by die 
Crown to a prebend in l62£, he proceeded D. D. On Ae 
death of Dr. Boys, be was admitted to the Deanery of Can- 
terbury, Oct. 14, 1625. 

He became, like his nephew of Peter House, a sutEBrerin 
the cause of Charles I. when crowns and mitres wers treated 
as baubles ; and, like him, had been a great traveller. He 
particularly attended the celebrated Sir Hen. Wotton in one 
of his embassies, as chaplain ; and^ if he did not bring borne 
so many rarities as his nephew (see our Hist of Camb. 

^ Biographical Memotra of Medicine in Oremt BriUin. By Dr. Aildii. 



HISTORY OF CAMBJEUDGR 947 

Vol. IT. p, 23) he at least brought with him this testimony, 
from the famous Father Paul, ^' that the Church of Eogland 
<< ^as the most excellent piece of discipline in the whole 
'< Christian world.'' 

The Dean appears td have been a liberal-minded clergy* 

man : '' away,*' says he, in one of his sermons, " with those 

'* diatracting names of Lutheran, Calvinist, Puritan, &c« 

^ we are all the children of the same Father," 8ic. But he 

only published three Sermons, printed in 1622 and 1627* 

He died Jan. 1642*3, and was buried in the Dean's Chapel, 

in Ganlerbnry Cathedral, where, o?er his monument, is his 

portnut, painted on copper, in a curious s^le, in an elegant 

firame of white marble. For more concerning him, see 

Todd's Afxoant of the Deans of Canterbury, p. 100. 

H. p. 47, 1. 9. 

Henry Jolliffe, the Catholic dii^ne, mentioned as writing 
against Bishop Hooper, was B. D. Rector of Bishop's 
Hampton, in Worcestershire, a Prebendary of Worcester, 
and Dean of Bristol, 1554. But the book alluded to was 
written by Rob. Johnson, L. L. B. who also was a learned 
Catholic of this University in Queen Mary's reign. The 
book is entitled, Responsio sub protestatione ad illos Articu- 
los Johannis Hooperi, Episcopi Vigorniae nomen geren* 
tes, in quibus a Catholica fide dissentiebat : — it also con- 
tains Bishop Gardiner's Replications to the same ; publish- 
ed at Antwerp 1564, with Additions, by Mr. Jolliffe, (who 
ip Elizabeth's reign was obliged to go beyond the seas), and 
dedicated to Philip of Spain, husband of our Queen Mary, 
in acknowledgment of favours received from him in Eng- 
land. This Mr. Henry Jolliffe died in 1548. See Mr, 
Wood's Fasti, p. 76, Vol. I. 



fl48 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 



H. p. 47, 1. 7. 



Gieorge Jolliffe, a Dorsetshire man, was, I perceive, fioio 
Mr. Wood's Ath. Oxon. Vol. II. p. 170, first of Pemlwoke, 
and afterwards of Wadham College (1696-7% Oxford, wbae 
he took the two degrees of A. B. u)d A. M. He^ hov- 
ever, afterwards studied physic, came to Ciftre HmB, Mad 
took the degree of M. D. at Cambridge* He became a 
very emioent physician, and, notwidistanding what my medi' 
cal friend informed me, I find that Dr. JoUifie <fid laake % 
Ascovery of the Vasa Lymphatica, those veasels now edit 
ed Lymphadacts, distinct from veins, arteries, and nerves^ 
which he unfolded in Jnatomical Lectures, in the College at 
Physicians, about the year 1653. He died about two yemn 
afterwards. 

H. p. 52. 

Add— lUehard Laughton, A. B. 1664, A. M. Idi9], it 
considered in the Annals of this College as one of the most 
assiduous and learned tutors or his time in the CJuiversjty^ 
Dr. Colbatch, of Trinity College, in a CommemoTalaoQ 
Sermon, preached at Cambridge, alludes to bim thus: 
'' We see what a confluefice of nobility and gentry the virtue 
' of one man daily draws to one of our least Colleges.'' 
Mr. Whiston describes him as " his bospm friend*, ami as 

« Whiston's Memoirs of his owu Life aod Writings, p. 38. Mr. Wiiif- 
ton, among other valuable particulars in his Emtndunda in Acadeffl«a# Isys 
down this rule ; 

No more than one civil oath, that of alleviaaee^ to be imposed. 

Penalties, and not oaihs, to be securities, in all cases. 

No more than one ecclesiastical subscription to be imposed, thai to the 
Original Baptismal ProiVssion; wiih the owning the sacred authority of 
the Books of the Old and New Testament, and this only on $tudenu oi Oi* 
vinity. Ibid. pp. 45, 46. 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. «49 

Oiaplain to his patrooi Bishop Moor : so that it is probable 
be possessed some of Mr. Whiston^s freedom of 'opinion, 
^nd that as he does not appear for a Doctor's degree (though 
he-became D.D.) in the Book of Graduates^ he obtained it 
ftom the Archbishop of Canterbury; by which means he 
nvottld avoid subscription to articles. 

Though eminently distinguished for talents and learning, 
it does not appear that Dr. L. published any thing but a 
Sermon, preached before George I. in King's College Cha- 
pel, when his Majesty tisited the UniTersity, Oct. 6, 1717* 
He was appointed Prebendary of Worcester, and died 
July 98, 17^. 

Dr. Laughton, according to the College Register, was 
elected Fellow on Freeman's Foundation ; which he after- 
waids resigned. 

H* p. 55m 

Add-^Martin Folkes, L.L.D. F.R.S. and F.S.A. 
bom in Westmioster, was a gentleman enunent for his know* 
ledge of antiquity, and medals; but not one of that 
school, who 



rettlen by the fkir-one't tide. 



Sight for an Otho, and neglecti the bride. 

Port's Ep. to AoDifOK. 

He combined his love of antiquities with philosophy, and 
made his study of the medallic art serve the cause of £ng« 
lish history. The early part of hb education he received at 
Namur, io France, and spent several years of his maturer 
hfe m fore^n travelling. He was admitted of Clare Hall, 
but took no first degree; being of that society, where the 
famous MV. Whiston had recently excited disapprobation to 
subscribing articles of faith on taking degrees, 8cc. it is not 
improbabl«f, I think, that Folkes, who had studied the 
maihematical sciences from a very early period, might 



«50 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

\ 

/ 

coincide with Wbiston on that subject. However that may 
be, be bad the degree of A. M. conferred on him by royal 
mandate 1717* The University of Oxford too conferred on 
him the honorary degree of L. L.D. in 1746, and that of 
Camb. the same honor, and in the same form, on the occa- 
sion of the visit of the Duke of Newcastle, being both 
conferred on him solely in testimony of his high literary 
character. 

When he was but 23 years old he was admitted a Fellow 
of the Royal Society, of which he was elected President 
(1741), on the death of Sir Hans Sloane, and President of 
the Antiquarian Society in 17o]. 

His communications to the Royal and Antiquarian Socie- 
ties were so various and curious^ relating to pbalosophy 
and polite literature, that I shall content myself with re/er* 
ring to them in notes * ; and shall particularize only such as 
were afterwards made into distinct publications, and with 
which his name stands more immediately connected. 
. Dr. F. having had an opportunity of examining tlie best 
collections of coins in Italy, composed two Dissertations on 
Ancient Medals, which^ though read to the Antiquarian So- 
ciety, and much admired by them, it does not appear were 
ever published. His Communication of a Table of English 
Gold Coin, from the reign of K. Edw. III. the first year of 
our Gold Coin, read to the same Society, was first printed 
in 4to. 1736. But his great work, <^on English Coins from 
the Norman Conquest to the present Time, with Remarks/' 
which exceeded every thing that had been written on the 
subject before, and is said to render any future publication 
unnecessary, was printed in 4to. 1745, including a second 

* Philoiophical Transactions, Vol. 3, No. 353, p. h»6. VoL 39, No. 
442, p. 262. Vol. 40, No. 445, p. 59. Vol. 42, No. 466, p. 185; No. 469, 
p. 422; No. 470, p. 541. Vol. 43, No. 477, p. 505— p. 557^ Vol. 45, No. 
482, p. 366. Vol. 46, No. 497, p. 613.— Id the Arcbffiologia, see Vol. 1» 
IK 117, and in the VetasU MonmnenU, published by the Antiquariaa So- 
ciety. Tab. 38. 

5 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. «dl 

edition of his Table of English Gold Coin. This was 
printed for the benefit of the Antiqiiarian Society, but at his 
own expense. 

Dr. F. died 25 June, 1753. His valuable library, ma* 
thematical instruments,' and cabinet of English coins, were 
sold ; and he ordered, by his will, that all his MSS. which 
were numerous, and very I'aluable, should be burnt, leaving 
behind him the character of an amiable and modest, as well 
as an eminently learned man. 

Dr. F. had a son, also of this College, who had travelled 
with his father, and possessed a similar taste for the study of 
medals. He died young, at the University of Caen, in 
Normandy, where he went to finish bis studies. He, in 
like manner, as hb father, todc no degree of A. B. at Cam- 
bridge. 

For more particulars relating to Dr. Folkes' family, 8cc^ 
see Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, Vol. II. p. 578. 

■ 

H. p. 55» Bulkeley. 

His Christian name was Samuel (author of a poem of 
some merit, in ten books, on the Last Day) was A. B. 1753, 
A. M. 1756. 

Add — Henry Lee, L.L. B. 1748, published, while an 
Undergraduate, a Translation of Sallust. 

Add — John Langhorne is well known as a writer both in 
poetry and prose, having been a writer by profession before 
he came to College ; for he came to Clare Hall only for the 
purpose of taking the degree of B. D. (1766), and he dates 
from that place a poem, on the accession of George I. that 
appears in the University poems on diat occasion. He 
published on a variety of subjects, but is best known by his 
translation of Plutarch's Lives, in which he engaged, con- 
jointly with his brother. His writings prSburedhim patrons 
among the great, and he obuined good preferment. He was 
Assistant Ptrtacher at LincoIn^s Inn ; Rector of Blagdon, 



fi52 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

in Somersetshire, and in 1777 was presented to a prebend 
in the Cathedral of Wells. As a poet he does not rank veiy 
high ; but acting as a Justice of the Peace, he was enabled 
to write con amore a poem, called the Countrt Jus- 
tic b, which is justly much admired. He died 1779? See 
more of him in his Life, prefixed to Anderson's edition of his 
Poems, and in Dr. Aikin's Biographical Dictionary. 

Add— Jacob Duch£, hb name imports, was eidier a 
Frenchman bom, or of French extraction; but he came 
here from America : he was entered of this College, though 
it does not appear that he took a degree. But the tide-page 
of his Sermons announces him as late of Clare HaH, and 
Rector of St. Peter's^ in Philadelphia. He became Preacher 
of the Asykim Charity in London, and was much admired* 
He published two volumes of Sermons, on evangelical prin- 
eiples, but of a very practical tendency. 

Though my ceader may not be one, 

Qui siupct in iitulU et imaginibas— 

HoR. Sat. L. i. tL 

yet he will find I have followed the order of works of thi9 
kind, by paying the accustomed deference to men of eminent 
rank, particularly when attended with any supenor talent or 
literary merit, and shall here add two or three names to the 
list, besides those already mentioned. 

Besides Thomas Pelham Holies, the liberal-minded patron 
of literature, and whig patriot, who, it b said, diminished hia 
family estate to a great amount, in supporting the Hanover &• 
mily, and who was Chancellor of this University in 1748, 
may be mentioned Henry Clinton, ninth Duke of Newcastlei 
m 1768, who married the niece of T. P. Holies. 

Tho. Townsend, Yiscount Sydney, already noticed, was 
son of the Hon. Thomas Townsend, a retired man of much 
classical taste, and many years a member for the Umversity. 
Charles Townsend, also, the brother of George Marqui* 
Townsend, wfus of this CoUese. Charles, the celebraled 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDQE. 253 

miniater of George I., yfiih Sir Robert Walpole, wai of 
King's; but the Townsends were very numerous; and, 
if I mistake not^ more than those already mentioned were 
educated at Clare Hall. We may add, too, the Hon. 
Thomas King, son of Lord Chancellor King, so well 
known by his writings. 

All I know of Humphrey Henchman, Fellow, is what I 
learn from Bishop Godwin, that, for his services to Cha. II. 
after the battle of Worcester, he was made by him, in 1660, 
Bishop of Salisbury, and in 166^ translated to London. 
Godwin, de Prsesul. Aug. p. 358. 

Of Bishop Moore I shall be somewhat more particular, 
though it were only to speak of his library, that has been 
but incidentally mentioned before. 

John Moore, Fellow, was Bishop) of Norwich I691, and 
translated to Ely, July 1697* He waa learned, and a 
liberal patron of learned men; and, from his own knowledge 
of books, as well as with the assistance of men eminent for 
their bibliographical knowledge, he formed, when Bishop of 
Norwich, a magnificent library of books and MSS. See 
the Catalogus MSS. Angl. et Hibemia, p. 361. 

On the death of Bishop Moore, this library was offered 
for sale to the famous Earl of Oxford ; but, on his declining 
the offer, it was purchased for six thousand guineas by 
Geot I. who presented it to the University of Cambridge. 
It was properly arranged by Dr. Middleton (who about this 
time was appointed to the new office of Principal Librariaa) 
and other learned men ; and a complete Catalogue was writ- 
ten by Dr. Taylor. This library now occupies an elegant 
room, which forms the eastern part of the Public Library. 
It consists of about 30,000 volumes. Bishop Moore died 
July 31, 1714. Godwin, de Praesul. p. 277. 

Rich. Terrick, S. T. P. Residentiary of St. Paul's, is said 
to have been made Bishop of Peterborough ( 1 757), that he 
might resign his Residentiaryship in favour of Dr. Taylor, the 
editor of Demosthenes. He was translated to London 



254 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

1764. — See Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, Vol. IV. ps 

499. 

No litenuy woric of any of the above has come to my 

knowledge : — ^To the above list might be added Eaii Com- 

waliis; and a few more noble names. 



JESUS COLLEGE. 

H. Vol. IL p. 6l. tfutmery. 

The Monastery, Priory, or Nunnery (for they are syno- 
nymous) of St Radigundis, was of the Benedictine Order, 
distinguished by their black vestment. It consisted of a 
Prioress, or Abbess, and 11 Nuns. Ancient instruments, 
relating to the House, were sealed with the Image of the 
Virgin (St. Radigundis), habited in a long robe, widi a pa8<» 
toral staff in one hand, and a book in the other. A beauti- 
ful specimen of this costume may be seen, in the person of 
Etheldreda^ in Benikam^s But. of Ely. 

H. Vol. II. p. 67, 1. 3. J/cocke. 

Besides the works of Bishop Alcocke, alluded to, thete 
is a work of his, in print, " The Hill of Perfectiorij inti" 
tuledj in Latin, Mons Perfectioms/* 4to. printed at West- 
minster, by Pynson, 1501. Palmer* s General Hist, of 
Printing, p. 345. 

H. p. 61, 1. 9. Malcolm' s Endowment. 

31 S. Jts. makes it probable, that Malcolm's first foun- 
dation was in 1159, and that he confirmed and increased it 
in 1 164; though Sherman shews, that there was at the time 
a cell of Nuns in Green Croft, now called Jesus Greeiii 
and the Conunon. 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 255 



H. p. 64, 1. 12. 

Add as follows : — As Henry the Vllth gave the licence 
for founding the College, subsequent princes also invested 
it with the power of increasing their possessions. Edw. VI. 
by his Letters Patent, gave the power of placing lands in 
mortmain, for the benefit of this House, to the annual 
amount of £50. James I, gave similar Letters, and for a 
similar purpose, to the yearly value of £400, Queen Eliz. 
increased the stipends and commons of the Fellows, mak- 
ing, at the same time, some alterations in the numbers of 
Fellows and Scholars* 

H. p. 85. 

« 

Add-— John Squire, B. D. and Fellow, was a zealous 
church of England clergyman, and published Sermons 
against Popery, on one side, and Puritanism on the other. 
- Thomas Westfield, Bishop of Bristol, 1641, had been 
Fellow. Bishop Godwin says of him, Episcopalem banc 
Cathedram quam sibi 25 retro annb oblatam detractaverat, 
jam vero temporibus iniquissimis adeptus. De Praes. Ang. 
p. 566. He published Sermons, England's Face in Eng- 
land's Glass, and others, with the Title of the White Robe, 
or the Surplice vindicated. 

John Owen, consecrated Bishop of St. Asaph 16^, 
had distinguished himself by appointing sermons to be 
preached in his diocese, in the Welsh language, and in re- 
pairing and ornamenting the churches : but he was ejected 
from his bishopric by the Parliament, and died in 1651. 
Godwin, p. 644. 

He wrote a work entitled, Herod and Pilate reconciled, 
or the Concord of Papists and Sectaries against Scriptui^, 



$56 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

He wrote al^'o on the Doctrine of deposing of Kings^ and 
King-killiog. 

Bishop Williams (Griffith) was a zealous and learned ad<« 
vocate for Eptscopacj and the Rights of Kings, and was 
made Bishop of Ossory, in Ireland, 1641. He was author 
of Truth vindicated against Athebm and Profaneness, Vin- 
dicie Regum, et Jura Majestatis, with other pieces. He 
was admitted pensioner of this College July 2, 1622, and 
died in 167 1* 

H. p. 79. 

Add"-<Jobn Killingbeck, B. D. Vicar of Leeds, York- 
shire, and William Payne, D. D. Rector of St. Mary, 
Whitechapel ; each published various Sermons. Ilie latter 
died 1697. 

H. p. 79* John Beaumont. 

His Christian name was Joseph, He was author of a 
Poem, entitled Psyche; be also wrote something against 
Dr. Hen. Moor: From which, says MS. Jes. discat Lec- 
tor quantus sit Theologus, et quam Germanus Ecclesiae An- 
glicanae fitius. 

The Poem, called Psyche^ cannot be said to follow the 
simplicity of the admired Greek Platonic fable of Cupid 
and Psyche ; but is rather in the strain of Fletcher's Purple 
Island: though the latter has been sometimes given to 
Fletcher the dramatist, Psyche has been given, no less incor- 
rectly, to the other dramatic writer, Francis Beaumont. A 
second edition of this singular Poem was published at the 
University press, A. 1702, in a folio of 370 page), two 
columns in each page, the pages lai^e, and pretty closely 
printed. It was edited by his son, Charles Fletcher, M. A. 
Fellow of this College, and was written during the author's 
ejectment^ ^*/or the avoiding meer idleness; when the turbo- 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. «*7 

ieiice of the times led him to seek quiet in retirement, and 
in poetical ezercitations. 

N. B. This page is the first of a quarter of a sheet, 
ivhich was left blank a considerable time ago; and which 
must be filled up now, to complete the letter-press of four 
pages. Of these hiatuses there will be found one or two 
examples in the first volume, and another in the present. 
It was intended to insert here a few sketches, or fragments, 
of literary biography, in continuation, to bring our Cam- 
Inidge notices down more nearly to the present times : of 
auch-like sketches I had preserved several, but which, being 
in some interleaved papers, I have unfortunately mislaid, or, 
most probably, entirely bst; whether they have been left 
behind me at some lodging-house, during my frequent visits 
to Oxford and Cambridge, or have got intermingled in a 
chaos of papers, during a late removal from my apartment, 
or made part of a burnt-offering, which I have occasionally 
made, and very lately repeated, of sundry writings and 
papers : be this as it may, after so long a period, my recol- 
lections fail me; yet, though I cannot satisfy my own 
wishes, I must answer the calls of the printer; and as I 
cannot fill up the hiatus with die proper matter, I shall en- 
deavour to supply its place. 

Amidst the peculiar circumstances, under which these vo- 
lumes are published, I perceive that I can do no better 
than to present any reader, who may not have perused^my 
Address to the Subscribers to the Privileges of the Univer* 
aity, lately distributed among diem, with the following parti- 
culars. 

This Work was put to press in 1814. In the Addteu 
above-mentioned, I stated several circumstances that had 
occasionally interrupted the work, and one which, from 
nearly its commencement, had almost determined me to 
stop short. Bendes these, there was one, a new literary 
engagement, bto which I (imprudently, in reference to my 
previous work) entered. This was to supply the edition of 



%iB SiJPPL]iMSN9> TO THE 

tb« D«lipt>u^ Cl««&ici mdx sccofioto of Eidiuoofi Trual^* 
tioofl, and MSS. of them io the diff^reiil; librpfii^ ^ 
tbi0 country. T^^ occupation great! jf pccupiiad me^ »iid 
by div^ing my a,tteaUouy a^ch peq;»lf)9ied. ina« l^ .the 
fnean tinia, as Ju3t (tinted at, I, jost ^^y/eral of ii\y paperi^ 
•o .tbfUi oil Jifc^turniqg to o^ ^ambfidge business, I w«^ 
guite at a atand, while, at |he same tia»6| I was obliged U^ 
atteivd tp ti^e calls, that >^'ere regularly made VQ id% JM coom- 
qiience p£ the |ibr€#aid new eogfigeoient. 

But t9 diao^isB mattera of a nature that may seem ejc*- 
traneous^.I ahall xe^im to wb^ is belter adapted to.tbf 
place* 

In looking over aiy conliised heap of writings, tbotiyh I 
have not fouvd what J. was in quest of, I have put mjr hand 
on.feveral: mew>raiida, ,with a few t^jogr^phicnl a^id biblior 
gra|ihical . notices, nelative to Cambridge-men, at various 
periodsy both of (j^e Uuiversity and towi^, several within 
the rem^aftbfance of many^persons now living, and some. of 
mi own acquainlance. These, if life apd healthy and otber 
circumstances^ prove favourable, I may, perhaps, put togo* 
ther at my l^is^re, ai^d print in a separate volume, so that }l 
may, not necessarily be received as a tliird volupne eithjer to 
the History, or the Privileges of Cambrj^ga, unless b^ thoae 
who may. choose to consider it 9/f ''. l^^^^. I^^ Words." 
And this, perhaps^ I may .wi^. to execute oi^, a more en- 
larged scale, more after the manner of Antboi^y Do Wopd's 
Athens Oxonienses, than either of the present works. 

This is said in allusion tp the .Oxford bi«t<>rian> wnutp^ 
ness — for notwithstanding what his own Oxonians say % of 
liis doating fondness of even the deciepitude of his alma 
mater, of his complaining over the loss of ancient Bulls 
and Charters, that never existed, of his regard to hb own 
honour, and that of his College, in asserting, contrary to all 
evidence^ its superior antiquity to Univeraifty and Baliol 



« teitk's Amu of VwkntOty Oeliata, pu «•. 



HISTORY OP CAMBBIDGEL flSlI 

C^UegMf n»A ndtwithsUiidbg die AtperaioM^ omiMions, 
«iid aiarepfe«BUtioM» Moribed to bmi by .other», still his 
Alhio» OsoaicMea^ which w«f his own work, (and «bt 
tnkea itt by cofHous draughts from Mr. Twine's* MSB. as 
his Hsst4 et ADtii|t. Univars. is underMood to have been) b 
'eaecttted with as oiiich nhioteoess in detail, as industry 
Ml research; with such minnlenesS) indeed, with such a 
'oompass ef htcrary inlbnnation in those biographies, which 
he undertakes, through the several colleges oonfointly, Mrhich 
not many would have attempted in single histories of their 
particular colleges. This, however, is spoken rather of the 
length of his narratives, than of the way of his managing 
them; and without inquiring into the reasons of those who 
accuse Mr. Wood of prejudices and partialities arising from 
his high-church principles: I would add only, that while it 
may be expected of those who profess to write the history, 
or to state the sufferings, of one party in a state only, (as 
Mr. Walker, in the Sufferings of the Clergy, Mr. Neal, in 
hb History of the Puritans, and Mr. Calamy, in that of the 
Ministers ejected for Non-conformity) yet in a writer of 
University history, we have a right to look for something 
like a middle man, one who should not extravagantly exalt 
one party to the depression of another, or, in other words, 
one who should be, if that can be, in his feelings and ex- 
pressions, of no party himself. 

But to return. By those who may have perused my 
Address to the Subscribers to the Prhileges of the Unt" 
"Oersity of Cambridge, it, perhaps, may not be expected that, 
hedged round as i am with present engagements, and in- 
firmities, I shall resume my Cambridge sketches with 
much prospect of success. And, I own myself, that what 
has been said of any future design, was spoken (for in cer- 
tain cases we are apt to speak rather according to our wishes 
than our capacities) ^ith sodie suspicion of my own pow- 

* AatlNir of Aatiqailatit Acsd. Ozonleaiifl ApoloaU. Oxon. 1008. 

4 



fi60 SUPPLEMENT, &c. 

en, with «ome apprehension, that I may be overtaken in lajr 
course, and, therefore, with some regret on leaving it thos 
abruptly^ and at a time when, from particular associations, 
my inquiries were likely to prove, if not more interesting to 
others, more agreeable at least, to myself. But we are fbe 
creatures of circamstances and of necessity; and as we 
sometimes may arrive at a point which we never expected to 
reach, so we cannot, be our schemes what fheymaj, ex- 
ceed the bounds that are set us. 



ON TBI 



KISE AND PROGRESS OF PRINTING 



AT 



CAMBRIDGE; 



WITB 



A SHORT ACCOUNT OF THE BOOKS PRINTED, 



Jxhh discussion an the literary works and die learned iHen 
of a country, considered in their progressive state, must re- 
mind us of an art, to which if literature does not owe its 
birth, it is essentially indebted for its revival; and which, 
though not fundamental in particular institutions, nor pecu« 
liar to them, has proted so beneficial and ornamental in their 
advancement, as to be closely connected with their histoiy* 
It is proposed, then, to give, in the following Essay, a short 
account of the art of printing, as exercised at Cambridge, 
accompanied with that of certain books printed, and of the 
printers, from its origin to nearly the present time* 

The art of printing, next to that of alphabetic writing, 
is the most important communication ever made to the 
world ; and had it been laid in the remote ages of antiquity, 
would, no doubt, like that, have been ascribed to a divine 

tA 



4 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

Power*. The former, besides, possesses some analogief 
with the latter. The rude attempts of both were, perhaps, 
at first made on the leaves or bark of trees f ; and as the 
early discoveries were but partial, so their progress to ma- 
tnrity would necessarily be gradual. 

Add to this, the time and the place of the invention will 
admit, in both cases, of doubt; and the names of the in- 
ventors are involved in similar, though not equal, obscurity. 
The honour of the dbcovery of printing has been claimed by 
diflferent persons for Harlem, Strasburgfa, and Mentz ; and 

* What Longinus says of metre has been applied by many, and m the 
itrietest sense, to alphabetical writing: n(«iix9( ^f /uit^ov mStw, fAtr^n 
Ti »v^n» xat MTiyHa }tfxo0*^qxoror H ww( <*y aXXtir; a-vncn ro ir»T, h fxn rm 
^9f4M %ai ra|«f ittKtwo^fJvnro; Longini Fragmenta. Aulus Gellitii ascribes 
it to Mereary, the Merenrins Trismegistus, Thenth, or Thoth of the ^gyp^ 
tians j so also does Plutafeb« spealdag, indeed, as he says, after other au- 
thors, i^fxnr ii y^ofjkfjMrtxng umi fAOVfMni n/gimr vo/uki{oyrac. And in Fabricios 
(Biblioth. Ont» Tom. 1, p. 7d), may be seen the quotations from yarious 
ancieBt authors relating to the cn>Mf, rel tf^ €iS\ta y^nra t/xo rov n^ 
wmrif^ r^o'/xryi^i/y E{^v«— Vid. Plutarch; also, De Iside et Osiride. Sect 3. 

f That alphabetic writing was first made trial of on leaves and the bark 
^ trees, ig genefaUy admitted. Vide Montfaoeon^s PakBograpia Or^e, 
-U 1, p. Hi MeeraMM says the same of printfsg, 'wbo giriog the first ten- 
timony of the inventor, aa recorded by Hadrian Junius, presents his i>ax-Ku- 
tive as follows : f* That walking in a wood near the city (Harlem) as the ci- 
tizens of opolence use to do, be began at first to cut some letters upon the 
ritfd of a beech-tree; which, for fancy^ sake, bemg impressed upon paper, 
'lie printed one or two lines, as a specimen for' hie grandchildren (the sona ef 
his dauf^tev) to follow/' 9tc Speaking, aftewards, of the first obrious 4pf- 
licultj, noticed by Scriverius, viz. <« that the types are said to be maae ef 
the rind of beech, which could not be strong enough to bear the impression 
of the press, he adds, this is removed, if, insteac* of the bafk, we subati- 
tote a bough of the beech,'' Ac. Meermao^ Origines TypogmphioB. 

For a similar reaaon, the most ancient inscriptiona that lenain io-ua w^et 
necessarily be those en stone. Antiq. Asiatics! per Edm. CbishuL Ixseaii^ 
Tio SioBA. At nullum non honorem meruit, quod, bis mille et trecentam 
annos, concreditam ejus lateri tnscriptionem custodierit, qui nulla in toto 
erbe spectabilior neque genuine vitquam antii^nUtis certioribuB indlcns 
elaruit» p.a. £d< 17M 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 

aome have ascribed the origin of alphabetical writing to the 
Assyrians, others to the .Egyptians, some to the Arabians, 
and others to the Hebrews* : till at lengthy from much dark- 
's Herodotus Ascribes the iatrodiiction of it into Greece from Phieai* 
cia : *0i it ^oiTiNoi ovToi 01 ow Ke^ifjut •vixov^iuTot^ rwif t^av «< Ti^vfaioty a\Km 
9i vayroy oi}if|<rayrf( Ttturnv tw X"'^*^ '^qynyey hiaaxaXia <c rovf tXKnraSf xeu 
in Hal y^afAfjMra, yx tvrra v^ty ^Xntri, tug tfMi io»m. Nerodoti Hist. p. 309. 
Ed. Galei. It was natoral, that some writers should trace the origin of letters 
to the Egyptians^ on aecount of their hieroglyphics or symbolic writing, by 
which alphabetic writing was first modelled. Literas semper arbitror At$^- 
riu fiiisse, (says Pliny^ L. vii. C. 66) sed alii apud Agyptos a Mercnrio, 
lit GelliuSi &C. . Diodorus Sicalus (L. y.) says^ Zt/^oi /uuy tv^trai y^mfAfxarwi* 
woftt ^f ntrm ^m»«r fAmBvtritt fcc It has been claimed for the Aiabiaas 
%y some, from the names of the i^lphabetic characters that correspond to 
the implements in Arabian tents« with their animalsy as a camel, an ox, n 
cop, a spit, Stc. from which it is allowed, that some of the names of the 
Arabic letters are derived. Many hare maintained, it was communicated 
by Moses to the Israelites from Mount Sinai, lliis, howeyer, is only infe- 
rence, without any authority either from the Mosaic writings, or from Pbilo 
and Josephus : though the former had a fair opportunity of speaking on 
this subject in his treatises, ni^i Koo-^xoireM;, and Bio; Mvo-iw;; and the lat« 
ter in the first Book against Appion, in which he professedly, io this mat- 
ter, places the great superiority of the jEgyptian% Babylonians, and Phce- 
nicians, oyer the Grecians, without bringing the Hebrews (whateyer might 
be his opinion) into the comparison : Maimonides, too, in his remarkable 
obseryattons, ns Statiome Momtii Sinai, says nothing of alphabetic writ- 
ing : be says the people oply heard God's voict once, and that not in wonb, 
but iaund» ,* yocem quidem illam robustam audiyemnt, sed non dislinetio- 
stem p^Aorvm.*-— in ilia Statiooe non nisi unam yocem unfl. yice audiyernnt: 
-—The rest, he says, was beard only by Moses ; then, leaving the subject, 
he addresses his reader in this mysterious manner :— 

Tn ergo ista probe obserya et retine, quia ultra banc mensuram nemo 
potest intrare in grayissimum hoc negotium Stationis Montb SinaL Est 
enim ex Arcanis Legis, ^osq. yeritas et modus nobis sunt occulta ; nam 
simile quid neque unquam fuit, neque futurum est. More Nevocheim, 
Pan ii. C. xxxii. Ed. Buxtorf. 

Alphabetic writing (i. e. the adaptation of certain limited sounds, with 
their signs, to the exact powers of the human yoice) has presented, as to 
their origin and force, insuperable difficulties to grammarians and philoso- 
pbers. Thus Pionysius of Halicamassus, who has so nicely examined the 
powers of the Greek letters (in his xivth chap.)—'* O •} i^fxof ii uvrtn orif 
gwrtff M pa}»»( iivt«y mrt^t^f nrii vroXXiiv vafta^t niti reifL VfO (ipvy awopiaT ts 

tA S 



4 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

ness, Pliny thought he had struck out a little light— ex quo 
apparet atemus literarum usub*". 

We are scarcely allowed, by some writers, to consider al- 
phabetic writing as of human contrivance i* ; but with re- 
spect to the characters themselves, the Samaritan^ the 
Hebrew, the Syriac, and the Greek, their elemental, are 
kindred, sounds ; they are of the same origin, and possess 
nearly j: the same names :--a harmony similar to which has 
been observed in the dialects of several northern § nations, 
though of a form and construction somewhat different : and 
with respect to printing, whether on blocks, or moveable 
metal types, the primary powers and essential uses are the 
same, though the mechanical process somewhat differs : of 
letters, at least among the Greeks, the communication is 

v^yfAM. De Structura Orationis, Different nations have difiercnt alpha* 
hets, and some varieties in their number of letters, but such varieties are 
no differences of sounds ; the essential sounds are in perfect harmony with 
the powers and limits of the human voice ; and we may at least say of al- 
phabetic writing what Longinus says of metre — AXX* urt vm rwy fjurfu/f n 
^tvpntf tin Muffnf w^tfjut nJaKaiaf^ cxarrpoy t^ii iu$\»g' e^p•x»ia (xn ya» yffa t^» 

Tt]V ya^ aOi^qy Vttvnc ortxXatfr'ay^fwaroi, 
HTi; axuoyriiFa-i itwrarn apf ixjcXfirat. 

Inter Pragmenta, p. 2C4. Ed. Tearcit. 

♦ Nat. Hist. Lib. 7, Cap. 66. 

f The author of '^ Conjectural Observations on the Origin and Progress 
of Alphabetic Writings," A. 1772, who professes^ in some particulars, to 
follow Dr. Gregory Sharpe (in the origin, &c. of languages) takes much 
pains to esUblish this theory j and Dr. Hartley, though in his usual modest 
way, supports the same hypothesis, in his Observations on Man, VoL 1 ; 
and Mr. WakeEeld, at an early period of life, viz. in 1784, defended th« 
same view of the subject, in an Essay on the Origin of Alphabetic Charac- 
ters. 

i Some speak more generally : I have spoken with some limit, on ac- 
<:ount of what Herodotus says, speaking of the Athenians — roitri xai awa>- 

TO? ^u9fMf run y^tifJifJtiilvy. 

§ Hickes Septent. Ling. Sheringham De Angl. Gentis Orig. cap. xi. an4 
Wbiter>s Pref. to EtymoL Magnum* 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 

known to have been by parts, six being derived from Cad- 
mus *, four from Pakmedest^ and four from Simonides; till, 
at length, they got the 24 characters complete : and it was 
after various experiments made by different hands, that print- 
ing arrived to its present perfection. 

I have been insensibly drawn into this little tour of obser* 
ration from homage to the Genius of Printing, to that Ge- 
nius, who, if not the parent, has been so essentially the pa* 
tron and the guide, of science ; and to express that homage^ 
will not be thought foreign to an undertaking like the pre- 
sent. For, though some of the analogies between alphabe- 
tical writing and- printing are accidental, and may, periiaps, 
be accounted fanciful, yet there is one which is real and 
striking, and absorbs every other con$ideration, which is, 
that both have been the medium for, an; easy introduction, 
and a liberal communication, of philosophy; both contrii- 
buted to a transfusion of the arts^ which have been highly 
beneficial to society, and promoted human happiness ; emi- 
nently exemplifying the rule, by which all that is truly valu- 
able should be estimated^; so that the Romans, aptly 
enough, had their Hermathaenae, Statues of Mercuiy and 
Minerva joined together, sacrifices to Mercury and Mi* 

• It wai not thought necessary to notice the distinction between the Pe- 
lasgic and Cadmeian letters ; because the author of the Dissertatio de Pris- 
«i» Orseomm ac Latinoram Literis, subjoined to Montfaucon's Paleogra* 
phfa Orcca, and Montfaucon himself, admit, that though the Pelasgio pre- 
ceded the Cadmeian, yet that the modem Greek letters were derived from 
those of Cadmus and the Phoenicians. 

•f- So Herodotus; though Euripides makes Palamedes ascribe to himself 
alone the whole alphabet, together with the arrangement of syllables, in 
short, the use of letters, 

E^tv^ov avO^mtQttrt yp»|ui^T* u^itau Euripidis Fragmenta. 

} De virtute disserunt, ac Toluptate, sed omnium prima est ac princeps 
controveiaia, quanam in re, nn4, pluribusve, sitam hominis felicitatem pu- 
tent. Mori Utopia^ Lib. ii. Dt perigrmaihnt ITfo^ifnsivm,— Jt is iq a coursa 



SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

n^va being offered on the same altar : and; according to tbe 
analogy mentioned above, alphabetic writing and printiiig 
are eminently sister-arts^ conjointly engaged in the same ser- 
vice^ and both entitled to the most honourable acknow- 
ledgments in this place. 

Let us now confine ourselves to the subject of onr Essay. 

Mons. Crevier^ in his History of the University of Paris, 
observes, that Mayence, Strasbourg, and Harlem, had^ for 
aome time, disputed the honour of the inventioi^ of printin|^ 
yet so, that till that time almost all the learned had agreed to 
allow it to Mentz; but that in 1740 Mons. Schepflui, who 
was then of the University of Paris, in a memorial read be- 
fore die Academy of Inscriptions and Belles Lettres, de* 
fended the claims of his country (Strasbourg) and by such 
new prooft, that he did not see how we could help dividing 
ihe claim between Strasbourg and Mentz, by giving the firat 
essay of the art, in its more gross state, to Strasbourg^ and 
its perfection to Mayence*--*Crevier does not menfioB 
Hariem, as having any claim, at leas^ as making any part 
in the memorial of SchepjQin — and, long before, in an edition 
of Livy, 1518, printed by Schoefer, Faost's 8on-in4aw^ 
the invention is given to Mentz, as well in a patent to the 
printer, by the Emperor, and the Dedication of Ulrich Hat- 
ten, as in an Episde by the editors, and in Erasmus's Pre- 
fatory Address ; and it has been observed that Erasmus, a 
learned Dutchman, would never have given his opinion 
isgainst his own country, hs^d its claim rested on the smallest 
authority. 

Yet, after all, these learned men have not been sufficiently 
provided with their, distinguendum est. Meerman proves^ 
beyond the shadow of a doubt, that Harlem had wooden 
beechfsn types, and that Laurentius printed bopks with them, 

fit such-like reflections that Sir Thomas More remarks— ^Utopiensium itai|. 
cxercitata Uteris ingenia mire Talent ad inventiones artiiun, quae facinnt 
•liquiil ad commoda tita compendia. Sed duas tam^ debent nobis, Chde^' 
gr^horum et facifinda charta, &c. 
* Hist de PUoireptttc de Paris, Tom. i?. p. 027. 



HI8T0EY OF CAMBRIDGE. 

before metal moveable types were introduced at Ifentc **, 
or any book priDted there ; that after metal types were intro* 
ducedy the improvement was so considerable, aad the work 
wrought on them so complete, that the others, on blocks, 
and moveable wooden types, were overlooked and slighted, 
or perhaps scarcely known to have been : hence an after- 
improvement obtained the name of an invention t, and he 
who first printed with metal types was called the first print- 
er j;. As to Strasbourg, Meerman observes, there is no 
certain proof of a single book being printed there, till the 
dispersion of tlie printers in 1562. 

But to whichever of these three countries, and on what« 
ever ground, the crown of distinction, the honour of the 
first invention of printing, b conferred, and in whatever 
year it is dated, that it was introduced in die University of 
Paris in 1470 1, there is no doubt : the first printed book 
dated at Oxford u of 1468 or 1473 1| ; but the first at the 
University of Cambridge not till 1521. 

* In his Orifenes Typogmph!c9y •• statad in Ssaay And^ in Bowy«r^ 
and NicbolB's ** Origin of Printing) with Occnsiooml Remnrks.'' 

f Lord Baoon well obserres : Oeneraliter antem et ndgo, in Operibnt 
Mechanicit habentur pro novis Inyentisi si quia jampridem invanta sobiilU 
us poliat, yd ornet elegantiusy yel simal nniat et oomponatt yel cnn usn 
eommodins oopulet, ant <^aB migore* aut etiam minore, qoam fieri oonsae* 
yity mole yel yolamine exhibeat, et Similia. Noynm Organnra, L. I. 
Izxxviii. 

X " This twofold inyention of printing is what no one his observed befbre 
** Mr. Meerman^ and yet clears np all the dispntes between HarleiBi and 
** Mentz ; the first, with separate wooden types at Harlein, by Lanran* 
^ tiiisy about 1490, and after continued by his Atmily ; the other, with me* 
** ul types, first cut, and afterwards cast, which were inyented at MentSi 
M but not used in Holland, till brought thither by Theodore Martens at 
« Alost" Origin of Printing, by Bowyer and Niebots, p. 34.— The flnt 
book printed with a date (the Greek Ptalter) was at Mentn, 1468. 

f L' Annee I4V0 eit Marquee par un grand et illustre eyenemenl dans la 
IHterature, et ties glorieux a notre unfyersiie. O'estPlntrodaettOB del'art 
da PImprinerie en Prance et dans Paris. Hist, de Uniy. de Paris, Cievier, 
torn. iy. p. 936, 

n Sancti Hieronyokl Bxpositlo in Symbohim Apostolemniy 4tow 1406: 
Dr. Middleton undertook to shew, and thought he had ataaost proyed, thai 



g SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

For the earlier period of introducing printing at Oxford, 
and the later at Cambridge, we shall be found in harmony 
with the Oxford historian*; but, likewise, that we maj 
not be thought to keep suspicious company, with a late 
learned Librarian of Cambridge +. And as Dr. Middleton 
aimed to do credit to his-office (having been just before ap- 
pointed University-Librarian), and could never have thought 
that the best way to effect that was to do injustice to the 
University, as he was possessed of such opportunities for 
inquiry, and such motives for pursuing them, he would, no 
doubt, have brought forward his earlier dates, could they, 
with any shadow of evidence, have been produced. We 
may then fairly conclude, there is no authentic testimony of 
any book being printed at Cambridge till the year 1521. 

Mr. George North, formerly $ of Beue't College, an an- 
tiquary of some repute, thought he had made a discovery of 
a book printed at Cambridge as early as 1478 § ; for, if his 

the date 1468 was falsified originally by the printer, either by design or 
mistake, and that an X had been dropped or omitted io the date of the im- 
pression, which ought to have been 1478, DifserUtioo concerning the Ori^ 
gin of Printing in England, pp. 7, 8. But his opioion was founded on con- 
jectuie, not on certain facU ; and, though bis conjecture was ingenious^ 
and maintained with an air of plausibility, yet the weight of argument 
against it in Bowyer's Origin of Printing, p. 23, is strong ; so tbat 146a 
is probably the true date, after all. . 

* Wood's Hist, et Antiq. Oxon. Lib. i. p. 36, 

f Dr. Middleton. 

t See Vol. ii. pp. 128, 129, of our History of the University andCoU 
legea of Cambridge. 

§ In Herbert's Edit, of Ames's Typographical Antiquities, VoL iii. p. 1410, 
the date is, as it no doubt should be^ 1478. The Letter and Reply may be 
seen in Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, Vol. v. pp.43], 432; where the date 
k 141 8 ; which, though repeated two or three times, must be an error of the 
press, one of the very few to be found in that work. For it is impossible 
that Mr. North should have supposed he had discovered a booh printed so 
long, on every hypothesis, before the invention pf printing, as 1418; nn-r 
Ices, indeed, be put up with thpse false dates, originally given, either by 
misUke or fraud, by printers, as that of J. Koelhoff, who d^tes one of his 
books MXCCC, where, it is well knowUt 0|^e C is omU^i for Koelhoff did 
ffot begin to print till about 1470. 






HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. d 

Letter on the supposed discovery contained his complete 
meaning, and that it did, Dr. Ames's Reply to it clearly 
shews, he must have confounded, in an absent moment, com- 
pilatum with impressum, or excusum* 

Yet this discovery excited not only the surprise, but the 
triumph, of Mr. North himself. '^ If this discovery/' says 
he, in his Letter to Ames, .'' proves new (o you, I must be- 
speak its being inserted in your book, that this University 
may not for the future be so triumphed over by her Sister, 
^ Oxford, on the false notion of being so very late before 
'^ she had the useful art of printing.'* 

This printed book, of which Mr. North speaks, is a Co- 
dex impressus, in folio : it is among the MSS. given by Arch- 
bishop Parker to Bene't College * ; it was compiled at Cam- 
bridge, in 1478, and printed at St. Alban's in 1480. The 
complete colophon of the book printed^ as given by Ames, 
from a copy in the possession of Dr. Mead, is as follows — 
Rhetorica Nova Fratris Laurentii Gulielmi de Saond Ordinis 
Minorum. Compilatum autem fuit hoc opus in alm& Univer- 
sitate Can tabrigie Anno Domini 1478^ Die et 6 Julii : quo die 
festum Sanctae Marthas recolitur sub protectione Serenissimi 
Regis Anglorum Edwardi quart! . Impressum fuit hoc 
prtRsens opus Rhetorice facultatis apud Villam Sancti Al- 
bani Anno Domim 1480t* There is no authority for say- 
ing' this work was printed at Cambridge;^, but what is 
grounded on the mistake just mentioned : there is no notice 
of any thing like a printing-house till many years after ; and 
this book was certainly never printed there at all. 

Of the Origin and Progress of Printing 'in England, in 
general, it is not necessary now to speak. Caxton is spoken 

* It 10 Dumbered io Nainuth's Catalogue CCCLL 

f An edition had been printed h^ort at Paris. 

X There was, as Dr. Middleton observes^ a copy of this rare book in Uie 
Public Library, but it iras stolen from it. Vid. Catal. MSS. Angl. et Hib. 
p. 391 1 Append, ai contained there among Bishop More'i MSS. and bool^s. 



10 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

of, by most, as die first who practised it beie*. Mr. Car- 
ter says, he was a Cambridgeshire man, and took his name 
from Caxton, in Cambridgeshire (Dr. Fuller, from Caxton, 
in Hertfoidshire — some error of the press, I suppose), and 
adds, that he might have erected a press at Cambridge, un- 
d^r the care of one of his servants. But, without pro* 
ducing odier reasons against the assertion of Caxton's being 
a Cambridgeahira man, his own testimony ia sufficient ; " la 
Fraunce was t never, and was bom and lemed myne E!ng<- 
lish in Kenty in the Weeld, where English is spoken brood 
and rudef." The fancy of his possiUy erecting a printing 

• Dr. Middleton's DhserUtioo. 

Tt is, indeed, rather eictraordinary that Dr. Uiddletoa ahotild not, m 
this '< Dissertation on the Or. of Print in England," though it had been onljr 
incidentaUy , hare said more of the state of the ptesa at Canbildga : yei 
he says enough to manifest that he had no belief that printing waa of a 'very 
early date there. Speaking of the Rbetorica Nova, he says, ^ The same 
*^ book is mentioned by Mr. Strype, among those given by Arclibishop 
*^ Parker to Corpus Christi College, in Cambridge; bnt the words, Compi* 
« lata in Universitate Cantabrigie hare drawn the learned antiquary into 
^' the mistake of imagining that it was printed also in that year at onr I7ni« 
'< versity, and <^ doing us the honour qf remtrkhig vpon t/ ; so ancient was 
" Printing at Cambridge.'* Life Abp. p. 16, by Strype, pp.6l9.'> See Mid- 
dleton's Dissertation, &c. p. 14. He enumerates six or teoen books (the last 
haviogno date) printed at Oxford, down to the year IdOO, p. 10. 

The principal aim of Middleton is, to shew, that Caxton was the earliest 
printer in Eoglaud ; though some still think he has failed, and that Corselies 
was the first, at Oxford, lliis is maintained by Palmer, on the authority 
of an ancient Record, which Middleton proclaimed to be a fbrgery \ but its 
authenticity is supported by Bowyer. 

f From his own Preface, to the Recale of the Historyesof Troye, trans- 
lated by Caxton, from the French. Having remarked the error noticed 
above, with respect to the birth-place of Caxton, I am led (though it is tra- 
velling out of tbe Record) to correct another with respect to the year of his 
death. Middleton places it in 1494^ and adds, '< in which year he died, not 
^ in th« year following, as all who write of him affirm." Now, though 
there does not appear to have been any memorial of him in St'Margaret*t 
Churchy Westminster, which was much re-edified in the reign of Edward IV. 



HISTORY OP CAMBRIDGE. II 

press at 'Cambridge is equally without foundation, as we 
iiave already seen is that about the first printed book at Cam- 

(W€€vorU Funeral Monumenttj p, 269); yet the Accompte of the Wardens • 

of that Church (Caxton had lived iii the parish), beginning 27 May, 1490, 

aad ending 3d of June, 1492, contains the following itemi : — 

t. d 

Item, also bureyi'ng of William Caxton for iiij torches ti riii 

Item, for the belle atte the same bureynge ..» ,. ... vi 

so that Caxton must have died before either Uie year 1494 or 1495, some 
time before the 3d of June, 1492. The verses at the end of Hilton't Sc^te 
qf Perfection f quoted by Middleton, to prove the date 1494, proves directly 
against him : 

Infynite laud with thankynges many foMe 

I yelde to God me socouryng with his grace v 

This Boke to finysfae which that ye heholde 

ScaU qf Perfection calde in every place 
Whereof the Auctor Walter Hilton was 

And tVynkyn de Wmde thu hath uU in print 
In WilUam CmtWiU ktm so fy 11 the case, 

God rest his iomfe. In joy ther mot it stynt. 

Impreistts Anno Salntis MCCCCLXXXXIV. 



' We see that Caxton was then dead (as, God rest kit som/, implies) ; and 
Wynkyn de Worde, who had been bis journeyman, and became his snc« 
cessor, sett it in prints in Caxlon^s hows, where Wynkyn de Worde continued 
to print till he removed to St Bride*s, Fleet Street (see Palmer, p. 312), 
and the first impression there done, says Palmer, was A. 1503. And here, 
by the bye, if Middleton*sdate of Hilton's Perfection ( 149 1) is correct, p. 21, 
(and Maittaire gives the same) Palmer's (1495) must be wrong, p. 344; and 
be confesses he had never met with the book himself. Of Caxton's books, 
enumerated by Middleton, at being in the Pub. lib. Cambridge, the latest 
is of the date 1493; and Hilton's book is not mentioned. If Wynkyn 
dt Worde printed Hilton in 1496,'as mentioned by Palmer, that impression 
by the same de Worde, made in the Hows of Caxton, must have been a se- 
cond, though Palmer's date 1495 should most probably be 1494*. 

Middleton puts two books among Caxton's, in the Pub. Lib. of the date 
1493; but he supposes, with respect to the first, from the inconsistent 
account of the date of it, that an X must have been added by mis- 
take on a second edition, printed with the same Colophon, though with a 
different date : with respect to the other book, it is not said to be emprinted, 
but only translated out of the French ; though It afterwards appears that 

# 1465 in Palmer mst be an error of the press for 1495. 



12 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

bridge in 1478. Caxton settUd as a printer at Westmin- 
ster, where he continued printing from^about the year 1470 
to I49i> as is generally said (but see the preceding page), 
and was buried at Westminster*. Of all the books 
printed by him, of most of which there are copies in the 
University Library, not one was printed at Cambridge f; 
and what is no less worthy of remark, the first book put 
forth, in usum Cantabrigiae, was printed by Winand, or 
Wynkyn de Worde, in IdlOjI, in London, and an early 
printed book of the greatest note at the time, written by one 
of our Cambridge Doctors, was printed at Oxford ^. 

It is said by a writer ||, in speaking of the date (1478) of 

the person who translated it, caused it to be printed ; and as Caxton mj^ ht 
have begun printing it, it carries the mark of J. C. though Worde may 
have finished it. 

* Palmer's History of Printing, Appendix. 

f See a Catalogue of Books printed by Caxton, which are in the Public 
Library at Cambridge, subjoined to Middleton*s Dissert, on the Or. of Print- 
ing in England. 

I Robert! Allyngtoni Oxonietksis Sophismata cum consequentiis : in Usum 
Scholas Cantabrigiensis An. Doro. 1510. 

$ Lyndewood's Provinciale, seu Constitutiones Anglise. There were two 
editions of this work printed at Oxford, one in 1664, the other in 1679 ; one 
also, at Paris in 1606, and one still earlier at London. 

II Herbert Ames, vol. iii. p. 1410. It is there said, '< in this famona Uni- 
" Tersity they received the art of printing among them coofi, though 
** which was their first book is difficult to ascertain, or who ^ere tbeper> 
** sons that brought it there;" and in the notes we are directed to Hist, and 
Antiq. Oxon. Lib. i. p. 228. 

How this can possibly be asserted by the writer, exceeds my com- 
prehension. Wood, \n the passage referred to, asserts the direct con- 
trary. He assigns the order of the ^reception of printing in some other 
parts of England— Oxford — Westminster — St. Alban's — Worcester — ^well 
enough — but when, last qf all, he speaks of Cambridge, he says — Canta- 
brigiae quis primum cam detulit, haareo : non solum enim nullum veterem 
oodicem anliquittu illie calcographicis donatum characteribus kaeUnus re- 
peri, &c." He goes on to shew, that the Rhetorica Nova, though teriUem 
and composed at Cambridge, was published (Jirtt) at Paris A. CIdCDLXXX, 
and the book in usum Scbols CanUbrigiensis at London ClaDX; «Noa 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. IS 

this imaginary Cambridge-printed book*— Time will probably 
discover more. Time will be'a cunning felloW; if be does ; 
when Dn Ames himself does not attempt to produce the 
name of any printer, till John Sibert, 15£1. 

John Sibert, or Siburch, had been a printer at Lyons, as 
appears by a printed book of his in the Public Library at 
Cambridge, Arte Impressoria Lugdun:'per Magistrum Jo« 
annem Sibert, A. 14QS. He styles himself the first in Eng- 
land who printed both in Greek and Latin ; and Greek let- 
ter is often interspersed in his books, though it does not ap- 
pear that he printed any entire work in the Greek language. 
It seems, from a Letter of Erasmus's to Aldrice, or A1- 
drich, (afterwards Bishop of Carlisle) that there were two 
Siberts, who were brothers and partners; Saluta mihi veteres 
Sodales, Nicolaum et Joannem Seburgum, Bibliopolas. 
Dat. Basilite 25 Dec. An. 1526. 

Sibert was accustomed to engrave in his books the king's 
arms ; and most of them have at the end, apud prssclaram 
Cantabrigiensem Academiam, or, ex praeclarft Cantabrigifi, 
cum Gratis et Privilegio. 

Palmer says, correctly enough, that this University seems 
to have given but small encouragement to the art of Print- 
ing, either by the earliness of its reception, or the continu- 
ance of it there; but seems to have been unfortunate in 
his inquiries, when ^' after all his correspondence from thence, 
he could only find four editions,'' all printed in the same year 
(15£]) by Sibert, with his name, and one probably by him, 
though without his^name, of the date 1522. Ames was 
more successful^ who gives nine books to this printer at 
Cambridge. 

The first book on Palmer's List of Books printed by Si« 
bert, is Erasmus's Libellus de Conscribendis Epistolis, an 
excellent work, how hastily soever written. Erasmus, in an 

llUe CanUhrigidf, (quod ezpecttndam 9i modo typographica an tarn cHo JUm 
f ^iiwl nc«pt«. 



U SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

Epistle to Nicokus , Beraldus, dated June MDXXII« 
complains bitterly of tbb book's being printed in England 
without his consent, and as having hb most decided disap- 
probation. I know of no other edition but Sibert's, of 
I52ly that could have been then printed^ before June 1522, 
and indeed Sibert proclaims it to be the first edition- 
mine primum prodit in Lucem An MDXXI, Mense Oc* 
tobri — ^so that either his old friend Sibert must have plajed a 
bookseller's trick most disgusting to him ;— verum^ ut video, 
he says, nihil jam pudet typographos — or Erasmus himself 
played off a Ktde of the mock modesty of an author, in his 
expreisionB of disapprobation. 

The books first printed in England corresponded, as we 
might suppose they would, with the genius and literature of 
the times. Gaston's were principally old Histories, Chro* 
nicies, and Legends, some of them translations from the 
Latin and French, with two or three translations of the La« 
tin Classics, and of our old English Poets : those of his 
journeyman and successor, Wynkyn, or Winand de Worde, 
were much in the same taste, except, perhaps^ with a little 
more of Latin Classics, and Grammatical Treatises and 
Poetry of his own time. The books printed at Oxford, be« 
iog about nine in number, were all in Latin, as were those 
at Cambridge (with the exception of one)^ by Sibert, and 
corresponded, in like manner^ with the prevailing taste of 
the University at the period ; but it would not be appositely 
said, as I think Palmer apeaks, '^ that our printers contented 
themselves with printing in their own tongue,, and if th^ 
ventured sometimes either upon Latin or French, that their 
productions were few and inconsiderable"— on runnii^ the 
eye, indeed, over any bibliographical work, such as Dr. 
Harwood's View of Greek and Roman Classics, or Mr. 
Dibdin's Introduction to rare and valuable Edition^, we dbaU 
find no fine editions, either from Oxford or Cambridge, the art 
being as yet so far inferior there to what it was on the conti* 
nent;^i^till we should speak too generally $ for though Gas* 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 15 

Ion's prodactioDs were principally in English, as most of the 
odieia were, atill several of them were at least translations 
lirom the Frenchi and from the Latin Classics * : but, with 
respect to Oxford and Cambridge, with the exception of 
one in the latter place, all were in Latin, and some of a 
character not to be called inconsiderable. With regard to 
Greek, indeed, no entire work, as already observed, was printed 
by Sibert, in that language : as to* Hebrew, or other East- 
em language^ tfiere were, as yet, no types in any of those 
languages in England. 

All Sibert's books appeared between 1521 and 1522. 
'From that period, if printers had not ceased to exist in 
Cambridge, they seem to have shut up shop. In what year 
Sibert died I do not know; but Thomas Thomasius became 
the licensed printer May, 3, 1582 ; though no book was 
printed here from between 1522 and 1584. There was also 
a similar interruption to the press at Oxford; viz. from be- 
tween 1519 to 1585, and to some others in different parts of 
-England. At St. Alban's, where one of the first presses 
was set up in England, there vras a cessation from printing 
■for 50 years. We, indeed, hear mention incidentally made of 
die name of Segar, as a bookseller of Cambridge, who was 
confined for hereeye, ae noticed in Sir Thomas More's Apo- 
logy, p. 1200 (quoted by Ames), though of books printed 
by him, or for him, there is no account. And what may 
seem more remarkaUe, there are letters patent, bearing date 
the 26th of Hen. VIIL authorizing the University to ap* 
-point three stationers, printers, or sellers of books, either 
natives of England or foreigQers, under the Chancellor and 
University, with particular privileges f — yet with a mere ca- 

* He printed too one book| foItOj in Latin, and .Worde Moribei to him 
•anollBf. Middleton, p. 28. 

f The ebo?e Heenee, lo far as relates to foreigners, refers to 29 1tic.8^ 
^ 9, in wideb an act pasted, restraining aliens from using any handicrafts, 
(exeapi at servants to^ natives) bat with this proviso, that aKens, however, 
aiiffbt bring in written or printed boolcs, so as to sell them, and to' exercise 



16 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

pacity, and nothing done; for they appear to have acted 
inere]y in the character of stationers and booksellers, and 
there is no account of a University*printing-office till some 
years after. 

For the slow utterance of printing at first, and for its long 
silence afterwards/ different reasons have been assigned. 
The Civil Wars under Hen. VI. and Edw. IV. are said to 
have been unfavourable to it at the be^^nning. To account 
for its subsequent condition, Mr. Baker somewhere remarksp 
that Wolsey, when he became Abbot of St. Albans, had ex- 
pressed his disapprobation of printing, holding out, that if 
they did not suppress printing, printing would be fatal to the 
church. 

The Stationers Company, too, we are told, seized the 
Cambridge press, in some dispute about their powers and 
interc^st, notwithstanding the privileges granted to it by 
Hen. Vin. 

Without stopping to inquire how far any of the above rea- 
sons may account for the slow progress of the art at Cam- 
bridge, suffice it to have mentioned a fact which must ap- 
pear remarkable. And here, to the reasons just ass^ned, 
why Cambridge could boast none of those magical Greek 
books*, which still, as at first, are so captivating to Book- 
collectors, it may be in place to add one, why she could 
not possibly share the glory ascribed to the printers of die 
first Hebrew Bibles and Polyglotts of the beginning and 
middle of the l6tli century. It does not appear, though 
. Hebrew printing was very early elsewhere, and almost per- 

t 

k ft 

the art, at tiieir pleasure, notwithstanding this act. Hence, by the eocou- 

ragementOT Buccessive monarchs, the English grew as excellent printersy 

as foreigoen, and numerous, and then Hen. VIII. 20^. cap. 15, abrogated 

the prQviso, for that reason. 

* Bien general on peu dire que, pour tout amateur un peu cele, la ren- 

«ontfe d'un beau volume d'Alde est une bonne fortune, qui> auivaot le mot 

tret spirituel de Mirabeau a PAbbe de Saint Leger, le rend keureuxpour irm 

Jowt, Supplement anz Anoal, de PImprim. des Aide. Par Benonaid. 
Preface. 



HI$TOBy OF CAMBRIDGE. ?7 

/fluted 98 800D 98 Greek ^9 that any Hebrew tj^pes yrere in 
JEoglaDd till ^fter the year 1584. For when Mr. Robert 
Wakefield, who faad been of Cambridge, and afterwards 
^ve Hebrew Lectures fit Oxford f, published his Oration j: 
jm the Utility of the Hebrew and Arabic Languages, though 
it was printed by Wynkyn de Worde, one of the first print- 
jecs in £urope, yet a third of it was omitted, as the wiiter 
himself observes in his Dedication to the King, for want of 
jpebrew types. 

Palmer, so well acquainted with these matters, speakine 
.qf this oration, remarks, *' that it is very probable theiiie 
^' were no Hebrew types as yet in England, since nothing 
** of that nature had been attempted, that ever he could hoar 
'' of; no doubt, continues Palmer, this author made in- 
" qwy, whether any such types were in England be/ore hje 
'' resolv|sd to let it go maimed of its b^st and most curious 
** ptrts. I haji^e seen this book, and find the Anibic and 
" Hisbrew .types cut on wood §•" 

But to proceed in our narrative. 

Thomas Thomasius, we have seen, was licensed in 
U62, and was sole printer; for there was an order of Coun- 
cil sent forth, in Queen Elizabeth's reign, that there should 
be only 30 prinUng^houses in the cities of London and 
Westminster, smmI one at each of the Universities. 

Thomas had be^n a Universi^-man, Fellow of King's 
Cojllegie^ and proceeded A.M. Having lived in Furitaa 
times, 9fid printed many Puritan books, particularly some 

* Soc Dr. Konnicotty io his Ton Annual Accounts of tiie GoUatipa of 
Hebrew. MSS. p. 112. 

f Wood's Athea. Oxon. vol. i. p. 4^— Robert Wakefield was, perbafl^ 
the most learned man of the age in Oriental literature. Dr. Fuller (Hist. 
Camb. p. 125) s^ems to have confounded him with his brother, Thomoii for 
the lailer was Hebrew Pro/e$sor at Cambridge, 

i Koberti Wakefield de Utilitate Ung. Arab, et Uebr. 4to. 1524 
f Biit. «f Printips, p. 348. 

tB 



18 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

of Cartwright's^ Travers's, and Whitaker's Mrridng, and the 
Harmonia Confessionum (once so famous^ now so rare)^ be 
has been called the Puritan printer*. He was himself too 
an author of no mean account. He compiled and trans- 
lated, particularly the Harmonia Confessionum, just men- 
tioned; and his Dictionary, first published in 1580, was 
held in great estimation, till superseded by one more com- 
plete. 

Thomas's Dictionary went through five impressions m 
eight years, and, according to the editors of Stephens's La- 
tin Thesaurus, bore in all fourteen. The first edition be- 
came so scarce, that even Ainsworth says (in the English 
Preface to the first edition of his Dictionary, omitted in the 
other editions), that he had not been able to procure the 
fight of it. To the tenth was first added, together with im- 
provements by John Legate, a Supplement, by Philemoii 
Holland, containing some thousand new words to the Latin 
part, with a new English-Latin Dictionary. Thb Dictio- 
nary by Thomas is dedicated to Sir William Cecil, and, ac- 
cording to Legate, his successor, he devoted himself to 
painfully to the compiling of it, that he brought on a disease 
that proved his death. He died Aug. 9, 1588, and John 
Legate was appointed the November following. 

Legate, besides the various editions of Thomas's Dictio- 
nary, with his own additions, produced Cicero's Book de 
Oratore, and Eratosthenes, or brevis et luculenta Defensio 
Lysiae pro caede Eratosthenis. He also printed Prselecti- 
ones Gulielmi Whitakeri, and Perkins's Problema de Roma- 
ns Fide. Some of his English books have this peculiarity 
prefixed to them, « printed by Am, printer to the University." 
He was the first who prefixed to his books^ Alma Mater 
Cantabrigise, and, hinc Lucem et Pocula Sacra, He died in 
1626. His son, having obtained a licence for printing 

* See Strype'8 Annah, Vol. III. p. 442, as quoted; Herbert's AmeSp 
Vol. ni. p. 1417 . g|5Q Martin Marprelate's First Epistle (as quoted byth* 
■B«e), dedicated to the Convocation-House j ^< which Hannonie was 
J«ted and printed by that Poritftn Cambridge printer,'' *c 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 19 

Tbonias's Dictionary, settled in London ; Cantrell Legate 
succeeded at Cambridge as the University printer in 1608> 
who was succeeded, a short time afterwards, by Thomas 
Buck and Roger Daniel, who were in partnership. John 
Legate, the father, resigned in IdO?} though he did not die 
till 1&26* Buck and Daniel continued in partnership till 
1653, when the latter resigned; and Buck continued in the 
office there till 1653, when he also resigned, though, ac- 
cording to Carter, he did not die till 1688. 

The neKt* work that 1 shall mention, as printed by Da« 
luel and Buck, while in partnership, was, Theodori Bezas 
Novum Testamentum, in Greek and Latin, a work of consi- 
derable magnitude, and of excellent typography ; folio, 1652. 

Calvin and Beza were both pastors of a church in Ge« 
neva. The former wrote a Latin Commentary on a Latin 
Text of the New Testament Beza's also was a Latin 
Text, accompanied with the Greek Text of Stephehs.-*- 
When Scaliger exclaimed of Calvin, Solus Calvinus in The- 
ologis! he must surely have alluded to his doctrines, both 
Calvin and Beza being rather doctrinal, than critical, exposi- 
tors. Griesbach, after conceding that Beza enjoyed some 
advantages beyond former expositors, adds, Hisce admoni* 
culis non ita usus est, uti potuisset, et debuisset ; and after 
proofs of his negligence and levity, asks, Quid vero expec- 
tari potest a critico, qui criseos suae instrumenta nunquam 
accurate examinavitf Prolegomena ad Novum Testament 
turn Grace, pp. 31^ 32. Mill charges him with making use 
of different readings, collected by R. and H. Stephens, 
more for the purpose of establishing his own hypotheses, than 
settling the genuine text Millii Prolegom. ad Nov. Test 
p. 131, where he gives his proofs for the time, and returns 
to his work in adodier place. All our other ablest critics 
bear the same testimony. See Michaelis, Wetstein, Marsh, 
&c. according to the references m Dibdin, p. 50. ed. S. 

« SonetluBs is omitted here, that wUl be instited «t Um sad of tbit Essay. 

tB « 



126 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

Be^'6 Teit LectiofiiB hodie refcepw Parens pvMaur. 
Griesbach: and I have been thus mhAite; ttdt for the purpose 
of under-rating Beza's sagacity and lealning, btit of abeir- 
ing the sltate of biblical criticidto^ in hh fktne, nt Oeaeva^ 
(f* Sed hoc s^cum ferebat istorum tempomra ratio «tqiie con* 
anettido:'' Oriesbadi.) and of 'Are state of Kbliographj at 
Camfondgie* 

Of Beza's Testament there are four ^dkions^ 6iree Greek 
and Latin, one only in Latin, printed ttt Geneva. The 
Ndtes of Camerarios, which had been pnUhshed %efbre at 
Leipsic, accoxtapany thie Can/bridge edition, which tnw 
]>rinted in 1642, and ib considered Ae editio &pihna, a large 
finely fninted book. So that nve may now consider the 
Gambridge pr^^ as ptrtting in for a share of the first honours 
in printing. 

The name of Buck is well known in tih^ tiirtory of liie 
Vniversity, and tome account has been elsewhere given of 
Sttck^ Bo6k, though ho^ far the two Backs were retated I 
kno^ not. Bndk, the printer, had been of CMharine Hall» 
«nd left legacies to it, according to Cer^, to purchase 
books ; and if iro, though not a6 efficient a henehtctor as 
Ulric Gerittg ^as to the tSarbonne'*, be fet was entitled to 
an Itoitonrable place in the List of Benefactors m our Cam- 
bridg&-Gnides. "Ht is ftmons in the Annals of Cambridge 
Printing. 

Buck does not appear to have ^sent 4brth any Hebrew 
books, ihtyugh he had Hebrew types ; for there is much of 
Hebrew quotation, and beautiftil type, in Mede's Clans 
Apocaflyptica (1692), and other books printed by Bock. 
From his prfess, hdwever, issued several beantifiil Greek 
and Latih books. 

The edition of the Minor Greek Poets has been reprinted 
at Cambridge sdveral thnes ; but of that by Buck Dr. Har- 
wood observes, « This printed in 1652, by the celebrated 

* Crerier. Histoire de Univer. de Paris, torn. iv. pp. 334, 305. 

2 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. «) 

'' ]Quck| 14 the mo9t elej^t book the C^ot^brlgWn prQ69 de« 
^' liveied to the |mblic. It i^ also as conrect qs u is eU« 
f< gaot *.' He also printed the twelve books of the £919^- 
ror AfitoninuS) which wm edited by the faniqus Gateker. 
There have been four editions^ republications of it^ ipade ^t 
different places, and with different ia^proveinent9 ; apd ^ ila 
literary character^ unnoticed by some modern Biblipgrepbers, 
anple testinionyis borne by Fdbiricius: to it3 bibliographipal 
character^ with vhtch only our present businesf is coocero* 
ed| HarwQod speaka as follows : ** The Cambridge editim, 
** of \Q5% is much more beautiftiUy aad corrficlly printed^ 
<' than the Irf>ndoD of 1697." 

He printed, loo, a Greek Test. Svo. 1699, which was re- 
printed in London by Tonson, in 1 728, in au ehgvA oor-« 
vect fonn* From his press also proceeded Statii SyWas. 
This was Stephens's fint edition of 1651/ 

Buck died in 1688, having been pveviouily siicceedcid in 
l€54, by John Field, who, the year following, took a lease 
of grounds, adjoining to Queen's CoH^e, and belonging to 
k^ and buik there a house, with the large prtutiiig«affloe, 
which was ia uae till the new one lalely ereotcMl near the 
fame place. 

I am not aware that many classics issued from Field's 
press ; nor will readers expect, our limits not admitting of 
minuteness, a more extended account of books than will 
suffice to shew the features of the art under each printer. 
His press, however, produced one editio optima, vix. thut 
of AndromeusRhodius, cum Notis Variorum, 1679* 

Field, too, has gained celebrity in his office; and his 
name stands more immediately connected with the printing 
€>f Bibles and Prayer* Books, both in 8yo. and \9Uk\o. f(ir 
which he obtained from the Crown a grant, which has beeo 
a source of considerable profit to the University. He put 

* View oftUvs^QHS coitions oftbeCUttld, p. 106, 3ded. 



$« SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

forth a small beautiful pocket Bible^ which was^ and still is, 
greatlj admired both for its type and correctness* This is 
the Bible that was imitated by Pasham^ in a way not very 
honourable to him as a printer, viz* by getting a few notes 
inserted at the bottom of the page, and then cutting them 
off, by which means he avoided the penalty of printing a 
Bible without notes. 

There is also a Greek Bible, 12mo. 1665; which, so far 
as typography extends, is done elegantly ; but the paper is 
over-thin, and the letter-press too small ; and the readings 
too much follow the many erroneous ones of the London 
4to. and 8vo. editions of 1653. The Cambridge e^tion 
contains the New Testament with the Old, and also the 
Common Prayer, in Greek. 

Field continued his employment till the year 1688^ when 
he was succeeded "by Edward Hall, and he was followed by 
John Hayes and Cornelius Crownfield*. 

In the year 1994 was published, in fol. the famous edi« 
tion of Euripides, by Joshua Barnes. Fabricius, Harles, 
and Le Clerc, with Reiske and Valckenaer, have severally 
bom testimony to the variety, richness, and fulness of this 
edition, beyond all that preceded it, and, at the same time^ 
have pointed out its particular defectsi. If Barnes had 

* It has been said, that Hayes and Crownfield werei for a few yearsy ae* 
parate printers, and had each a salary from the University ; during which 
time there were two separate presses, one of which becam^ afterwards, 
the Anatomy Schools. I rather doubt, than deny, their having had separate 
salaries, because an Order of Council, already mentioned in Elizabeth's 
reign, had appointed, that Cambridge should have only one printer. I 
do not deny it, because, as we have seen, there were letters patent, giren 
by Hen. VIII. authorizing Cambridge to have three printers. The Order 
of Council, perhaps, might be considered as matter of expediency, or 
•^ .provision, for the time ; but the grant, or letters patent, passed ky biU, 
might still leave the University in possession of a discretional power to ap« 
point more than one— or, perhaps, Hayes and Crownfield were merely in 
partnership, as Buck and Daniel were before. 

f Euripides, it is well known, was Milton^s favourite poet: having been 
favoured, some years ago, with the loan of his oopy, possewed by Joseph 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. MS 

only first* collected, and subjoined to his edition, the beauti- 
ful Fiagmedts of Euripides, it would have merited the 
praise given it by Fabricius, of being the editio optima et 
hactenus luculentissima. Biblioth. Grae. Tom. i. p. 657. 

All that remains to be added, in this place, is, that the 
magnificence and typographical excellence displayed in 
Barnes's Euripides form an epoch in the History of Greek 
Printing at Cambridge. It reminds us of the blooming in- 
fancy of this useful art, and the Harlem press. For Crown- 
field, the ingenious man, who executed this work, was a 
Dutchman. 

In the year 1711 Barnes published Homer, in two vo- 
lumes 4to. : and Bentley, before its publication, expressed 
contemptuously his opinion of some part of his design. 
Barnes, in his Preface to the Iliad (where, it viras well 
known by Inimicus Homo, and other sarcasms, he alluded 
to Bentley), returns contempt for contempt, bitterness for 
bitterness ; and Bentley's remarks on that Preface, with a 
few critiques on his Homer, in a Letter to Dr. Davies f , it 
on record. Barnes was vain ; Bentley imperious ; and both 
were bitter : but these Lites Criticte are not uncommon, and 
Bentley^s criticisms are unquestionably ju^t. 

Maugre Bentle/s bitterness, however, this edition of 
Homer rose above his contempt, and it still keeps its 
ground; for whatever other critics may have done, either for 
or again^ X Homer since, it b allowed that no critic did so 
much before for Homer as Joshua Barnes. 

In 1705 Barnes published his edition of Aoacreon at the 

Cridockf Esq. I had an opportunity of copying into Canter^ii edition Mil- 
ton's TarioQi readings : Barnes, I perceive, had made the same use of it. 
^ VaUcenaer and Heath have since added to the stock. 

f Copy of a letter from Dr. Bentley to Dr. Davies, found in the tatter's 
study after his death; suhjoioed to Bentley 's DtsserUtion upon the Epis« 
ties of Phalaris. 

% AUudes to the hypothesis of WolAus, relative to Hornet and his wnt« 
\n$tf as given in his Prolegomena ad Homerum. 



44 SttPf LEMENt T6 tflS 

Cambridge-press: this vas reprinted at LonAoii 1734; b«t 
the Cambridge editions are reckoned more correct than th^ 
London ; tfnd of the two Cambridge^ that of 1725, is 
best. , Of Barnes's AvxixoK^Toirtgov we have nothing to siiy, 
for that was published in London. 

»*-lJp to nearly the period when Barnes's Homer was pob^ 
lished, there had appeared from the Cambridge-press, un- 
der the direction of Crownfield, other Greek books, in tk 
Htjrie of similar neatness^ sach as Maxlmus Tyrius^ Pfeito de 
Republican Theopbrastus^ Geoponiea, site Script, de ^e 
Rustic&, Dupord Homeri Gnomologia, together w% seve* 
ral Latin Classics, which followed at little periods from 
each other. Crowlifidd continued lb be printer for a great 
ndany years, and died in 1 74C. 

We have now followed Cambridge typography froin it§ 
beginning downwards to nedrly itii Acme of perfection, and 
fo a period when to be miniite would be tedious ; we should 
have only to perambulate dver ground, that is already amply 
dtcupied, and be in danger df appearing rather trifliiig Q^ 
^tentatious, thati ^ith^r agreeable or usefiiil. Suffice if, 
therefore, to observe, of editions so well known as the Ho- 
race and Terence of dur " Ptint^ps Criticoruiti," JSentley, 
of several of Cicero's writings by Davici, Pearce*8 editloQ 
of Cicero de Oratore, of Demosthenes and Lysias, by 
IVlylor, i^ith two or three more, that Ae typographical 
Workmanship of the Cambridge-press has continued, or ra- 
ther increased in excellence, so as to have kept pace with 
Ac celebrity of its several editors. I shall orily mention 
two or three works, of our more modern Cambridge print* 
ers. 

Mr. Crownfield was succeeded by Joseph Bentham, i| 
brother of Dr. Thomas Bentham, of Oxford, the welU 
known author of several works, and editor of that valuable 
classical book, the Orationes Funebres; and of Mr. James 
Bentham, of Cambridge, the historinn of Ely. Of Mr« 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. fl5 

Joseph Bentham I comtnanicated a short account in an^ 
other place *, and so mncfa as suits this mny be copied here. 
— -" By his wife, he possessed handsome property. He was 
^' not eager after money in the way of his business, but rather 
** ambitious of printing works that would do him credit. 
^ He printed his brother's valuable 'History, at a consider- , 
" able expense to himself f :'' this work is finely prmted in a 
fliick 4to. 1765, accompanied with plates, and is entitled to 
honourable mention here, as having been occasionally found 
useful in our History of the University. For a similar rea« 
son, should be mentioned Dr. Richardson^s edition of Bi* 
•hop Godwin's Commentarius de Prssufibus Anglian, folio, 
)74S, printed by ISir, Bentham. ' Of the literary cfaanteter 
of these publications some account has been given else* 
where ; and of their typographical it itiay be added here, 
that these must be ranked among the most dfstitlguished 
productions of the Cambridge-press. 

Of Squire's (afterwafds Bishop) edition and translation of 
Plutarch's celebrated Greek tfeatise, de Iside et Osh^de, 
some account will be found in another place. It may be, 
therefore, in character just to add here, that its typographical, 
is not itiferior to its literary, merit. It Was printed \it Cam- 
bridge by Mr. Bentham, in large 8vo. 1744. 

Mr. Bentham was an alderman of Cambridge, and died 
June 1, 1778. He was succeeded by John Archdeacon. 

Mr. Archdeacon was an Irishman, He printed some 
tfiathematical tracts, by the Rev. Mr. Ludlam, of St. John's 
College, which I merely notice, for the sake of observing, 
that Mr. Ludlam complained that the University press, at 
(he time, was e3(tremely defective in mathematical types, so 
that he was actually obliged to make many a brass rule him- 
self. See Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, vol. viii. p. 414. — 
A defect this, that has been siqce amply remedied. Mr, 

* Mr. Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, vol. Tiii. p. 451, 
t See p. 85 of ovr SuppleOKiit to tSie Hist of Camb. 



26 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

Archdeacon, however, printed several viduable vi^orks, witfi 
elegance and correctness, and after many years of assiduity, 
employed in his profession at Cambridge, having acquired a 
competent property, he retired to Hemingford, near St. 
Ives, where he died. 

Mr. Archdeacon is buried in Hemingford church. Hunting* 
donshire ; so that hb remains are thus brought into union, as 
it were, with those of that friend to printers, Mr. Joshua 
Barnes, our Professor mentioned above, who is buried in thtt 
church, and his memory embalmed with an inscription in 
Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. Mr. Archdeacon was succeed- 
ed by Mr. Burgess. 

During this period, issued from the Cambridge press a 
work of too high a character to be passed over in silence. 
This was a pao-similb of the famous Greek MS. which 
having been presented in 1581 to the University of Cam- 
bridge by Theodore Beza is sometimes called the Cam- 
bridge, and sometimes the Beza, MS. 

This valued MS. having for a long time engaged the at- 
tentiou of only the more learned critics at the University li- 
brary, it was, at length, determined to give it a greater public 
city, in the form of a fac-similr; and Dr. Kipling, at the 
time. Deputy- Professor of Divinity, and Fellow of St. John^a 
College, was appointed the editor. Accordingly, new types 
having been cast, corresponding to the old square uncial 
.Greek letters, as they are called, a fine paper having been 
wove, and a most magnificent fac-simile of tlie whole 
MS. having been made, at the expense of the University, it 
appeared entire in 1793, in two volumes, folio. 

The MS. itself is a thick 4to. in vellum, consisting of a 
Greek text, with a literal Latin version on the opposite side 
of each page. The beginning of St. Mattliew is effaced^ 
and the MS. sets out with the Latin of ch. 1, v. 12, post 
Transgressionem autem Bab>Ionis ; and it has a few other 
chasms ; but it is, in general, in fine preservation, fpi: a writ* 
ing of such undoubted autiquity. 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. S7 

. Widi respect to the precise age of the MS. this is not very 
easy to settle *. Some critics suppose it may be of the 7th, 
some the 6th or 5th, or even up to the 4th, 3rd, or 2nd 
eentury f. It is, however, without any doubt, one of the 
most ancient Greek MSS. known to exist, if not the most 
ancient of all ; consisting of the Four Gospels and Acts of 
the Apostles ; and, at all events, is much more ancient than 
any Hebrew IVf 8. that we have in this country j:, of any part 
of the Old Testament. 

The editor^s Preface called forth at the time much critical 
ammadversion §, which, however just, is foreign to the ob- 
ject of this Essay. It is more to our purpose to observe, 
that the editor's preface contains an ample account of the 
MS. and that the Fac-Simile is worthy, in point of typogra- 
phical magnificence, of claiming relationship with that of 
the Alexandrine Greek MS. ||, and of being placed by its 
side. 

This Fac«>Simile, being the very crown of the Cambridge 
press, seems to form a natural boundary for the present in- 
quiry. No one will expect ns to attempt an account of our 
numerous and more modern publicatioos, however merito- 
rious ; and, indeed^ a reason similar to that given for closing 

* Speakins ofUie aneiflnt Otetik MSS. written in the large uncial letterf, 
Montfaucon obferrct— ^< Vemm inter ipsot Codices discrimen astatit assig- 
aare non ita facil e Tanta scilicet inter omnet Similitudo. Palcogra- 
phia Gmca, L. 3»*». Cap. 1". 

' f In rererence to the different opinions of Micbaelit, Oriesbach, Bishop 
Marsh, Mr. Wbiston, and Or. Kipling, in hit Frcfiitio nd Bezam. 

^ This is said in reference to Uie statement of Dr. Kennicott, in his Oe* 
•oralis Dissertatio, contained in his printed Hebrew Text of the Old Testa* 
nent. 

) See Remarks on Dr. Kipling's Preface. By Thomas Edwards, L. L D. 

11 This MS. in 4 volumes, folio, it is well known, it in the BritiBh Ma- 
seum, being a Greek MS. in uncial letters, perhaps the finest any where 
existing, and conUintng the Old and New TesUment, with St. Clement's 
first Epistles to the Corinthians, and a fragment of the second. The ftio*fli« 
mile of it was edited under the direction of Dr. Woide. 



28 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

our biographical butory at a particular period, ought be, 
^ith some proprietyi given for choosii^, after having gone 
so far in oar bibliographical sketch, to close it here. 

Still less will any one expect an apology for what has 
been • said, entreating (to borrow the language of Dr» 
Harwood) ** that no person will perversely constme what 
** I have said into a dehberate intention of darogating from 
'' the celebrity and learning of either University, by instil 
** tuting an invidious comparison between the two Univer* 
** sities;** and diough, as the same writer observes, '' the 
^ University of Oxford has produced more splendid and 
'^ accurate editions of the Greek Classics, than all the other 
^ Universities in Europe*,'* it would be out of the order of 
our Essay to enumerate them. 

Least of all will it be expected that any such like compa« 
fison should be drawn in reference to the printed works of 
foreign Universities, or by bringing into view their vast ex« 
tended publications. Enough has been said for the purpose 
of iDustrating the history of the Cambridge press, and hints 
enough have arisen to shew, fhaft, in strength of criticisai and 
elegance of typographical execution, the presses of our Ei^- 
Gsh Universities are not inferior to those on the CoDti> 
nent. 

There are certainly many points that I have not touched, 
that naturally enough belong to a history of the Cambridge 
press, had a complete history been intended: but neither 
was that the object of this attempt: all designed was to 
treat of such articles as seemed naturally connected with 
the manner in which I have treated of the History of the 
University ; and more particularly of its literature : beyond 
this there migl^t be found matter for very important in- 
quiry ; but mine, at present, being of a limited nature, seemed 

* Preface to bis View of the various Editions of Uie Greek and Roman 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. fiO 

to have the prescribed bosndary of a Biore limited, genenl 
discnssioii. 

But, though this appears to be the natural boundary of the 
present Essay, two things yet renain, which, as oecesaarily 
making a part ia a history of ibe Cambridge press, and, 
as more particularly ittnstmling its present state, must not be 
overlooked; via. the Stereotype Printing, Mid the modem 
Greek Tjrp®* ^^ ^® reader will please to allow two or 
three observations on these subjects to form our conclu- 
sion. 

With respect then to the Stereotype Printing, it is scarcely 
necessary to say, that it is a soKd, immovable type, for the 
purpose of multiplying impressions of the same edition of a 
book, in contradistinction to the moveable types, which, af* 
ter a sheet of any impression is woiiced oif, are distributed^ 
for the purpose of auy other work ; so that they can serve 
Ae purpose of only one impression. The stereotype, there- 
fore, is the fruitful mother of many children at one birth, of 
exact family-likeness, and who is still possessed of the 
power of producing more, at any future period, of the same 
stock, with the same exactness of form and family features ; 
whereas, the moveable type can only produce one race. 
The art of stereotyping is, therefore, evidendy a most import- 
ant improvement in printing ; being, in relation to the move- 
able types, what the art of printing itself is to manuscripts, 
viz. the means of multiplying impressions of the same edi- 
tion without end. 

This art was introduced into England from France, though 
it should seem to have been realized £fty years before at 
Glasgow * ; Didot, an eminent French printer, received the 

* I first 9aw at Glasgow, Feveral years ago, a book (a duodecimo Sal- 
lubt) printed by a Mr. Ged, of that city, who was unquestionably the first 
inventor of the stereotype in this island ; but as I spake from memory, I 
am happy in having an opportunity, while this sheet is passing through the 
press, of coiTecting an error or two in my text, and of making a few addi- 



30 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

idea, probobly, either diiectly or indirectly^ from ScotUnd^ 
and found it liberal employment at Paris, after it had been 
unaccountably suffered to sleep for near fifty years at Glas- 
gow. From France it found its way back to this island^ 
when the University of Cambridge bought their first solid 
types from Mr. Wilson, the proprietor, and employed him, 
for a proper consideration^ to teach the men at the University 
pres8> the manner of printing from it. At the same time^ 
two presses, of the Earl of Stanhope's idvention, were 
bought, which were understood to be the best machines for 
working the stereotype, and which, from the name of the in- 
genious inventor, are well known by the name of the Stan^ 
hope-printing presses. At the same time, too, it was agreed 
upon by the Syndics, that certain premises which hitherto 
had served the purpose of a warehouse^ should be converted 
into a printing-o£Sce, the old printing-office being then in 
a ruinous condition ; which appointment, therefore, gives, at 

tions on the sabject of stereotypinff, which I am enabled to 4o from an Inge' 
nioaa Essay in Mr. Tillock's Philoiopbical Magazioey which has been put 
into my hands. It is entitled^ " A brief Account of the Origin and 
Progress of Letter Press Plate, or Stereotype Printing,'' written by the 
editor, Mr. Tillock ; and I there find that my memory ftuted me, and 
though Mr. Oed was of Glasgow, and though I saw the SaUast there, that 
it, however, was printed at Edinburgh, and in the year 1736. I collect, 
too, that Mr. Tillock has a copy of Sallost, and another book, stereo- 
typed, « ScougaPs Life of God; in the Soul of Man," of both which 
books, however, very few copies were printed. And Mr. Tillock, it ap- 
pears, possesses a page of one of the plates ; so that here we have demon* 
stration. 

It further appears, from this account, that, the art having been lost on the 
death of Mr. Ged's son, who died in 1751, Mr. Tillock himself made 
some new experiments on it, and that a patent being obtahied, Mr. Til- 
lock, conjointly with Mr. Foulis, of Glasgow, printed some stereotyped 
books, English and Greek, as late back as 1785, all before any thing of it 
seems to have been known by Didot, and that, as appears from the Niew 
Algemein Konst en Letter Bode, 1798, No. 232, " the Dutch were above 
" 100 years ago possessed of the art of printing with solid or fixed types, 
^ which, in every respect, was superior to that of Didot's stereotype." 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 31 

the same time, the date of the first designing of the new 
printing-house, by the University, and of their commencing 
the stereotype printing ; for they agreed Upon both at the 
same time— -viz. in 1804. 

It is not my intention to balance the advantages and dis^ 
advantages in the stereotyping art** SuflSce it to say, with 
respect to some of its advantages, it preserves from those 
mischievous harassing things, called errors of the press ; for 
if these solid, immoveable types are correctly cast, no errort 
of the press can possibly arise Some advantages too it 
possesses in point of elegance ; and, indeed, correctness itself 
is beauty. 

But the stereotype printing-press is principally to be con- 
sidered in reference to its utility, in the printing of such works 
for which there is a great immediate demand, and for which 
the demand, without alterations t of the text, will be renew* 
ed, as in prayer-books. Bibles, and Testaments, hymn- 
books, school" books, and such*Iike; and the University has 
accordingly employed it principally in the printing of 
Bibles. 

This improvement then of the most important of all arts is 
to be considered merely iu reference to the facilities it gives 
for multiplying copies, and is, indeed, so nearly allied to the 
first essays of the art, in its more rude state, on immoveable 
blocks, that it is really surprising it was not brought into 
effect before. But readers will not fail to observe that it re- 
lates to the single point just mentioned ; for, notwithstanding 
what has been hinted respecting any accidental elegance 
arising from the use of these solid types, the art of modem 
fine printing is of quite another family, and its pretensions, 
whatever they may be, must be considered as totally distinct 
from those of stereotyping. 

« See, on this subject, Mr. Stowers's Printer's Grammar. 
t Tbe stereotype, bowever, will admit of slight correctiOBj. 



se SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

The next observation conceniB the new Greek typtf htdf 

introduced. 

Jn this new Greek type several peculiarities will iuimedi«> 
ately strike the eye : the first is, that of its being quite relieved 
ftom those abbreviation's which, though common in ancient 
Greek books, and, indeed, in many of the more modein, may be 
considered as throwing some impediments in the way of those 
learning to read the language. In die rgection of abbrevia- 
tions, this type exceeds the Aldine, and seems to have been a£> 
ter .the taste of Bodoni, the celebrated Greek printer of Par« 
ma : it possesses, too, something of Bodoni's copper-plate 
appearance. There is not a single abbreviation in this; 
even tbe dipdiongs being all separate siqgle letters* Theie 
will also be found something of selection in the use of letters | 
for, as in some casein the Greek^dphabet supplies mofe tba« 
one form .for the same element, as y r, ^ 9, (^ a «r c, -# i, 
there is some room left for choice and one letter may be m«ie 
agreeable to the eye than another. The form here used i# 
certainly of tbe least girotesque shape, and the.K — ^for this is 
one of its peculiarities — ^is of a more pleasing shape »>iflff the 
former x* 

Tills type retains the accustomed breathings and 
accents, though the circumflex is more expressive of whttt 
the character is intended to expcess, and the iota subscopt 
is more appropriate than the aiogle dot, as heretofore im 
use. 

This type is very sparing of capitals, and, like that of AI* 
dus's, does not even admit them at the beginning of verses, as 
was tbe accustomed way in modem printed books. It imi- 
tates, in some respects, some MSS. of a more modeni date* 
These types were introduced by the late famous Greek Pro- 
fessor, Mr. Richard Porson, though it was not used till some 
time after his death. 

As these types were cast according to the judgment of 
Mr. Porson, so were the first specimens of it given in two 



HISTORY OF CAMBftlDGE. SS 

Greek phye of bis favourite Aiithorsi JEfchylui end Buri- 
pidea*, contaioing many emeikdations, extracted from bis 
MS* notes now preserved in tbe library of Trinitj College. 
Three tragediest, also^ of tbe sane writer's, and tbe magnU 
iceut Btephani TbeMniras, printed by Mr. Valpy^ in Lon* 
don^ are an wbat is called tbe Br$mer Person Greeks and 
tbe type is so readable, so soft to the eye, and so eli^nt, 
that it may be expected to be ttK>re generallj adopted by 
pmlcrs. A fount of tbe Great Porsoa Greek (so called 
now) has been hitely cast for tbe Clanendon press at Ox- 
feid. 

And thus much concerning the Cambridge Univereity 
printing-press; of whkh 1 have endeavoured to give a short 
historical sketch : and it must be feh, that some pains bave 
. been taken^ both with respect to the typograpfaiy and the 
books printed^ to speak of it with due respect* Wbat has 
been said may, perhapi^ not interest many readers; but the 
Ibw M-bem it may concern will be prepafed to wish that tbe 
press may abo be managed by tbe Syndics^ so as to secure, 
in place of tbe particular ibterests of any party, the general 
. inltfests of literature, and tbe honour of tbe University* • 
Nothing has hitherto been said of the conducting this 
press by i^ndicsa but it miQr be lemembefed by some 
«ieariMra of ib^ Sisnate, that, not many years ago, a com- 
plaint was made on a part of that economy; and, if 1 am 
rightly informed, certain regulations weve subsequently made, 
Idml were suppoaed to ba«« put some umtlMa on a better 
fooling. Whatever tbey mny bave been, sometbiflg in tbe 
vmHiMoflhe UniNrsfetsitypreia siill ocean, vbiohmnst juitify 
tbsna closing observations* 

* Tk»mfp9^lm Ctrmffir, Ed. J. «. Mosk. Caetiai. HUi «id JBu 
€h9H PnmeikMu rhutus. Ed. C. J. Blmnfleld. CaaUb. edltio lecsiida. 
18ie. 

f JteAylf #W«lk 9i FMgmm^, ftw ^M cw, st Ess ms dw. M. a Bv- 
gM| EsripldiseUsai TrMdct» ab eode«. 

fc 



•S4 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

- Those ^ who choose to take a comparative view of die 
books printed at the two Uiriversities of Oxford and Cam^ 
bridge, will find that those issuing from the Clarendon press 
are greatly superior, as well in number, as intrinsic raJoe 
^nd public character, to those from Cambridge. Tins an- 
periority win evidently appear, by an examinatiott of ciie 
Catalogue of the books printed at the Clarendon pieas^ and 
on sale at Oxford, which is regularly printed there, and of 
tbe books which have been printed within any given peiKMl 
at the Cambridge press: this diffsrence, I apprehend, vsBl 
not be disputed ; and it would not be unreasonable to nak, 
whence it arises ? 

The difference may arise from some difference in ibe 
sums appropriated to the purposes of printing, from the mis- 
management or misapplication of them, or from some local, 
temporary circumstance, which every one may not perceive. 
The Clarendon press was built out of the funds ruted by 
the impression of Lord Clarendon's History, bequeathed to 
the University; but the sum raised, says an Oxford bisto- 
'riatt*, fell short, through the mismanagement of one op« 
pressed with pecuniary diffieolties, to the amount of 50001. 
and an attempt to reeover it was defeated by the base apirit 
of one of his successors : still the profits arising firom Ibe 
continued sale of ibis History (of which tbe Untversifty of 
'Oxford retains the copy*rigfat) creates >a fund, directed to 
the benefit of their prrkiting^house.' • 

At Cambridge, it is maintained by Mailtaire, no book 
war printed till the year 15£t, and there was no Univensly 
printing-office tHl die year 1645 ; and 1 do net racolkct 
that through the whole course of Queen Elizabetb's SCatetes, 
which regulate almost every thing else, any orders are given 
' relative to printing, or to officers, for its management. But, 



* Dr. AyUlfe^i Ancient and Present State 4>f the Utilv«fsity of Oxford, 
Vol. I. p. 216. 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 35 

it cteenis, Ihe funds applied to the press now arise from — the 
sale of Bibles^ which Cambridge and Oxford University^ with 
the King's printer^ have the exclusive privilege to print — 
from certain fees or fines of Masters of Arts, which, therefore, 
must issue from the University chest—- and from 500L a year 
given by Government to both Universities alike ; which hit- 
ter being given to assist authors, supposed not to be afflueM, 
members of the University, according to the judgment of the 
Syndics, is, if I mistake not, called the Poor's Fund: 
what other funds there may be, and what may have been the 
particular expenses attending the building of the new print- 
hig-offiee of Cambridge University, a few years ago, 1 
know not, and, therefore, say iK>thing concerning them. 
But there occurring one or two circumstances, independent 
of those just mentioned, which have some influence in 
creating this difference, in regard to learned works issuing 
from diese two presses, (as hinted above) I shall take lesrve 
to notice them here. 

Independently, then, of the above sources, the University of 
Oxford derives considerable profits from the sale of its own 
books. Thb creates a fund, which it secures for the ser- 
vices of the press, and a respectable printer and bookseller is 
made a joint-proprietor, having, if I recollect right, purchased 
a share in this stock of the University, who, in consequence, 
takes an active part in the direction of the printing-house, 
and has a personal interest in the sale of tlie books. By this 
economy, provision is made against any dedications that 
night arise from the machinery of a printing-house, and the 
«iews of self-interested ^oen (if such there should be) among 
the delegates of the press. This economy is evidently f»- 
'vourafole to the views of the University, considered as print- 
ers and publishers; (and in that light we are now considering 
that learned body) it tends to accumulation and to security ; 
it possesses, too, one aspect at least favourable to the pubKc; 
for ihe books printed at the Clarendon press, and sold by the 
University bookseller, are purchiiseaMe at a reduced priofi^ — 

1 



36 SUPPLEMENT, &c. 

while ample profits remain to the University, applicable^ 
again, to the general purposes of literature. 

At Cambridge^ it has been made matter of complaint, by 
several gentlemen of probity and of the soundest judgment, 
who faav« been the omaaients of the University, that the 
printing-house there has been far too much under undue in* 
fluence. The gentlemen alluded to have been independeol 
men, fellows, tutors, and public officers, some«tiJl IJvii^, 
odiers deceased, of whom some, I am proud to say, were 
my friends, and, therefore, I speak what I know. While 
Wakefield, with all his classical liierature, could not get hia 
fourth and fifth numbers of his poor Silva Critica throuf^ 
the press, a Hist, of the Christian Church (4 vols.) and Ser* 
mons, by the same author, (2 vols.) cost the University some- 
where about £0001. and the profits derived from them went 
to the editor, the deceased author's brother, or his relaliona. 
Burnet's History of his own Times, (5 yols. with the sup* 
pressed Passages of the first Volume, and Notes by the 
Earls of Dartmouth and Hardwicke, and Speaker Onslow^ 
hitherto unpublished; with Remarks by Dean Swift, and 
other Observations) was lately printed at the Clarendon 
press. Whether the learned editor* received any remune- 
ration (which he would deserve) besides a Cew copies of 
the book, I know not; but the profits of the impression 
remain to the University. 

I have heard a gentleman, who had been a syndic of the 
Cambridge press, speak with great ind^nation relative- to 
the above History and Sermons printed there; and anodier, a 
public officer, in like manner, of certain Skeletons of Ser- 
mons, in 5 volumes, the editors of both being very rich (while 
Wakefield, unbeneficed either by church or state, and with a 
large family to support, was poor) and the Works themselves, 
as they said, were mere sectarian productions. I am not 
speaking myself with die smallest dislike of any sects, as 
such, but with allusion to undue influences over the University 
press, and the application of its funds. 

* Dr. Roiith. 



CAMBRIDeE Flt;A[€rMBNTS, 



J- HE writer oominiiiucatefl) aeveral j^un Bfft, wi9U9 
pupers relatiDg to Cambridge to different periodical puUica- 
tiooB : ai>me are reprinted in a former part of this work : the 
followiBg (the greater part) were inserted in the Monthly 
Jfagazine, as fat back as Nov. £, 180S, under the title of Casr 
tabrigiana: and it occurs to the author, that they were well 
i«ceif ed. As the present work is of a nature which will not 
^low it to t»e interesting, except^ perhaps, to a verjr few 
readers, be has ventured, for the sake of variety, and from a 
desire, if possible, to administer a little to the amusement^ as 
well as the improvement, of other readers, to subjoin to the 
present volume such extracts as now appear to the author to 
liarmonize with his design in the History of Cambridge, and 
in the present volumes, entitled, the Privileges of Cambridge* 
These fragmenis must be received not as extracts from 
other books, (except where the writer announces them to be 
such) but as short reflections of his own; and they were 
written with some attention and care : when they are those 
of others, they will be assigned to the proper authors. The 
writer, therefore, only adds here, that he has omitted seve- 
ral articles in the said communications, that he has alterad 
others, and has made a few additions to the whole. 

ANTIQUARIES. 

Some antiquaries, in disputing, much resemble com- 
batants who should fight in the dark: they make bold 
thrusts, but having no light to guide them, they miss their 
otytctn, and only figlU the akr* 

A 



SUPPLEMENT TO THE 



DR. CAIUS. 



Dr. John Caius was physiciaa to Queea Mary. la the 
year 1557, having iocreased the college where he bad been 
educated^ then called 6onviIle*s, by large endowments, and 
having procured a charter of incorporation, he got the name 
changed to Gonville's and Caius College. I here mention 
Dr. Caius as being the author of a book,, rather scarce, than 
valuable, ** De Aniiquitaie Cantabrigia.^' 

One thing related of Dr. Caius, shews the extreme vanity 
and mortification to which authorship exposes some people. 
•—An Oxford antiquary had previously written a Defence of 
the higher Antiquity of that University, and left a new edi* 
tion of it to be published after his death. In this new edi* 
tion were some remarks that Dr. Caius thought would bear 
hard on his argument, and he, died a year after the death of 
his opponent, as some say, literally mortified. Heame, the 
Oxford antiquary, who edited the two treatises in one work, 
relates the circumstance. This was, perhaps, only the 
conjecture, or the invention, of some Oxonian. However, 
it gave occasion of triumph to some persons, who might 
reason like a certain countryman : after having heard two 
disputants in the public schools, one of whom was in a vio- 
lent passion during the debate, the honest man observed, 
that though he did not understand a word that had been said, 
he understood who had the worst of the argument. The 
Cantabs, however, still thought otherwise, and their cause 
wafl supported in the House of Commons by Sir Simonds 
D'Ewes, a learned antiquary. 

SIR SIMONDS D'EWES, 

AND HIS SPEECH IN THE HOUSE OF COKMONS, ON 

THE ANTIQUITY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF 

CAMBBIDGE, ANNO 1640. 

Ab Jove principium. On speaking conceraiog Cam- 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 

bridge, it is naturali somewhere about the beginniog of my 
discussions, to say a word of its antiquity. Here follows a 
passage from Sir Simonds D^Ewes' speech, cqptaining the 
Cambridge side of the question — 

*^ There are two principal respects, besides others, in 
which these faoHHis universities may claim precedence each 
of other. 

'' First, in respect of their being— *as they were— >places of 
note in the elder ages. 

'' Secondly, as they were ancient nurseries and seed-plpts 
of learning. 

*^ If I do not, therefore, prove, that Cambridge was a 
renowned city at least five hundred years before there was ^ 
house of Oxford standing, and whilst brute beasts fed, and 
corn was sown, in that place, where that city is now seated ; 
and that Cambridge was a nursery of learning before Oxford 
was known to have a grammar-school in it, I will yield up 
the bucklers. If I should lose time to reckon up the vain 
allegations produced for the antiquity of Oxford by Twyne, 
and of Cambridge by Qaius, I should bi^t repeat deUria 
semtm, for I accQunt the most of that ^ey have published 
in print to be no better ; but I find by authorities, without 
exception, that in the ancient catalogues of the cities of 
Britain, Cambridge is the ninth of number, where London 
itself if but the eleventh ; and who should ^ve thought, 
that ever Oxford should have contended for precedence with 
Cambridge, wl^ch J^ondon g^ve it above twelve hundred . 
jears since i This I find m Oildas Albanius's British ^Ob« 
tory, who died about the year 520, being the ancientest do- 
mestic momiment we have, p. GO. — ^And iu a Sayon anony- 
mous at^ry^ written in Liatin, toHcbii^g the Qnton? and 
Saxons, p. Sg, who said of himselfy thfit he lived in the 
days of Penda, King of the Mercians, in the tenth year of 
\i$ leign, and Umt be JciMW'ii9» wH, ^*hich falls out to be 
Mar upon the y»ir 6eQ, And U^^h 1 ^^ ^^ i^^PgH^ 
of^ha^aid Antiih i^ea, with im(9 Utile vmi^oD,t9b< 

A 2 



SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

set down in Nennius's Latin storj of Britain, p. 38 ; and 
he wrote the same, as he says of himself, in the year 8SO. 
They all call it Cairgrant, the word cair, in the old Celtic 
tongue, signifying a city. 

*^ These three stories are exotic and rare monuments re* 
maining, yet only in ancient MSS. not known to many ; but 
the authority of them is irrefragable, and without excep- 
tion. The best and most ancient copies that I have seen of 
Gildas Albanius and Nennius, remain in the University- 
library of Cambridge, being those I have vouched, and the 
Saxon anonymous in a library here near us. This Cairgrant 
is not only expounded by Alfred of Beverley to signify Cam* 
bridge, but also by William de Ramsey, abbot of Croy- 
land, in a MS. story of the Life of Guthlanus, ignonmtly 
in those days reputed a saint. The said William goes fur- 
ther, and says, it was so called a Granta Jlumine. This 
place remained still a city of fiime and repute a long time, 
under the reign of the English Saxons, and is called in 
divers of the old Saxon MSS. annals, Granteceaster; and, 
notwithstanding the great devastations it suffered^ with other 
places, by reason of the old Danish incursions, yet in the 
first tome or volume of the Book of Domesday (for now I 
come to cite record), it appears to have been a place of 
considerable moment, having in it decern custodies, and a 
castle of great strength and extent; and so I have done with 
Cambridge as a renowned place.'' 

The other part of this celebrated speech I pass over to an- 
other place. 

AN AMICABLE WAY OF SETTLING THE DlBTVTt CON- 
CERNINO THE ANTIQUITY OF CAUBAIDGB AND OX« 
FORD, FROM THOMAS FULLER. 



I care not a rush which of these aged ladies is to take 

precedence of the other, and most cordially approve the 

amicable manner in which Thomas Faller adjusta the dif* 
/•rence. 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 

** Far be it from me (says he) to make odious compari- 
aons between Jachin and Boaz^ the two pillars in Solomon's 
temple, by preferring either of them for beauty or strength, 
when both of them are equally adfmirable. Nor shall I 
make difference between the sisters (copies of learning and 
religion), which should be the eldest. In the days of King 
Henry YI. such was the quality of desert between Hum* 
phrey Stafford Duke of Buckingham, and Henry Beau- 
champe Duke of Warwicke, that to prevent exceptions 
about priority, it was ordered by' the Parliament that they 
should take precedency by turns, one one year, and the 
other the next year ; and so by course were to chequer or 
exchange their going or sitting all the years of their life/' 

This Thomas Fuller, to the honour of the University, 
and his own credit, was a Cambridge man, author of the 
Church History of Britain, and of a History of the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge. 

ANOTHER WAY OF SETTLING A CONTROVERSY. 

In the time of Sir T. Smith and Sir J. Cheke, there was 
a celebrated dispute concerning the proper pronunciation of 
the Greek language. While TljoxA Cromwell was Chancel- 
lor of the University, the newe larnynge gained ground. 
Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester, who afterwards became 
Chancellor, put a stop to its progress. And, how dfd he 
settle this controversy? Thus: he issued an order in his 
own name and the Senate's: the following most singular 
passage is an extract from that order : 

'' Quisquis nostram potestaiefn agnoscis^ sonai Uteris, site 
Grascis, site Latinis, ab usu publico praseniis saculi alienos, 
privato judicio affingere ne mtdeto. 

" Diphthongos Gracas tiedum Latinas, nisi id diaresis 
exigat, sonis ne didudto — «* ab », 4r '* ^b i', sono tie distin- 
guito. Tantum in orthographic discrimen senato »,, i,. ^, 
uno eodemque sono eiprimito. 



6 SUPPLEMfiNt TO THfi 

** Ne m'afkt — In BOrns omnino ne philo^dphcetor^ sed vtitor 

I have he^ of a fia regia trd inrmes arfe$ ef sdeMtias. 
Tkn may be called a Vic^ regia (except that it proceeded 
jfrotn Ibe mouth of a prieat) to iettl^ a leaned question. 

l\ie new method of r^icdhfi^ Greek was aftern-ards re* 
vivied, and is that which tiow prevails ia En^latid. 



The CONTBOVER8T Settled by greek frofessoes. 

Sir Thomas Smith had been Fellow of Qaeen's College^ 
and King's Greek Professor ; Sir John Cheke succeeded 
Smith| as Professor of Greek, and was Fellow of St. 
John's. During Mary's rd^n, as Bishop GarcUner bad the 
power of Chancellor; he could settle controversies. Smith 
and Cheke were indeed in possession of argument; but 
Gardiner, who was not the first man at his pen, could say 
^' Argument, I rebuke thee. Argument." As soon as argu- 
ment had fair play again, it got the better. This memora- 
ble controversy, then, concerning the proounciation of the 
<jreek language, was finally settled by two learned publica- 
tions, viiitten by Smith and Cheke; the former entitled, 
** DelAng. Gr. Pronunciatione : impren. 1668;" the other, 
^' De Ling. Gr. Pronunc. Dispute cum Sfeph. Wintertony 
Roger Ascham called these worthy men " The Stars of the 
University of Cambridge, who brought Aristotle, Plato^ 
TuUy, and Demosthenes, to flourish as notably as ever they 
did in Greece and Italy." There is extant, also, A Ro^al 
Elegy for Edw. VI. by Sir John Cheke. There is likewise 
a Translation by him of Matthew and part of Mark (in 
MS.) in Archbishop Parker's Library, Ben. Col. Hisce 
octtlis etiam vidi in the same library, an unfortunate pr€K>f 
of Cheke's frailty, a Letter to Cardinal Pole, iu Mary's 
i^ign, wherein Cheke renounces Protestantisro. 



X 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 

QUEEN Elizabeth's preceptor. 

Roger Aflcham was Fellow of St. John's, and Univer- 
sity-orator, a zealoos promoter of literature at Cambridge. 
He bad been pupil to Cheke, and was preceptor to Queen 
Elizabeth. He used, therefore, to say, that he had been 
pupil to the greatest scholar, and was preceptor to the 
greatest pupil, in England. 

A MIRACLE. 

In the year 1988, a strange miracle is reported to have 
happened at Cambridge. When the Augustin Friars were 
carrying the host aboiit the town, it suddenly grew so heavy, 
Aat it made two of the stoutest of them puff and sweat to 
support it. — It added to the wonder, continues the writer 
who records this miracle, that, if any layman put his hands 
under it, he felt no weight at all. This, says he, was a 
Roman, not a Catholic;, miracle. Only the clergy knew it. 
They first feigned it, and then felt it. 

ji REASON why MEN should not print every thing that 

they write. 

Thomas Bak^, the industrious antiquary, was Fellow of 
St. John's College. He enjoyed his fellowship till, on re- 
fusing to take the oaths ei^oined at the Revolution, he, 
wi& many others, was ejected* He has left behind him 
forty-two volumes of manuscripts, all neatly written with 
his own hand. He, however, never published more than 
one book of his own, <' Reflections on Learning," (and 
that without a name), except, " The Funeral Sermon of 
Mafgaret, Countess of Richmond and Derby, foundress of 
St. Christ's and St. John's College, in Cambridge, with a 
Preface, file, and a Catalogue of her Professors both at 
Oxford and Cambridge. 1706." His reason might be 



S SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

founded on a maxim laid down by himself, '* tbat, if wc 
had fewer books, we should have more learning/' 

BAKER^S MANUSCRIPTS. 

Baker^s manuscripts relate almost entirely to the Univcr- 
aity of Cambridge. Nineteen volumes of them are now in 
the University-library ; twenty-three became the property of 
that great collector, the Earl of Oxford. Mr. Baker, dur- 
. ing his lifetime, made to him a deed of gift (or sale for one 
guinea) of twenty-one volumes in folio, in his own hand- 
writing ; and the two other volunaes were afterwards con- 
veyed to his Lordship in like manner, and Mr. Baker coo- 
firmed and ratified that gift by bis last will, (dated Oct. 15th, 
1739) wherein he begged his Lordship's acceptance of those 
23 volumes. See Master's Life of Baker, p. 134. These, 
making part of the Harlcian Collection of Maauscnpts, 
purchased by authority of Parliament for the use of the 
' imblic, are, of course, preserved io the British Museum. 

A SERIOUS JOKE. 

Every body knows how high disputes were carried be- 
> tween the Episcopalians and Puritans, in the time of Queen 

Elisabeth. James Pierce wrote, io Latin, one of the best 
defences of the Puritan side of the question, in three part^^ 
^entitled, Findkia Non-conformntarum. The first part, 
among other articles, contains a full account of the contro- 
versy^ between Whitgift, Master of Trinity CoUq^, and 
Cartwright, Lady Margaret's Professor, and Fellow of 
Trinity. The following extract from the Vinj)ICI« is a 
quotation from Whitgift's Address to Cartwright:—" What 
commodities you want that I have, I cannot conjecture. 
Your meat and drink are provided with less trouble and ex- 
pense to you, and in more dainty and delicate manner^ than 
mine are. You do what you list, speak what.yotu list: what 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. , 9 

wottU you have more? I know not why you comptain^ 
except you be of the same dbpositioii as the Franciscan 
Friarsy who, when they have filled their bellies at other 
people's tables, were wont to cry out, and say-—' How 
many things do. we endure P " This passage may be read as 
a joke ; for Whi^ift was Master of Trinity College at the 
time, and, being also Vice-chancellor that year, had de^ 
prived Cartwright of his Professorship and Fellowship. 
Whitgife afterwards became Archbishop of Canterbury; 
and Cartwright, old and infirm, was then thrown into the Fleet. 
Cartwright was a man of great learning, a much-admired 
preacher, and a shrewd disputant. He had been called. 
Malleus episcopalium ; as Richard Hooker, the author of the 
Ecclesiastical Polity, was, afterwards. Malleus Non-^confor" 
mUiarum. But that is the true Malleus^ that knocks a man 

down, exclaiming, at the same time, What commodities, ifc* 

» 

QUBEN SI<1ZABETH's. FANCIES* 

Queen Elizabeth used to call Archbishop Whitgift her 
*^ Little black Husband;" Bacon, when a boy, her ** Little 
Lord Keeper;" and Dr* Dee, (tlie Cabbalistand Alchymist, 
who dealt in the Elixir Vitse, and conversed with Spirits) 
her ^^ Philosopher." These were h^r pleasant fancies: 
her not allowing of, ^ a Major Palatii," was a good fancy ; 
but when by. sending Messages and Orders to the Parlia- 
ment, she was for being Commander in Chief there, this 
was a serious, bad fancy. See Sir R. Naunton's Fragmeuta 
Regalioy and Sir Simonds D'E.we8'8 Journal of Eliz. jPar- 
liament^ 

BooKi relating to Cambridge. 

It has cAen been mentioned, as a matter of surprise and 
regtet, that Cambridge has never produced a wcM*k similar to 
the Atherut Oxeniemes. The surprise may perhaps increase, 
on considering what abundance of materials is actually pre- 



10 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 



pared for tbe work. Among the Engliih hutorical naiiii- 
scripts in the public Ubraiy, are various documents relative 
to the JuriadictioHf the CustonUj and the History of the 
University f together with public papers, and manj carious 
sketches, that would assbt such a desirable woit. There 
have also been published several Histories of the Univer- 
sity, with Usts of its eaoineDt men, one of which, at least, 
is a good one, as fiur as it goes ; and there are some Histo- 
ries of private Colleges, either published or in manuscript. 
The account of the manuscripts also in the University* 
library, and in the private Ck)Ueges, may be traced in cata- 
logues either published, as CataL MSS. Angh, or in manuf' 
scripts possessed by individuals. Dr, Richardson, late 
Master of Emmanuel College, bad, it seems, got together 
many materials for such a work ; and, from his edition of 
Godwin De Prasutibns Anglia cum Aimotationibus, M^7, 
and his List of Graduates in the possession of the Univer- 
sity Registrar, and bis other MS. Roisters in Emman. Col. 
Library, it is probable, that he would have been, at least^ an 
exact compiler. But Thomas Baker, the great collector, 
already mentioned, was at once industrious and ingenious, 
minute and learned, acute and liberal. He was the man for, 
an Athena Cantabrigienses. 

The WAY to initiate boys into the latin language. 

Roger Ascham's most celebrated work is, '^ the School- 
master, or, a Plain Way of Teaching Children to under- 
stand, speak, and write die Latin Tongue.'' This book, 
though left unfinbhed, and now and then somewhat too 
prattling, possesses great merit. It was printed anno 1579« 
Ascham proceeds nearly on the same principle as Posselius 
de Ratiane ^iscenim et dooendm Linguee Latitm et Graxas. 
A. 164£. Posselius, ihowQvnr^ wasa^iend totthe Viiigiila 
obliqua : est emm metm panarum^ s^fs PoaseUua, wkgt 
E^mm^ Not so Asqham. Many, I jinspect, bnve ai- 



HISTORY OF' CAMBRIDGE. 11 

lendy drank at Ascham's springs, without due acknowledg- 
ments to his genius ; and it is pity, that many who tasted 
his learning, did not mend their draught, and grow wiser by 
his doctrine. 

He was an enemy to reading grammars by themselves, 
and labouring at rules without any knowledge of the lan- 
guage. His advice was, that children should first learn the 
eight parts of speech, and the concords, and then proceed 
immediately to practice ; that the master should teach, as 
Ascham expresses it, the cause and matter of hUer^ and 
keep construing it, till the child fully understood it. After 
this, the pupil was to sit by himself, and write down in a ^ 
paper book his translation, without any prompter. This 
English was then to be translated back again into Latin. 
Mikon also was quite dissatisfied with the usual way of ini- 
tiating children into the Latin language, and, to simplify 
instruction, wrote what he calls. Accidence turned Gram- 
mar. 

PBUDENT MEMORIALS. 

Dr. Fuller, speaking of Peter-House, observes, ** I can- 
not but commend one peculiar practice of this College, in 
preserving the pictures of all the principal benefactors in 
their parlour. For, though the bounty of the judicious is 
grounded on more solid motives than to be flattered by the 
fancy, that their effigy shall be kept, yet such an ingenious 
memorial may be an encouragemcDt to a patron's libera- 
lity.** Besides, under such pictures, a distich commonly is 
written, and I will instance in one of die latest date : 

^ Hwredeai volirit SUdns oooMribeie IVMnmiy 
CUii4eret cxtremati ne nne prole diem.'* 

Take with it honest Fuller's version : 

Slede Peter chotc, and fbrhii heir assignM him, 
Lent ke^hoold die, Mid le«ve no chiM befahid him. 



i£ SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

BLANK TERSE lit USE hefofC MILTON. 

Long before the great Milton wrote Paradise Lost, 
Ascham well understood blank-verse, and laid down, in 
party its theory : not that even then it was '^ ^a new-fangled 
singularity." It had been practised in England, Italy, and 
Spain. Upton supposes, that Milton alludes' to jAscham, 
in the short Account of Blank Verse, printed before hia 
poem. . 

In regard to Milton, the fact seems to be this:— From 
the manuscript of his Paradise Lost, written by himself, 
and now in Trinity College liibrary,, it is generally supposed 
by his commentators, that the Poet intended his Paradise 
Lost for a tragedy, in imitation of the Italian, // Paradise 
Jmtsso, He might, therefore, still further approve the 
judgment of some who wrote in blank verse, in Italy, and be 
confirmed in his approbation by the authority of Roger 
Ascham. 

milton's lycjdas. 

While alluding to Milton^s imitations of the Italian poets, 
I am reminded of a translation of his own Lycidas, into 
Italian verse. " Licida di Giovanni Milton, Monodia per la 
morte del Naufragato Eowardo King, Tradotta dall' 
Inglese da T. I. Malthias. Londra, 1812." 

While I am writing these lines, the ingenious Translator 
is in Italy, where he has republished, Componimenti Li- 
rici De' Piu illustri Poeti d' Italia, which were first pub« 
lished by him in three volumes, in London, and, much to 
the honour of Mr. M., the heads of the Italian Church 
have permitted it to be reprinted at their press, and even at 
their own expense. 

This circumstance is here mentioned, because the same 
patronage has been also extended to Mr. Mathias's Italian 
Translation of Lycidas ; but with this peculiar order to the 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 13 

• 

printer, that certain parts should be left out, on which are 
two or three notes very honourable to the Translator. This 
was, perhaps, natnral enough, considering all things, in the 
official character of the persons who gave the order. Yet, 
after all, they might safely have let the lines pass. The 
parts alluded to are imitations of their own Florentine Poet, 
in his Paradiso, from which the Translator makes the proper 
extract in his notes, and says, I doubt not, with truth 
enough, that in the passage — 

B«8ideg what the (^m Wolf with privy paw 
Paily doTOurs apace— 

Taj il Lupo Milton allude all' arcivescovo^ Guglielmo Laud, 

In their own poet, the Wolf stands for the Pope. 

ft 

baker's MANU8CB1PT-HI8TORY OF ST. JOHN's COLLEGE. 

Thb is entitled, ^' A succinct and impartial Account of 
St. John's House and St. John's College, vnth some occa- 
sional and incidental Account of the Affairs of the Univer- 
sity, and of such private Colleges as held Communication 
or Intercourse with the old House or College, collected 
principally by a Member 'of the College, A. 1707." It 
gives a complete view of St. John's House or Hospital 
when a priory of canons regular, proceeding to the founda« 
tion of the college, A. 1511, Robert Shipton bemg first 
Master, and ending with Peter Gunning, twenty-second 
Master, June £5, l66i. It also contains a Catalogue of 
the Masters or Priors of the old House .or Hospital; a 
. Catalogue of the Bishops who went from the College ; a 
Catalogue of the Fellows, from the Foundation of the Col- 
lege to the Year 1546, taken from the Collie Archives, the 
Nam^ of the Masters, and the Admissions, firooL 1545 to 
Mar. 1712* It contains fiirttier, an Account of the old and 
Mw Libraries. In short, it is lis complete a book, as far as 



14 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

it gQ9$p ts cao be well cooceivecl ; evidently MPtitiea after 
much research^ and with great juc^ment, with zeal and al- 
tacfameDt to the college, with loyalty to the civil and eeclesi- 
astical constitutions, with candour and liberality towards all 
parties. A man who lays down a maidm in hia R^lections 
on Liarmngf as we have noticed, ^' diat we should have 
more learning if we had fewer books/' and who observes of 
diat work, '^ that he has ventured to throw in one into the 
account, but it is a very small one, and writ with m honest 
design of lessening the number/' might eanly find reasons 
for suppressing this manuscript, as well as all the rest. The 
reasons that have prevented some able person from perfect- 
ing and publishing this volume since Baker's death, are best 
known to others. Some person, it seems^ had in contem- 
plation to publish it, when Dr* Newcombe was Master of 
St. John's, but was forbidden, on account of some peculia- 
rities contaioed in the work* What those are, this is not the 
place to inquire. 



A SCHOOLBOY^S SHORT SLEGY. 



From PauPs I went, to Eaton sent, 

To learn straightwa3r8 the Latin phrase, 

Where Mj-tbree ttripet gi^en to me 

At QDoe I bads 
For faults but small, or none fkiMllj 
It came to pass, that beat I was : 
5ee, Udal, see the mercy of thee 

To me, poor lad. 

Tmtur Nk. Viai 

.Agunst this sort of sdiool discipline, Ascbam steady set 
his hottest face, it being his opinion, ifaat fmnishment be- 
longed rather to the parent than to ^ ackoolmaster. 

HifloliseivatieQs on this subject are jttdioieiis. ''lUs^- 
fijp^ne,** aays lie, ^ was well lmow« mid diligendj -practiaei 
amcttg ^e Greciana and oM Romans, as appean in AmIo- 
3 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 15 

phanet, Isociates^ and Plato ; and alio in tha comedies of 
Plautus, where we see that children were under three per* 
BOBS, prasceptore, pasdagogo, parente:^ the schoolmaster 
taught learning with all gentleness ; the governor corrected 
his manners with all sharpness ; the father held the stern of 
his whole obedience ; and so he that used to teach did not 
commonly use to beat/' 

' GREEK and LATIN to be read in union. 

Ascham used to say, ^' that as a hawk flyeth not high witli 
one wing) so a man reacheth not to excellency with one 
tongue." This saying, however^ is not accurate : a hawk, 
with one wing, cannot fly at all ; and the Greeks, with one 
tongue, excelled all the world." Ascham's remark relates 
to the union of the Greek and Roman languages. 

Why OBEEK and Roman writers are to be preferred to 

all others. 

Ascham^s apology for the partiality of our countrymen to 
the Greek and Latin writers is very judicious. '^ But, yet 
(says he) because the providaoce of God hath left to us in 
no other tongue, save only in the Greek and Roman 
tongues, the true precepts and perfect examples of elo* 
quence, therefore most we seek in the authors only of these 
two tot^ues the true patterns of eloqnence, if in any mo- 
dern tongue, we look to attain either to perfect utterance of 
at ourselves, or skilful judgment of it in others." 

niSH6P IPISHER. 

ft 

iAak6ng Baher's maauscripts in the Britirfi Museum, is a * 
Lutkiife of 'Bisiaop 'FiAer, written in Baker^ own hand^ 
though he was not the author. • On the cover of the xo* 



16 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

lume^ttt written the following lines, whieb, as Baker's 
name sftSds a little above them, were, most probably, com- 
posed byjiimself : 

* Thomas Baker, Coll. Jo. Cantl 
Socios Ejectus J 

Tene viri tanti cerricem abscindere poBse^ 
Tene cruore pio commacolare manus } 

Si yiU spolias Roffensem, barbare, qaando 
UUam produce! terra Britannia parem? 

Sed tu, ftancte senex, »vo firuiture beato, 
LoBtui abi in cselum — te vocat ipse Dens. 

TKANSLATiON of the above-quoted latin lines on the 

DEATH of BISHOP FISHER. 

Thomas Baker, ejected Fellow of St John's Coll. Cambridge. 

What ? sever such a holy head as thine } 

What ? with thy pious blood defile the hand ? 

Kill RochesUr? Stay, wretch, the foul design- 
Ne'er shall his like be bom in Britain's land. 

But thou, blest saint, so ripe in yean and lore. 

To beav'n ascend;— God calls thee from above. 

This learned and good man was a warm Catholic, the 
great patron of St John's College. He was indicted and 
beheaded, for refusing the oath of the divorce, wd supre- 
macy, of Hen. the Vlllth, that imperious monarch, vAo has 
• been justlj characterized, as a King with a Pope in Us belly* 

DR. farmer's ESSAT on SHAKSPEAEE. 

A little time after the late Dr. Farmer pablished his 
Essay on the Learning of Shakspeare, an ingoiious pam- 
phlet, that ^ttles the controversy Qontoeming the literary 
character of our immortal dramatist, he was visited by 
Dr. Johnson at Cambridge* 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. J 7 

Farmer observes io this Essay, that " an article of faith 
hath been usually .received with more temper and ,conipla« 
cence, than the unfortunate opinion that be defended/' 
Johnsoui therefore, conversing with Farmer, on the agita- 
tions, that this pamphlet had caused among the critics, 
justly admonished him in some such words as these : '^ Fear 
them not, Mr. Farmer ; you have cut off a limb, and must 
expect the flesh about it to tremble/' 



CRAY on OSSIAK'S POEMS. 

Iti the controversy conceroing the authenticity of Ossian^s 
Poems, stress has sometimes been laid on the Opinion of 
Oray, the poet. From two or three letters in the Memoirs 
of the Ufe and Writings of Gray, by Mason, it appears, 
that our great Cambridgje lyrist was not pnly an admirer of 
Ossian's Poems, but, at one time, a believer in their au- 
thenticity. Gray was a roan of research and judgment : it 
should, therefore, be known, that he altered his opinion 
concerning the authenticity of these Poems, though he 
never ceased to admire them, as compositions : but, if he 
corrected his judgment, he did not make a surrender of his 
candour. I allude to Johnson's ilUberal remarks on the 
nationality of the Scotch, in his Journey to the Hebrides. 
The question ' concerning Ossian's poems is now settled; 
they are proved to be inauthentic, Hud-^Maephenonizeil. 

The STRICTNESS of the UNIVERSITY, in regard to the 
v^E of BOOKS in the public library. 

The University of Cambridge has, of late years, become 
unusually strict in enforcing the laws relative to the use of 
books in the Public Library. Even a member of the Se- 
nate may not take a MS. to his room, without a grace ; and 
no member of the University can now read in the Library, 

" B 



18 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

who is mot also a member of the Senate, unless accompa* 
nied by one, who is. The present strictness, contrasted with 
the formefr liberality of the University, should teach certain 
persons the distinction between, Mtum and Tuum. The 
late orders of the Senate wei% the consequence of the nu* 
merous defalcations made at different times, and by different 
persons, from the Public library. Books placed in a pub- 
lic library are a hdif deposit ; and to purloin them is sacri- 
lege* And hence too we may see, how it is, that primte 
vices may, emphatically ^ become public injuries. Others maj 
vindicate this strictness of the University, on the principle, 
by which Bentley, when Kingf s librarian, vindicated has tefo- 
sal of the use of a MS. to Boyle ; <' a MS." said he, << is 
of no further service, when you have squeezed out the juice.*' 

3%S ANTIQUITY of the UNITBB8ITT of OZPOBB. 

• 

It will be fair, as the arguments in favour of the superior 
antiquity of Cambridge have been already produced, to 
give Oxford her turn on this question. As Caius baa him* 
self produced the arguments, under the form of ^seertio 
Antiq. Oxon. Acad, incerto authore gutdem Gymnam^ mud 
Hutoriota Oxon^, sutgoining tiiem to his Antiq. CatUeA, 
I shall here give a translation of a few of them. 

^ Alfred was born about the year 87S. lb appears, that 
the College of the University was founded the first, or, at 
furthest, the second, year after he entered on his reign, at 
which time he applied with all his strengtii to the restoration 
of our AcademiUf which a great many writers call its foun- 
dation. But nothing was more agreeable to this Kii^ 
though, from the very beginning of his reign, always en* 
gaged in wars with the Danes, than to revive the study of 
letters, whioh lay almost extinguished among his subjects, 
amid the cruel and daily storms of war ; and, that he might 
do this more conveniently, he invited round him men emi- 
nent in every kind of literature. He is said to have used as 

1 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 19 

preceptors and counsellors John Erigenas, Wirifrid Grym-* 
baldus, AlquinttSy Asserius of St. David'si Dunwalphus, 
Neotos^ to whom, integrity of life, no less than eminent learn* 
ing^ added great celebrity of name: of whom, Neotus, a 
professor of the monastic religion, was a diligent adviser to 
the Kingi inclined by his own nature to every pious work, to 
restore the schools, that had fallen into ruin by the iniquity 
of the times, at the Ford of Isis; (Oxford, they call it now) 
and to restore, as it were, good letters, that flourished there 
while the Britons reigned, to their ancient seat ; for, it may 
be collected from other histories, as well as our own, that 
there was then at that place a School of philosophers, not 
unknown to hme^ sprung from the ancient Greek philoso* 
phers, who arrived at this island with the Trojans, Brutus 
being their leader. When it* wished to show, that the Uni- 
versity of Oxford was by Cetr the most ancient of all the li^ 
terary institutions in the Christian world, it presently, by 
way of proof, subjoins first the arrival of those very philoso* 
phers (Crekeladas, or, more truly, Grekocoladas), relating 
on what occasion they came here, and in what manner, after 
seeking a long while a commodious habitation, they chose^ 
l^t length, that vilhige, Oxford ; adding, at the same time, 
its vicinity^ and its more agreeable situation. But, in the 
mean time^ it makes no mention of Alfred, whom it cer- 
lainly would not have passed over in silence, had he been 
iihe^rst founder of the University^ &c." 

JOSHUA BABNES. * 

Joshua Barnes was formerly the senior Fellow of Emma* 
mel College, and Greek Professor, eminent as editor of se- 
veral of tlie Greek Classics, aiid skilful in making Greek 
vcffiet: Nifik-nacSt Epigrapis^ and Heroics, were all ali^e 
|0 Uni. In hia ■wx'iK-v^ov he compUmenta archbishopS| 
Mibopsy $mi the most celebrated schoolmasters of bis timf. 

• VkleliGk, Otnnmiuu Bdmiait, 

B a 



ao SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

There are also some maniucript verses of his id BmiiMi' 
nuel College Library, in which he epigrammatizes the Mas- 
ter and four senior Fellows on their characters, size, &c. 
The following is a translation of one, and may be taken as a 
specimen of the rest. 

On the lion *, that ornamented the top of the chapel of 
Emmanuel College. 

Thy lion bright, with tongue of gold', 

Well-pleased, Emmanuel's House, I see: 

If such a rauV thy lions bold, 

What mighty things thy men must be ! 



HISTORY OF BENe't COLtEGE. 

Mr. Masters^ late Fellow of Bene't College, is the onfy 
writer who has published any thing like an attempt at a com- 
plete History of a private college. He justly observes, " It 
must be no small reproach to learned societies to be defi- 
cient herein. Tliey cannot be ignorant of their founda- 
tionS| without being liable to be censured; nor sufier the 
memories of their benefactors to perish, without betraying a 
want of due respect and gratitude ; whilst yet, I fear, too 
many have been negligent in making this small return for 
their benevolence." 

The severity of these observations should, .however^ be 
tempered with the testimony of a well-informed inquirer. 
^* Our registers," says he, '' are so imperfect, that, as far as 
I understand such things, it is hardly possible to give a per- 
fect account of any thing." 

Mr. Masters made his remarks, from a desire to excite 
odiers to undertakings similar to his own; and from the 
same desire they are quoted here. Works of tliis kind are 
Tery useful, and require no extraordinary genius or iearaing. 
Industry, sagacity, the possession of some goiKi feetingiy 

* The arms of the CoUe^, that were on the top of the old chapeU 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. «l 

«nd a free access to the archives of a college, are the requi- 
sites ; and to whom should we look for fhesiy if not to the 
Fellows of their respective colleges ? 

A LETTER of guEEN ELIZABETH'S, recommending a 
WIFE to one of her favourites. 

There is in the University-Library a series of Latin 
epistles, written by Queen Elizabeth ; some of them on 
public affairs, others on business of a more private nature. 
The following letter proves, that the Virgin Queen deeply 
interested herself in the ienderest concerns of her fa- 
vourites. 

'' Elizabet Dei Gratia, 8cc. Nobili et insigni virtute prse- 
ditie Virgini Margaretse Heyld, Amicas nostrae clarissimas, 
Salutem. 

** Egregia, qu» de virtute & integritate tua, turn edam 
non vulgari in nos observantia, iama circumfertur, ^cit, |it 
quanquam oculis hactenns te nunquam aspeximus, tamen 
familiariter hoc tempore tecum his Uteris agamus. Erit 
enim res, de qua scribiraus, non nobis exoptata magis, 
quam tibi ipsi, uti speramus, felix et auspicata. 

** Eum qui has perfert, Robertum Colsbillum, virum, lit 
genere, sic animi virtute Sc fortitudine summa, conspicul^Il, 
pen»ionarium de ftimtlia nostra nobis charissimom, in G^r- 
maniam hoc tempore ad certa nostra negotia non levis mo« 
menti expedienda misimus. Is, ingenii forma, morum tno- 
rum fama sic accenditur, ut nihil esse possit in amore ardei]«> 
titts; quod tibi etiam jamdiu multis rerum notia notissimuvi 
esse conjectura augnramur. Nos quidem honestiasimis ejus 
votis tantopere iavemus, ut rem banc ex ejus sententia pro- 
epere transigi vehementissime cupiamus : eoqne magisy quod 
ceigiigittm hoc in utriusque vestrum commodum iauate et fe« 
liciter cessurum non dubitemus, teque nofinuoqaam in Ang- 



te SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

Itam ad nos visendas (quod nos quidem permultum ezpeti- 
mus) veDturam speremus. 

'* Quantum apud te commendatio nostra ponderia habi- 
tura sity est id quidem in potestate tua ppsitum : jceteram, si 
quid nostri judicii sit, in viro deligendo facere quicquam non 
poteris, quam si nostrum hunc deligas, prudentius, nee in 
rem tuam utilius, nee in famam commendatius ; quod nos 
£de nostra jubemus & firmiter pollicemur. 

*^ Postremo, hoc testamur^ quantum tu commendationi 
nostrse in hoc viro deligendo tribiieris, tantum tibi nos tui in 
te favorb adjeceris, proque tua hac animi in nos propen- 
sione memores nos & gratas perpetuo invenies. Bene et 
feliciter valeas. Oat. Grenovici 18 Maii 1576^ Regni 
^ nostri, 18." 

TEINITT COLLSGB. 

What is it which ^ves Trinity College that superiority^which 
it challenges over the other Colleges at Cambridge i Is it 
the elegance and grandeur of its buildings, the great num- 
ber of its members, the excellence o{ its feUovrshipa, or 
the worth of the CeUege«>livings ? No. — ^It is the excdlent 
discipline, that has been established. Every d&ng is here 
open to competition ; and all the candidates for its emolu- 
ntfints must undei^o a vcary strict examiaatioa in the varioiis 
branches of literature. It has neither pfopriety-fellowsihip, 
nor Gonnty^fellowship. The result must be good, where 
the rule is, iJeiur Optimo. It is something, also, to work 
afier the most perfect models. Trinity Cdlege could 
boast, at the same time, the greatest mathematician, and 
one of the greatest critics in Europe. It enjoys, and has 
long enjoyed, one of the ablest and most respectable mathe- 
maticai tutors in the University, Mr. Thomas J#iies ; and 
Mr. Richard Porson^ who ia considered aa being al the 
head of Greek 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. «3 

t 

SPITAPH in ST. PKTER MANCROFT's CHURCH, til 

NORWICH* 

The following lines are introduced as an example of good 
versification, for the time in which they were written : 

Here Richard Angruish tleepsi for wliom alyre 
Norwich and Cambridge latly seeni'd to striTt. 
Both call'd him loii, ai seemed well they might; 
Both challenged in hit Life an equal right. 
Norwich gave birth, and uught him well to speak 
The mother-Engliah, Latin phrase, and Greek « 
Cambridge with arU adoro'd hii opening age. 
Degrees and judgment in the sacred page. 
Yet Norwich gains the 'vantage of the strife, 
WhUes tbeie he ended, where b^gun his life. 

I know not who composed this Epitaph. The subject of 
it was, Richard Anguish, B. D.^ who was bom at Norwich, 
and became M. A. at Cambridge in 1606. The monument 
is dated Sept. xxiv. AnnO Domini l6l6. 

MAGDALBN COLLBOE. 

The members of Magdalen College had been long dis- 
tinguished for their attachment to the doctrines of the 
Thirty-nine Articles, in their literal and grammatical sense. 
This character is now passing over to Queen's College, un- 
der the government of Dr. Isaac Milner. The Pepysian 
Library, belonging to Magdalen College, contains a rich 
collection 6f old English books. It has this significant 
motto over it, Mem cujusque it est Qui$que; The mind 
is the Man. The Latin is quaint, but the sentament is an 
admirable motto for an old library :— A collection of books 
is the soul of departed authors. 

Mr. William Parish, a member of this College, and 
formerlv snalbematical tutor, has the merit of having esta- 



2^ SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

blished a course of very useful lectures, which he delivers 
himself. After a diligent attention to the different manufiic- 
tures of this country, he made models of the various ma- 
chines and instruments employed in them. These he works, 
and exhibits the whole process carried on in our several ma- 
nufactories. The aim of Mr. Parish is to unite theoiy and 
practice, to bring philosophy from schools and colleges into 
the concerns of active life. — ^lliis is, to deserve weJJ of the 
Community. 

WHAT is a FBLLOW of COLLEGE ? 

Edmund Gumey, B. D. was Rector of Edgefield, in 
Norfolk, formerly a Fellow of Bene't College. He was a 
man of humour, and stories of him were long recorded in 
the neighbourhood of his living. When he held a fellowship, 
the Master of the College had a desire to get possession of 
the Fellows' garden for himself. The rest of the Fellows 
, resigned their keys, but Gurney resisted both his threats and 

entreaties ; and refused to part with his key. '' The other 
Fellows," said the/ Master, *' have delivered up their keys/' 
'^ Then, Master," said Gufney, ^ pray keep them, and you 
and I will keep all the other Fellows out." — ^ Sir," conti- 
nued the Master, " am not I your Master ?'* — ** Granted," 

_ • • • 

said Gumey, " but am not I your Fellow?" 



MR. GILBERT WAKEFIELD. 



The late learned Mr. Gilbert Wakefield, formerly Fellow 
of Jesus College, being once asked his opinion of the 
poetry of Mr. Pye, the Laureat, replied, that he had read 
some of Mr. Pye's Poems, of which he thought very hand- 
somely. But being still further ufged'to give his opioioo of 
an Ode that had just appeared in the public prints, he de^ 
sired a friend to read it to him. The Introdhction contained 
something about the singing of hitds : Wakefield abrupdy 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. M 

stopped his fneod, and gave his opinion as follows, in allu- 
aion to the Poet-Laureat's name : 

And when the Pye wbm opened. 

The Birds began to sing : 
And was not this a dainty disbi 

To set before the King ? 

bene't college. 

Bene^t College seems to have produced a greater number 
of prelates, aud a greater number of confessors for Puri- 
tanism, in proportion to its size, than any other college at 
Cambridge. Arclibishops Parker, Sterne*, and Tenison; 
Bishops Ugon, Fletcher, Gunning, Greene, Bradford, 
Mawson, Sydal, Goodryke, Goodrich, or Gootberic, Wo- 
mack, and the late Bishop Yorke, were all of Bene't 
College. On the other hand, some of the Masters were 
Puritans. Mr. Robert Browne, who gave denomination to 
the Brownists, was, according to some, educated at Bene't. 
One of the Fellows, Francis Kett, A. M. suffered death for 
certain doctrines, in the Castle Ditches at Norwich ; and Mr. 
Henry Barrow, and Mr. John Greenwood, both of this 
College, after enduring hunger, cold, and nakedness in pri* 
son, were executed at Tyburn. Barrow was a man of 
some talents and learning, author of a book, intitled, The 
History of False Churches, and other Treatises. Of this 
College ^Iso was Arthur Ashley Sykes, author of many 
theological works of character, but no hearty friend to the 
present ecclesiastical establishment, at least, not of the Cor- "^ 

poration and Test Acts. Pembroke Hall, however, has 
been called. Collegium Episcopale, 



GABRICK, 

A late Fellow of Peter-House, was unhappily deranged 
* FeK^ere; A. 1683 made Masler of Jettti Collie. 



fi6 8UPPLBMENT TO THE 

in bis iQteUecttf. The foUowing lines, written by ban, bsie 
been justly admired, and afford proof that he was not deati- 
tate of genius. 

The town bat fbviid #iitdiff'r0Bt vayt. 

To praise its diff'rent iiean i 
To Barry it givei load hozzas. 

To Garrick only tears. 



TItANSLATION of QUEEN ELIZABETH'S LETTER; 

see p. 2,1. 

^' Elizabeth, by the Grace of God, &c. to die Noble 
Virgin, endued with distinguished virtue, Mai^aret Heyld, 
our most illustrious friend, greeting. The great fame which 
is spread about of your virtue and integrity, aod also of 
your no common respect for us, occasions, though we have 
not seen you with our eyes, that we treat with you, at this 
time, in a familiar mauner by these letters; for the afiair, 
concerning which we write, will not be more desirable to us, 
than, as we hope, happy and auspicious to you* 

'' We have, at this time, sent into Germany the bearer of 
these, Robert Colshill, a gentleman distinguished for his 
family, and also for tlie virtue and consummate fortitude of 
his mind, a pensionary of our family, very dear to us, to 
transact business of ours of no light momenl. He is so in- 
flamed with the bent of your genius, with the celebrity of 
your morals, that there can be no ardour in love that be 
does not possess; which, indeed, we conjecture before* 
hand, has been long very well known to you by many 
tokens. We indeed are so favourably disposed to his most . 
honourable wishes, as very earnestly to desire that this affiur 
may have a favourable issue, ac(X>rding to his prayers, and 
so much the rather, because we can have no doubt that the 
marriage will turn out fortunately and happily for the advan- 
tage of you both; and because we entertain a h«|>e diat you 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. £7 

rill, some time or other, come into EngUnd^ and pay va a 
visit (wbicli indeed we very much desire). 

*' What weight our recommendatioii may have with jou^ 
will rest entirely in your own power. But, if we have any 
judgment, you will not be able, in choosing a husband, to 
do aij} thing more pnidenti more useful in point of inte- 
rest, or more calculated to advance your reputation, than to 
choose the man of our recommendation ;— all which we have 
good confidence in, and firmly promise to ourselves. 

^ Lastly, we testify, as much weight as you give to our 
recommendation in choosing this husband, so much of our 
favour will you add to yourself; and, for this your iacGna* 
tion of nund towards us, you shall always find us mindful and 
grateful. Health and happiness to you. Given at Green- 
wich, May 18| 1576, in the eighteenth year of our reign." 

The introduction of the aboye letter is in the style in 
which letters on public business are usually written. I 
therefore asked a friend to whom 1 read the letter, whether 
he did not think the language too official for the occasion? 
He replied, if it was not too official, h must be aUowed to 
have been very fffidoiu. 

AmCHBISnOY PABKBR^S LIBRABT. 

Dr. Fuller, in his History of Cambri(%e, styles the ool» 
lection of manusciipti asd books, left by Archbishop Ar- 
ker to Bene't College, '' The Sun of English Antiquity^ 
before it was ecBpeed by that of Sir Robert Cotton.'* 

There is in this cottection a letter from the iVivy Goooeil, 
signifying her Majesty's pleasure, that the Archbishop or 
his deputies shouU be permitted to peruse all the records be- 
longing to the dissolved monasteries. Thb letter is dated 
Hoiratd Place, July, 1A68, printed and attested by I. In- 
cent, notnry^poblie. There is also the same letter, pmha- 
Uy the original, says Nasmtth, luit the signatures are all cnt 
off. in Nasnudi's eiceUent Cnlilogae, this letter conies 



n 



€8 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

under the head CXIV. in a Codex Chartauus, in folio, cui 
Titulus, Epistoite Principum. 

This most valbable collection forms the library of which 
we are now speaking. Parker, previously to his being ad- 
vanced to the see of Canterbury, had been Master of this 
College. The original letter of Henry VIII. recommeDd- 
ing him to this oflSce, is among the manuscripts of tiie 
LilH-ary. 

DIFFICULTY of OCCeSS tO PARKER'S LIBRARY. 

« 

The difficulty of access to this Library is in proportion to 
the value of the contents. It is subjected to the following 
regulations. Every Fellow takes an oath, that he will not 
injure the books ; and there is a limited time for consulting 
them, viz. from eight to eleven o'clock in the mormng,' 
and from one to four in the afternoon, during the winter^; 
and from, six to eleven, and from one to five, in the sum* 
mer. No one is permitted to take any book out 
of die college : the^ Master, however, may have three at 
once at his lodge, but no more ; or die same number may 
be taken to a Fellow's apartments, to be consulted or co- 
pied. The Masters of Gonville and Cuus College and 
Trinity Hall, make a yearly inspection of the Library, on 
-the 6th of August, when they dine with the Society. The 
penalty for every leaf of a manuscript that may be missii^ 
is foucpence ; for every sheet two shillings. If any book or 
manuscript shall be missing, die supervisors may inffict 
what punishment they please, unless the book is restored 
within six weeks. But, if six manuscripts in. folio, e%htia 
quarto, and twelve of a smaller size, are lost, and not re- 
stored within six months, then the whole library, and the 
plate, which he left, are forfeited to Gonville and Gaius 
College. In case the latter proves equally iaulty, they go 
to Trinity Hall; and, if Trinity Hall should be in de&ult^ 
both the plate and the library revert in the same order. 



' HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 

' The monks sometimes thought, that the most effectual 
yrny to secure a curious book, was, to deliver the thief over 
to the devil. After an inscription in a manuscript formerly 
belonging to a monastery, and now in this Library, is the 
following malediction: — Quern titttium quicunque frauda* 
lenter deleverit, librumque ab e&dem ecckrid alienaverit, de^ 
Uat eum Deus de libro Fitas ;^^t anathemateferiatur, — ^A 
Fragmentum libri primi contra Symnachum is accompanied 
with the following verses : 

Hunc qQicun()ue libram Aedhelmo depreiserii almo, 
Damnatus semper maneas cam sorte malorum. 
Sit pietate Dei sine, qai vel portet ab isto 
C«Dobio librum Aedhelmi huoc Tel Tendere tempteu 

The terms of the archbishop were more gentle, but yet, 
perhaps unnecessarily strict. These manuscripts are of the 
eleventh, twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth, fifteenth, and six- 
teenth centuries. Some are as old as the tenth, ninth, and 
eighth. They relate to the writings of the Fathers and 
school-divinity; to civil and ecclesiastical matters; to the 
concerns of various religious housf^, of the University, &c. 
A few of them are in the old Saxon character. 

OLD PRINTBD BOOKS. 

One of the oldest printed books in the University is in 
Emmanuel College- Library, which contains one of the 
best collections of printed books at Cambridge. This is a 
copy of Tully's Offices, printed at Mentz, by Fust; or 
Faust, anno 1465 — arte quadam perpulchra, as the printer 
expresses it. There is another copy of the same book, by 
the same printer, in die Public Library, an. 1466; both of 
them resemble the written books of those times. There are 
also in the Public Library two volumes printed a very few 
years after the preceding; and it is surprising to observe how 
nearly they approach to the elegance of modern printing; so 
that the art of printing, that most invaluable invention, most 



30 gUPPLEMENT TO THE 

lisve arrived at perfection almost at ooce* Bat die oMesi 
IMfiiited book of all at Cambridge is the CATBOLicoir 
printed anno 1460. 

The most curious printed book is, perhaps, the Chwncom 
ChvmeoTum of Hartman Scbedel, printed at Nurembui^h^ 
anno 1493. Of this there are four copies at least at Cam- 
bridge. Two of these are in the Public Library, one in 
St. John's ; but the most remarkable belongs to TriDity Col* 
lege. There are various paintings in i^ and m folio 
CLXXXIII. are representations of the emperors, seven 
electors, princes, and counts of the German empire, vrith 
their arms painted. At folio CfcLXL is a monstrous pic- 
ture of Antichrist, with seven heads, and almost as many 
colours, with an inscription in manuscript on the pedestal. 
In folio CCLXII. is another picture of Antichrist wifii 
the following lines on the opposite page : 

JudieabitJudiceB Judex generalise 
Nee nihil proderit dignitM papalit | 

Sive sit episoopns live cardiaalis, 
Eeus Qondemnabitur, nee dicetnr qoalis t 

Kec nihil proBerit quicquam allegai«r 
Meque exeipere neque replicar^ 
Nee ad apostolicam sedem appellate j 

Bent condemnabitnr, necdieetor qnare. 
Comitate miseri qui et qnales estis. 
Quid in hoe jndioio dicere petestis, 
Idem erit Domious, Judex, Actor. Testis. 

In the Memoirs of Baker by Masters may be seen a «M»t 
complete account of this book. Mr. Masters hioiself also 
bad a copy of it. 



ORIENTAL MANVSOKIFTS. 

Indepeudendy of the great variety of English, «d mcny 
and Greek, manuscripU, of whtdi seTend of the lat« 
ter were purchased at Dr. Askew's salesr there ure, in die 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. SI 

Public Library, many Oriental manuscripts. He follow- 
ing inscription is written on the most beautiful of them : 

*' Prteclarus iste codex Persicus codex auro contra aesti* 
mandus est, turn propter argument! praestantiam, et nitidis* 
simam, qua scriptus est, manum, turn propter picturarum, 
et omamentorum compactionisq. spleudorem atque elegan- 
tiam. 

'< Est illi titulus, Agiaieb Elmakloucot, i. e. Mirabilia 
Rerum Creatarum. Author hujus operis est Zacharia Ben 
Mohammed Elcasuini, ita dictus, quia natus erat in urbe 
Casbin in Persia. Quidam eum cognominant EUKoufi, 
qma oriundus erat ex urbe Koufi in Arabia aut Chaldaea. 

*^ Hie liber contmet longisslmam praefationem, etduos 
tractatus, quorum prior complectitur res a nobis remotissi- 
mas, uti sunt coeli, astra, meteora : Posterior explicat illas, 
qusc nobis proximo sunt, velnti Terra, Aquss, Metalla, 
Plantse, Animalia, Volucres, Pisces, &c. Nee non de Sci* 
entiis occultis, de Telesmatibus et csBteris Magift naturaUs 
partibus. — Salomon Negri." 

Who Salomon Negri was I have not been able to discover ; 
and, the date of the book being inaccurate, I have left it out. 
Sir William Jones, it seems, said, that this volume was 
only a copy, the date of which was 1388. Dr. Harwood, 
die Anatomical Professor, has, I understand, a Persian ma* 
nuscript fiu* more beautiful, and much more ancient, than 
this. There are also, in the library of Emmanuel College, 
twenty different Eastern manuscripts, in the Persian, Ara- 
bic, and Turkish languages, of which there is a critical ac- 
count in the hand«writing of Sir W. Jones : among them is 
a poem of the celebrated poet Sadi, called the Gardens, in 
praise of which Sir W. Jones is very copious ; a volume of 
Hafez's^ the Persian Anacreon ; and a very beautiful Ko- 
ran. 

The Oriental manuscripts in the public library were given 
by Dr. Lewis. This gentleman intended to have presented 
Ih^m to Dr. Aahton, at that time Master of Jesus College ; 



S« SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

but he was advised by Dr. Ashton himself to give them to 
the Public Library. A few, however, that were not so dis- 
posed of, came at length to Dr. Ashton, viho presented 
them to his own college, in the library of which they are 
now lodged. 

TEANSLATION of the above INSCRIPTION. 

This distinguished Persian volume is to be prized more 
than gold, as well on account of the excellence of the argu- 
ment, and the very beautiful hand in which it is written, as 
of the splendour and elegance of the paintings, embellish- 
ments, and binding. 

Its title is Agiaieb Elmakloucat, that is. The Wonders of 
the Creation. The author of this work is Zacbaria Ben 
Mohammed Elcasumi, so called because he was born in the 
city of Casbin, in Persia : some name him El Koufi, be^ 
cause he sprung from the city of Koufa, in Arabia of 
Chaldea. 

This book contains a very long preface and two tracts, of 
which one embraces things the most remote from us, such 
as the heavens, the stars, meteors ; the latter explains those 
which are nearest to us, such as the earth, waters, metals, 
plants, animals, birds, fishes, &c. It also treats of the 
occult sciences, of talismans, and other parts of natural magic.^ 

A list, and it is hoped a tolerable correct one, of MSS. > 
Cant. (Oriental and Greek, principally relating to Biblical 
literature) will be found at the end of this volume. 

dF THE ANTIQUITY OF CAMBRIDGE, AS A PLACE OF 
LEAENING ; A CONTINUATION OF SIR SIMONDS 
D'EWES' speech in THE HOUSE OF COMMONS. Set 

p.^of this Volume. 

And now I come to speak of it, as it hath been a nursery 
of learning : nor will I b^n higher with it than the time of 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. $9 



the learned Saxoa moiMrch, King Alfred, because 1 sap^i 
poee no man will queatioB or gaintay^ but that' there are 
fufficient testimonies of certain persons that did together in 
Cambridge stndjr the arts and sciences much about the 
^e. And it grew to be a place so famous for learning 
about the time of William the First, the Norman, that he 
•tilt Us jounger son, Heniy, thither, to be there instructed ; 
who himself being afterwards Kmg at England, bj the 
name of Henry the Firsts was also suraamed Beauclerk, ki 
respect of his great and invulgar knowledge. If I should 
undertake to allege and touch the records and odier monu* 
ments of good authority, which assert and prove the increase 
and flourishing state of this University in the succeeding 
ages, I fliiould spend more time than our great and weighty 
occasions, at this present, will permit * It shall therefon 
suffice to have added, that the most ancient and first en* 
dowed College of England was Valence Cdlegtf in Cam* 
bridgpe, which, nfier the foundation thereof, as appears bgr 
one of oor Parliament Rolls, remaimng upon record in the 
Tower of London, jooeived the new nasne or appeUafian of 
Pembi^ke Hall. It is in Rot. PmrUmm. deanmas H. 0, 
Nam* 31. It appearing therefore so evidendy , by all (kat I 
have said, that Cambridge is in all respects the elder sister; 
(which I speak not to derc^te from Oxford) my humble 
mdvioe is, tfisft we Jay aside the present question, as well to 
avoid division among ourselves, as to entomb all further 
nnwlation between dm two sisters ; and that we suffer the 
present bill to pass, as it is now ^nned ; and the rather, 
because I think Ontotd bad the precedence in the last 
ef this natura diat pasasd this house," 



nn. ANTnoKT ASKsrm. 



> iTfce laarnrd Dn Asthnny AJew, the physieian, , ncqnifwi 
great reputation at home and abroad, on account of .Us «el« 

C 



34 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

lection of Greek manuscripts, which wss at the tnne more 
miBierouB and more valoable than that of aay other pmmHe 
gientleman in Bngland* His collection also of pdntad 
Greek books, ivhen sold, was allowed to consist of a gnai ter 
irnmber of scarce and Taluable editions of ike classics, tiuB 
had ever before been exposed'tosate in this cotMtiy. 

The manuscripts Dr. Askew pundiased at a considerable 
expense in ther Bast, and brought them with ban ioIq £iigs- 
land* When abicad, Dr. Askew kept anAlbam, which, 
among other teBtimonies to his merit fromdisUngntshedib* 
reigners, contains a few compliments and epigrams, addreaa* 
ed to him by modern Greeks. To one of. these is prefixed 
die following inscription — ^n^or frtxr^AfAitftrwew, >uA wfhfoturww 

tftf iiVarov A^ov^a Bgtravi'tfyj Kvgiov Ktf^iwy, Airvviriev Affj^ttf, i shaJj OOl 

translate this boflibaatac eulogy into plain Eng&b; I 
saerdyqaote the nscription to shew what a wretched state 
of slavery is betvliyed in the very hmgaage of a people once 
dhtingoished above all the nations of Ihe world. fer Iheirlove 
of liberty and literatnre ; for the person who wrote this ai-* 
scriptbn and qpigram was an Adieman, most probably one 
of the best schc^rs then in Athens. Dr. Askew^a Ahmvm. 
is among the manuscripts of Emmunri CoUegt. 



: DA. jCJLAilKB and UM^ CBSP.PS Cf JSSU8 COLIrBOB* 

* 1 • • 

Dr. Clarke and Mr. Cripps, of Jesos College, who have 
done themselves and their eoontiy so nrach* honour, by 
theii^ zeal and perseverance in research, daring their very 
extensive travels, have brought hoOM ft greater variety of 
natural and literary curiosities^ minerals, plants, pictures, 
busts, manuscripts, Sec. than was ever, as is supposed^ 
brought by any individual into England before. Their col- 
lection of Greek manuscripts is said to be more valuable 

^han any brought from die East since the. tine of 'Dr. 
Askew. 



tllSTORY OF GAMBRIIK}!:. 9S 

Great b the pleasure commdnly e^i^rieneed hji travelleri 
fiNuatbe flame couv^liies ivben* accidentally -meetiiig. in very 
ranole regiens ; nor eo«ld it bave beeBa<leM j^lensttiable . 
feeling to thefle getttleoDeja to have paid a laat tribute of jre- 
apectto departed aaiit. When Dr» Claitie and.Mr. Cripps 
were at Athena^ they heaved the ligb ^of ajopathy at the 
graiip of Mr« Tweddlei aod placed over it an ancient stonei 
with a. suitable teetedny^le hi$;woftb» Mr. Tweddle was 
FeUoMT of Trinity College^ a> young mao^ not mote di^tin^ 
gtttshed for. his talents > aod. leanuug, than for his love of vir- 
tue and. liberty^ .H« went ateoad^ prompted by the same 
spirit of literary inquiry aa the aboiire gentlemen^ and from 
the plroof8t>f ability and.aUainments left bebiod him in: the 
Uaivem^y great es^pectations were. A]fmed of his reaearcbes; 
and hie arrival was loOiked forward to with great anxiety by 
hia frienda: but hei fell a martyr to his pursuits at Athena. 
Mr. Tweddle, before .be left Englandi published his Pno* 
LnaioHSa JuvEiiiiJBSy Fra$mm Academkis digniUas, be- 
ing thirteen in number. Tliia volume is as.mifch distin,- 
guished by a liberality of sentiment, as by a classical ele« 
gance of composition|.and afforded a well-grounded expec- 
tation diat the aulim'' would arrive at' great distinction in the 
literary world. 

Among the manuscripts brought over by Dr. Clarke and 
Mr. Cripps, is one of the greater part of Plato's works. 
It is more than gOO years old, and thi^ws ligh(. on some 
parts 'of Plato, deemed hitherto unintelligible.-^Tbese M.SS. 
afjB now possessed by the University of Oxford. 

nn. RANDAiiii'a mubtc to the ode on^tbe instai^latxok 

of the quKE q^. graftoit. . , . 

f « • 

. Gcay*s Ode on the lustaljation of the Duke 6f Grafton 
poas^Bsea g^t poetical beauties, and wouid have been 
more «rfiniff^<l had it not been surpassed by his two master- 
piecM, die Baid, iknd the Progrew of Poetiy. It was set ^ 



36 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 



to wfnkjby Dr* RMddl^ Professor of Music at die ame, 
ami a veiy ridlAil ot|pniist. The Doctor, while conpoeiBg 
it^ regularly attended Gray for three months. Gray Immelf 
possessed a veiy accurate taste iu nusiCy had a Teiy hi^ 
OfMuioti of musical ezpresMon, and weighed e?ei7 «ote of 
the compoeitioQ with the most critical exactness, that it 
might forcibly express his language and sentiments. Gray, 
hafing formed his taste after (he Italian school, was no 
friend to the itoMe of some great composers. The music 
therefore is formed rather on the Italiaa taste ; hut when thn 
Doctor came to the chorus, Crray exclaimed— ** I hate now 
done :— make lis much noise as yon please^'' 

The score of this music in manuscript is still possessed 
by the Doctor's sm, Mr. Edw« Randall, who resides in the 
town; and it is wished^ and expected, that it w31 still be pub* 
lished, it having been sng^ested to him, that it woidd, doubl« 
less, prove highly acceptaUe to persons of taste, and lovers of 
harmony. A sacrifice ought to be oferad to the Muses far 
delaying the publication so long x 

Vor tlKyr aie Isdiei of tiM sveiftMft aateiv j 
Bol, if a«glwted, will 



LIBERTY. 

A genffeman of Cambridge, distbguished as much for his 

wit as for his learning, being once asked the difference between 

orthodoxy and heterodoxy, replied, ** Orthodoxy is -my 

doxy; heterodoxy is your doxy:'' and it would be difficult to 

give a more accurate definition. Hie man who well cnm- 

mines his own doxy, before he believes^ and who treats 

other peo^e's doxies with candour, if not with respec^ un* 

derstands correctly both the theoiy and practice of Qberty* 

Credulity makes Ugots, and bigotrf is the mother of ititoln- 
rance* 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 87 

ft 

KING James's works. 

Among the curious books in the Public Library, is a copy 
of the Latin edition of King James's Works. It is bound 
in velvet and gold, and was presented by the monarch him- 
self to the University. On the binding, the King has writ- 
ten, Jacobus R. D. D. This Latin edition, published in 
I6l9y is a translation of the English edition, first published 
in 1616, by Henry Montacute, Bishop of Winchester, and 
Dean of the King's Chapel. Both editions have portraits of 
die moiuukch from: the same pamting^ but the inscriptions 
•m different, ' The Lati» edition is accompanied wUh these 
lines: 

In Ccr^lo, Hex magnt, tiMBi NAtora figvram, 

ttaffraimnsCTiplitaxprnMiiptetiiM. . ' 

VWH imago prior, non est Docitnra seeunda ; 

Itegi Natman otdare non pnduiU 

Under the portrait prefixed to die Engfish e£tioD, are the 
fbRowing lines : 

Crown«8 have Uieir canpasse, lengtli oT daf a tMr dat^ ; 
Tdampka thair tomba, felicity its Ikte ; 
or more than earth can earUi make none partaker* 
Bat knowVHige makes the kino moat like hit Maker. 

LO&l> BACOlf's WORKS. 

In the Public Library are also some of the works of a 
much greater man than James, presented too by himself fo 
his abM ffiolcr : these ite two vohunes, bound in velvet and 
silver, of the ^eat restorer of id^ilosophy^ Ijord Bac#n; 
IUq first contMJSiDg fail nias books, J>e Digfdtate et Auf^ 
kieitftt ScknHo^um; tfie second, his Nowita Qrgfmufm. 
OppttoSe t4»tketslle»pafaare tbese words, is Lord Baconfs 
bndl: Pfomifcais «b Firti/amtV Fiawmu SuJfbaai, abnm 



38 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

Debiia filii, quam possum, persolvo. Quod vera facto, 
idem et vos hortor, ut augmentis scientiarum strenue incum-' 
baits, et in animi modestia libertatem ingtnii retineatis, ne* 
que talentum a veteribus concreditum in sudario rcponattM, 
Affuerit proculdubio et affulserit divini luminis gratia, si 
humiliatA et submissd religioni pkilosophid, clavibus sensus 
legitime et dextre utamini, et amoto omm contradictionis 
studio qyisque cum alio, ac si ipse secum, disputetis. 

The EDITIO PEINCEPS of LIYT. 

I have already given an account of a few curious booka^ 
4 and some of tbe oldest printed, in the Public Library : under 

that head may also be placed a beautiful and valuable copy 
of Livy, Kfk'Edkio Pri»cep$y (perhaps) .or first edition^ 
put forth after tbe inventimi of printing. It is in tiK'o vo- 
lumeS) folio.' 

At the beginning, Dr, Farmer/ late librarian to the Public 
liibrary, has written the £6]lo7i'ir^ notice : '^ This edition 
was not in the collection of D^. Mead or Dr. Askew^ uo^ is 
it in the King's Library, or any known library in Eiigland. 
The two volumes are worth at least 50l. 

*' Oct.^Z, 1784. R. Faemebl.*' 

These two volumes are certainly fellows, but had been 
separated for many years, at what time, or by what means, 
is unknown ; but 'the history of their re-union is rather curi- 
ous, and will be explained in the following extract of a let- 
ter to Dr. Farmer, from Mr. G. Nicol. 

** I have herewith, agreeably to ray promise, sent the 
volume of Livy ; Md, if it turns out what I hope it is, the 
first volume of tfie book in your pnUic library, I aballbe 
happy, through yoUr mcAtts, to. have placed it there. I 
bought it, a^ I believe I told you, at HoUyn's sale, and 
since that have put, as you see, a new coat on itsbaok. 
Printing types are so very ittudk mtike,: Aat il is Mt easf ^ 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 3§ 

.carry them in the eye, but you will easily discover by compa- 
risoQ. If I judge right, both the volume in the Public 
Library, and this now sent, are printed by Vindelin, of 
.^pire (who was the first^ with bis brother Johu,,who printed 
at Venice) notwithstanding the volumes of nonsense that 
have been written about the Decor Puellarum of Nic. Jen- 
son, 1461. This.will be seen by looking at the end of your 
volume, where you will find the bare date 1470, with a long 
copy of verse«l^ the seventh line of which tuns thus : — 

Et Vindelioo debebis tu quoq. fonnas, &c. 

' But, whether the volume now sent is by the same printer, 
can be known, as I have already said, by comparison' only. 
It is a book of such rarity, that I have never seen it, and 
indeed I know of no copy, but one in the Public Libravy i|t 
Lyons*. It is assuredly the first volume of Livy, with a 
date ; for that of the Bishop of Aleria^ printed by Sweyn« 
heym and Pannartzf, and that of Campanus, pruited by 
Udalricua Gallus, have neither of them a date, and diere- 
fore the printing of them can only be ascertained by circum* 
stances, which at this distance are often fallacious. 
'^ Believe me your obedient servant, 

'' Gxo&GB NiGOL. — ^Strand." 

These two volumes^ therefore, are now^ it is to, be 

* I have perused two copie* of tbif vwry ediiioo, one lately imported l^ 

Mesiie. Longman, Hurst, and Co. booksellers, from Uie celebrated Library of 

Gasparoli, Antwerp; the other from the Collection of Firmen Didot, of 

Paris. There is also one now in the King's Collection, another in Lord 

'Speficcrlik 

f Fa&rioiiu had not «#m this {fim» ^'muptt he ciaUs it), yet gives., ii a 
ds<«, 1470. BibtioUutML Ed. 1721. In the Ubrary of Lord S^ncerAhare 
is a copy, but mtkout a date. Aodiffridi firmly maintains this (printed by 
SWeynbeym and Pannarts) to be ihe'£tftt princeps, EMi. Rnrn. p. 85. Pa- 
htkwmr too, grres dkls&to UdaJtieas GaUoi^ edlCiMis (1471, 1479), wlMi 
,jr^]uM«,n«ae. . Intbetas^ I say, ftrAig^ thal,^ 1470, any be the.Edit 
princepf i but most^rotoftVitis noC 



40 gUPPLEMENT TO THB 

hoped, brought to their proper and last bome-^Pace quu^ 
cant. 

ME. TYBWHITr*« OBACB foT the KEMOVAL of SUBBCKIP- 

TioN at the TIME of taking degbbes. 

^' Placeat vobisi ut illi^ qui munia scholastica id regiit 
atatutb contenta expleverrat, in posteram ribt concesMun 
habeant gratiam pro gradu in aliqaa facilitate scncipieDda, 
etsi tribus articulis in canone tricedimo sexto compTehensis 
non subscripserint ;'' that is— May it please you, that those, 
who have discharged the school-ex/ercises contained in the 
royal statutes, may in future have a grace girasted to them 
lor taking a degree in any faculty, altbo«igh they shall not 
have subscribed the three articles in the thirty-sixth canon. 

THE .PBPVSIAN LlfiBABY, MAGDALEN COLLEOE. 

This collection was made by a gentleman^ who was among 
the first collectors of rare books in this conntry, Samuel 
Pepys Esq. Secretary of the Admiralty, in the r&gon of 
Charles II. and James II. He died in 470t, and bequeath- 
ed his collection to Magdiden College, vrhere, according to 
his will, a new building was erected to receive them. 

Among many other valuable articles here, may be reckon- 
ed the following : some choice prints, the most curious of 
which are the t\( elve Csesars and their wives, taken from an 
original painting by Titian ; fac-similes of the hand-writing 
of distinguished persons, who corresponded with Mr. Pe- 
pys; and various fragments of hand- writing of different per- 
sons, for several hundred years back ; varioosMSS. of MV. 
Pepys^s writing, relating principally to the maritime affiurs 
of Scotland; a collection of old English ballads, to the 
amount of dGOO, in. five folio vobmes, begun by Mr. SdU 
den» finished by Mr. Pepys, and brought down to riie year 
1700; two volumes of Scottish poetry, one in folio, thfe 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 41 

other in qaarto, caRed the' Mmtland Coflectioiis^ die fomer 
in the hand-writing of Sir Richard M aitland^ the latter of 
Miss Maiy Maitland, a daughter of Sir Riehard^a. The 
folio was begun in 1555, and finished in 1585 ; ttie quarlo 
was begun in 1.585, and completed in 1587- ' It compre* 
hends Poems written from about 14W to 1586. 

From the collection of old English ballads, Bishop 
Percy enriched his three Tolnmes of Ancient English Foe- 
try; and from the Maitland collection, Mr. Pinkerton en- 
tirely composed his two volumes of Ancient Scottish Poems. 
The latter gentleman, who diligentiy examined thb library, 
and who is well-read ' in ancient writings, says of it, 
speaking in reference to old English books, ^^ that it is un- 
doubtedly the most curious in England, those of the British 
Museum excepted.'* 



TRINITY At2DlT-ALS« 

A person more distinguished for drinking copiously of the 
liquor of Helicon, than of the fermentations of Sir John 
Barleycorn, was extremely disgusted, on honing mention 
made of Trinity Audit-Ale. ^ Odious!** exclaimed the 
learned gentleman ; *^ can any associations be more offen si ve 
than a literary society and a brewery ? What can TVtnity 
Audit-AIe mean ?*' A person in company, accustomed to 
feel about for analogies, began to set his wits at woit, to 
trace the connexion, and, if necessary, to frame an apo- 
logy for Trinity Audit-Ale. He proceeded thus : ^ Hate 
not the Muses in all ages had their favourite beverage, then* 
water of Helicon, their fountain of Aganippe, their Ple^ 
gasean streams, their Pons Cabalfinus? And why may not 
a learned society have its ale i Have not iPoets, likewise, 
in all ages, and in all countries, celebrated Bacdius, the 
geniaUi cansitor uvm, the planter of die genial vine i And 
wl^ ahould not a learned society ascribe doe honours to Sir 



4fi SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

John. Birleycorar' Ale/' thought he again, '' U a kind of 
compromiie jbetween wine and water* Poets and men of 
fancy are fond of wine, niatheinatici^u and men of pro- 
^liindity drink water. Ale is a kind of link between bodi, 
.where men of fancy and men of profundity may all unite. 
Then again,, has not. every countf;y,..a]imo6ty its favourite li- 
quor f Hence the Spartan broth; .the French soup; Ger* 
jnans have their mum; the. Dutch love the Juniper beny; 
.the Scotch and the Irish are attached to whiskey* Why 
should not a learned society have its ale ? Nay, have not 
people of different professions . their appropriate liquors? 
Physicians love port; sailors punch and grog ; lawyers cof- 
.fee; and^ to ascend as high as possible^ have not the gods 
their nectar?'' 

* 

But away with reveries ! a single fact, well ascertained, 
saves trouble, and demolishes many a system of analogies. 
To the question, What can Trinity Audit-Ale mean! a 
plain answer remains, to be. given* 

To atM^iV is, as every body knows, to close an account; 
.and it is equally well known, that the Colleges possess 
throughout the kingdom numerous estates, which they let Co 
, different tenants. Now, when the tenants come to the Col- 

lege, at the close of the year, to have their accounts au- 
dited, it is customary with the Society to^invite them to 
dinner ; and^ as good eating requires good drinking, there is 
some, excellent ale brewed on the occasion by Trim'Cy CoJ-» 
lege, hence. called Tbinity Audit- Ale. Of this rare 
beverage the Society is by no means parsimonious. A vast 
quantity of it is brewed, and very liberal portions of it are 
.conveyed by the Fellows to their friends in every part of the 
kingdom. The fame of Trinity Audit*Ale is as fu* extended 
as .that of Cottenham-cheese. Who, has not heard of Tri- 
nity Au^it-Ale-? ^ liquor, more penetrating than Dorchester 
ale, and m^re subst^i^al than Bno^N-sTonT. 



> • I 



HISTORY OF CAMBSIDGE. 46 



QRSSK MANUSCRIPTS* 



Montfitucon, io his Pa.laog'bafhia .Gbjeca^ makes 
mention of the Greek Manuscripts in the libnunes at Gam- 
bridge, in the foUowmg order : 

In Emmanuel College, a few. 

In Trinity College, about twenty* 

In Sydney College, a few. 

In Gonrild and Cains, a few. 

In Bene't College^ a few* 
. In the Public library, a few. 

Montiaucon's ' account, however, is necessarily very in« 
complete. Tbb learned man had not examined these libmn 
ries, as he had many of those on the Continent. Besides, 
additions have been made, more particularly to Trinity Col- 
lege Library, and to the Public Library, since the time of 
Montfaucon. The Palseographia Graeca was published 
MDCCVIII. since which time Trinity Library has been en- 
riched with some of the learned Dr* Rich. Bentley's Qreek 
Manuscripts and of Dr. Thomas Grale's. The latter were 
presented to the Society by Mr. Roger Gale, the Doctor's 
son, and include, among several other manuscripts, Pho- 
tius*s Greek Lexicon, which was copied by the late learned 
Greek Professor, for publication. 

The Public Library has been, in like manner, enriched by 
many of Dr. Anthony Askew's and Dr. JohnTayWs MSS. . 
the learned editor of Demosthenes ; though the latter did .but 
accompany those of Dr. Askew, to whom Dr. T. had be- 
queathed them. They consist of Dr. Taylor's own writings 
on various branches ef Greek literature, and on other mattera. 
Dr. Askew's were jdl Greek manuscripts, distinguished among 
whicb. are a copy of .£scby Ws Tragedies, of I^cophioa'a ' 
Cassandrfi and maoy others. 



44 SUBPl.EMBNrr TO THE 



«BBBK IIAMVSCBJPV8 of ikt KEW TEST AM KMT. 

CSodex Bease; or^ a Gcaeco^LatHi Manoaoript of the 
Four GoqidBi and Acts of die Apoadegj prasented to the 
University by Theodore Beza, b the year 1581* 

Cantabrigiensb % a Maouscript of the Acts of the Apo8« 
tles^ and of PauPs Epistles*. Thus manusoript was col- 
lated by MillS| bat more acomitcly by Mr. W^>iey, of ^ 
Christ's GoUegCi for Mr. Jackson,- tfaeChMmolopaL Jsick- 
son bequeathed the collatioD to Jesus Coliege^ of iwfaich 
society he had been a member; and thare it ia presetted 
with his other manuscripts. 

Cantabrigiensis 3 ; or, Codex of Emmanuel CoII^e, l^ a 
M apuscript of all the Epistles^ in duodecimo. It is not of 
great antiquity. Its readings are published in the London 
Pblyglot, and have been thence copied into other editions. 

Cantabrigiensis 4, No. 495, in the Public Library, is a 
Manuscript of the Acts of the Apostles, and the Epistles, 
of the twelfth century. 

An Evangelistarium ; or, the (jfospels divided as they 
were t6 be read on particular Days, in the Library of 
Christ's CoUege. The foHowing notice is written at the 
beginning^ — Boangelia cum Deo singulis dkbus lecta^ incipi- 
eritia die dominico. 

E dono Franctsd' Tayleri, July 24, 1654. 

A Masmscript of the Four Gospeb, pn^hased at Dr. 
Askew's sale for twenty pounds. It belongs te tlire Ptabfic 
librarf, and i» in one voluase, folio : 

A Manoscript ot the Goqi^ls in Oonvile and Cutis 
Library. 

Godex AagiMsitf iir TruHty College Lihrai^. Tfte Greek 
teat is wrttMn in capital orunekl letters, fttr Latnrte Ailgla- 
Saxon letters. It formerly beloiigetf talki Btetky. 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 45 

To these inigiit probably be added a few oiken. 

Of the various raannacripta of the New Testameat iai 
these libraries, there have been more partiadar accouats 
than have been given of the other manuscripts. Wetstam, 
Milk, Oriesbach^, in their various Prolegoaaeoa, and 
others, have gone into these mailers. Some of them ane 
noticed also in tiie Catal. Libr. Mstorum AngUss et Hsber- 
nisB of 1697 ; and in Thorns Jamesii Ecloga OHOBio-Can<« 
tabrif^eosis of I6OO; but the fullest acoomit is contained in 
MichaeKs^s Introduction to tlm New TestamMit; and Mh 
cfaaelis's acoount lutt been considerably improved aad cor* 
rectad by his learned trandator, Biriiop Marsh, die Lady 
Margaret's Profesaer of Divinity. The latler gentlansan ia 
eminently distinguished at Caasbridge for his critical imreatii' 
gation of these matters. 

Of all these Greek Manuscripts of die New Tettamenty 
the most curious, as being, perhaps, the moat ancient Gheek 
aunuscript in the wortd, is the Codex Becsi ; 01^ lleodore 
Btaa's Orsftco-Lktitt Manuscript of the Four Gospels, and 
Acts of the Apostles. Of this Codex, therefore, a distinct 
andiatlier extensive account shaH be given in the proper 
place, and also a large list of Greek M8S. particulaily of 
such as relate to the New Testament. • 

CHAVCSB. 

There is little certainty as to the family and rank ot 
Chaucer; and many other particulars relative to him are 
equally unascertained. It is, however, agreed, Aat he is to 
be reverenced by all ages, as a profound scholar, no less 
than admired as an exqubite poet : 

VvtntioiinriidUi iaCkmcflrtlilU 

Tlw' De«t]i of bym batii wroofht hit wilU 

« A Terf f Iflytnt edition of Griesbach't Korum Tei tamentum Graeci was 
priatad in l^W^ attke estpeale oT tha Dakeof Oraftoii> the Clmcallor of 
Iks Onivssiity, ami 

1 



46 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 



It 18, also, generally admitted, that Cambridge had a tbtae 
m his edttcatioa* It camiot, therefore, be ill-^placed, to 
say soniethiDg here concerning the Father of EDglisb 

Poetry. 

•The foUowtc^ observations apply not to his lifey but to 
hia writings; and I follow the order, though not the lan- 
guage, of a manuscript letter on the Life and Writings of 
Chaucer, in the Public Library. 

Some poetical pieces of Geofirey Chaucer are among the 
firat edited workS; after printing was known m this country. 
William.OaxtoB was the collector, as weA as the printer of 
them. It seems, however, that be did not send them fortk 
in otts. collection. For^ though Stow> observes, that Caxton 
was the first who published the works of Chaucer, yet dus 
observation respects, probably, some poems, printed sepn* 
ralely,.not complete collections of his works, such as were 
made by subsequent editors. 

The Canterbury Tales were first made public by Richard 
Pynson^ fircMB a copy prepared for the press by William 
Caxton: nor can it be collected, from any thing said by 
Pynson, that the Canterbury Tales had ever been printed 
before. Caxtoa and Pynson succeeding so well, and gmii|; 
so much satbfagtion, others were encouraged to proceed 
further, and several improved editions of Chaucer's works 
followed. William Botevil, alias Thione, £sq« succeeded 
Caxton and Pynson. He procured many old copies of 
Chaucer's works, corrected a great variety of errors, priuted 
some things not published before^ and superadded to the 
whole, notes and expositions. This edition was presented to 
the publican 1540, in folio, by Thomas Bertholet, and 
dedicated to Henry Vllf. In 1560, Stow, the antiquary, 
collated this edition with various MSS. some of which had 
been collected by James Shirley, Esq. who died in the 
year 1540. Several things of Chaucer's not published he* 
fore were here added by Stow, «nd two years, af^er he joined 
to Chaucer's Poems somepieces of Lydgate'^t He thee 



HISTOfeY OF CAMBRIDG E. 4r 

drew up an historical Account of Ae Life, Preferment^ Fa* 
milj; and Death of Chaucer, which 'he formed principally 
out of the records in the Tower. From these documents 
was composed the Life of Chancer, which accompanies 
the edition of his works, by Mr. Speght. Some time after 
this, Speght's edition was corrected in numerous places, by 
Francis Thinne, Lancaster Herald at Arms, a gentleman 
well read in English antiquities, and descended from the 
William Thinne already menUoned. Various notes were 
added to this corrected copy, and die whole was communi* 
cated to Mr. Speght. Froni^ these was formed the folio edi« 
Uon of Chaucer's Works of 1602. 

The original letter* was written by Thomas Heanie, the 
learned Oxford antiquary, and justly celebrated too, no(« 
withstanding he was besmeared by Swift in the following 
wicked, witty lines r 

Quoth Time, Pox on yoa^ Thomas Hearoe I 
Whatever Ifovfel, you Icara/ ^ 

Damme ! quoth Thomas, in a pet, 
.AU that I leeru, you. aooa- forget. 

Chattcei..IunKMlf informs us, in^his Coubtb of Lov£, 
that he was a scholar of Cambridge : 

My name, alas 1 my harte why 
Philogenet I cald am ferre and nere 
Of Cihrif e Gierke. 

Several of his Poems, too, were written at Cambridge : 
add to this^ that the learned editor of the Canterbury Tales, 
Mr.\Tyrwhitt, brother of the gentleman of that name men- 
tioned before, was an Oxford man ; so that he had no preju- ^ 

* Since writing the above articte, 1 find that Heame's letter has been 
pthited. It makes the fourfh number of the Appendix t9 Hearne's editron 
of iB«bek%eir Ototte«ster't Cfcroakle* Oxford^ 1794 



48 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 



d iap oti a g faim to gife to Cwnbridge more of Cluiticer, 
tlmn w» properlj her diie« 



MR. BACKHOUSE. 



A Fellow of a Coflege^ whose name was Backhouse, 
(sounded Bacchus), unfortunately, once found a young gen- 
tleman on his staircase) sprawling at full length, being fuller 
of the juice of the vine, than young gentlemen ought to be. 
Backhouse took hold of him, and hauling him along some* 
what coarsely, began to expostulate with him. The jonth , 
was thus brought to his recollection, when, on rubbing his 
eyeS) and feeling Backhouse drag him down stairs, he ex- 
claimed— 

Quo me, Bacche, rapn, tui 
t^lenum? Hor. 

HfR. KBNDAX, €f FBTBm-HOniB, 

r 

The following Imes were written by the aoAor of the JJnetf 
on Garrick, before mentioned. They are in the same yein 
OS the former, and n contiDiiatioB of the same mbject. 
They cannot fail to please orany readers : 

A king } Aye, every ineh a Idnsp-*- 

Sach Barry doth appear ; 
But Oarrick's quite another thing'; 

lie's ev'ry inch King Lear. 

MR. CHRISTOPHER SMART, loic of PBMBROKB HALU 

Mr. Smart) formerly Fellow of Pembroke Ball, was a 
man of genius, greatly admired in his day at Cambridge, for 
bis poetical exercises. His Tripos Poems had peculuur 
merit, and were ali acooaoted wortbj (rf la Engfiik 



HBTORY OP CAMBRIDGE. 49 

latioD. He obtained the Seatonian prize * five times. Tbe 
poema are characterized by a religious enthusiasm quite na- 
tural to the writer, and are still further replete with the en* 
thusiasm of poetry. They are excellent of the kind. The 
sensible account of Smart's Life, prefixed to his Poems, 
was written by Mr. Hiinter, formeriy Fellow of Sydney. 

Christopher was no less distinguished for his Latin than 
his English poetry. He put Pope's Ode on St. Cecilia's 
Day, his Essay on Criticism, and Milton's P Allegro, into 
Latin verse. He ako possessed great wit and sprightlineas 
in conversation, which would readily flow off into extempo* 
rary verse. The following spondiac, on the three Univer- 
sity Bedels, who all happened to be fat men^ is an expres- 
sive effusion of this kind : 

Pingula tergemiaonim abdomina Bedelloram. 

Three Bedels sound, with paunches fat and round. 

D. 

and equal to Joshua Bamea's extemporary venicm of*— 

Three blue beans in a bine bladder. 

PB. WILLIAM BELL, /ormer/y master of oonvilb and 

CkJVB COLLEGE. 

There is a small catalogue of the portraits in the various ' 
libraries^ lodges, and coUege-halls, in Cambridge, edited by 
the present Mr. Kerrich, a gentleman distinguished as a man 
of taste. This, of course, is a useful little guide, though 
it is become somewhat scarce. The reader will find, by this 
catalogue, that the Lodge of Caius contains the portraits of 

* A prize of forty pound* value, left by a Mr. Seaton, to be ffiven to a 
Master of A«ts, who writes; the best potm on a given relisiovs subjest;. 
The poem masthft inEnghthr and the priae is annual. 

D 



50 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

all the Masters, from Ike time of the re4Miildiiig of the 
College, except Dr. William Delias. Who, then, ^ras Dr. 
Dellf And how happebed it, that his portrait was not 
admitted into boimnraUe locietj with the Maaters of 

Cains} 

Dr. Dell was some time Chaplain to Sir Thomas Eup- 
fax's army, author of Sermons and Diaeonnes, in two 
volnmes, preached and printed from between 16161 and 
1660. Dr. Calamy says of him, that he was a '^ very 
peculiar and unsettled man, chalknged^cnr three cootzadic- 
tions: 1. fcr being q^ainst Infant-baptism, and yethatmg 
bb own children baptized; fli. for preacfaii^; against muva^ 
aitias, wIku he held the hcaddi^i of a college; 3. for being 
agunst tithes, yet taking 2001. per anumn, at ins living at 
Yelden, in Bedfordshire.'' 

Dr. Ddl was an enemy to the Pmbyterians : we are not, 
therefore^ to look for the most favourable account of him 
from one of that party. From his discourses, it appears, 
that he was no friend even to vnivemties, at lea^ as then 
constituted ; and that he was the first person in this country 
who wrote against baptism. He was a kind of Quaker. 
He seems, at the same time, to have been a man of talents 
and of piety. Further still, he disapproved of divinity 
degrees, supporting himself by the authorities of Wickliffe 
of Hus, and of Luther. 

His opinion, moreover, was, diat, instead of universi- 
ties, as how constituted, and confined to two towns, there 
should be public literary seminaries in every large town in 
the kingdom. Such were some of the sentiments of Dr. 
DeU, though it is not intended to discuss them here. It is 
evident, from his discourses, that he expected a change 
both in the church and universijties ; diat he v^s waiting and 
wishing for a change, and doing every thing in his power to 
hasten it. And a change did take place, though not such 
en one as was expected by. hinu Tbatchange oaaked Vm 
«Qd his party. Such is the histoiy of Dr. WiUinn Dell; 



HISTOHY OF CAMBRIDGE. «1 

and hence the portrait of Dr. William Dell is not admitted 
into honourable society with the Masters of Gonvile and 
Caius* 

KOBBISIAN PRIZE. 

A Mr. John Norris, fonnerly of Norfolk, left the sum of 
twelve pounds to be given to the anthbr of the best Prose 
Sssay on a Religious Subject. Seven pounds four AiUiags 
of it are to purchase a gold medal ; the remainder as expend- 
ed in books. The Norrisian Professor gives the subject; 
and Ae distributors of the prise are the Master fpt Trinity, 
the Master of Caius, and the Provost of King's ; to one or 
other of whom the Essay is sent by the 10th day before 
Falm Sunday. 

The Essay of each candidate is accompanied with a sheet 
of paper, folded up and sealed. In the paper is die name 
of the candidate^ and over die Essay is written a motto, 
eillMT in Greek «or Latin. The same motto is also on the 
aoaled paper that contains the name. When the distribu^ 
tors have decided which is fbt best Essay, they then breric 
open the sealed paper that encloses the name of the snccees- 
bi cand i da te : (ke other sealed papers are never opened, but 
comttitted to the flames. 

A gentleman* of Pembroke Hall, a candidate, though an 
uoMWcessfiil one, for dus prize, inscribed his Essay widi die 
fbilowing'appropiiale Latin motto : 



Bisticbon ut poscat , nolente, volente Minerva, 
Mo8 facer ? Unde mihi disiichon } £a I peiafO. 

Englished by the same: 

D^itlMmt a d«Ucb, Titfn tfc> «raiioB it ;*- 

Ob ! for a dUticb ! JDoctor, e'en taka ibis. 

I 

* Rev. Mr. PenljrcroM. 
D2 



52 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

ENGLISH MSS. in the PUBLIC LIBRARY. 

The Eoglish MSS. in the Public Library are numerous, 
though not particularly valuable; conspicuous among 
which for number^ and many for worth, are Thdmas 
Baker's, though most are copies, and all copied by bimself. 
These we have already had occasion slightly to mention. 

Of these MSS. (Baker's) there is a catalogue, io flie 
Biographia Britannica, under the article. Baker. The ac- 
count of the Cambridge part of them was wiitten by the 
late Rev. Mr. Robert Robinson, of Chesterton, near Cam* 
bridge. Li the Life of -Baker, by the Rev. Mr. Masters, 
formerly of Bene't College, there is a more copious and 
complete catalogue. 

It seemed, some time since, as if the University had in- 
tended to have perfected their number, a gentleman having 
been employed to copy spme of these MSB. in the Mu- 
seum, for the Public Library at Cambridge. Two volumes 
were transcribed, and are now in the Public Libraiy. 
Tlese were finished ^ about six years ago. This buaio^sSy 
however, and we speak it virith regre^ seems, ttt present, 
suspended. 

Among the English MSS. in die Public Library, are 
also various Letters written by several difttinguisbed persons, 
since the Reformation, many of them members of the (Jm- 
versity; a few ancient Poems, and many Historical papers* 
They have been liberally consulted, and almost all ^ther co- 
pied or printed. Some papers that relate to the Univeruty 
were copied by Baker. 

A Prayer, and a translation of Xenophon's Hiero, by 
Queen Elisabeth, have been thought worthy of being pre- 
served among the English MSS. 1 do not know that faer 
Majesty condescended to publish them. The dignity of 
great princes, it may be thought, consists in governing 
their subjects, and that they degrade themselves in becomiif 
authors. James I. as we have seen, thought otherwise. 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. ' «3 

OB. BENTLET. 

Dr. Bentley was a man of extensive readings and ob- 
tained a substantial reputation by his critical talents. But a 
man's taste is not in exact proportion to his reading, nor will 
his imagination always keep pace with his acuteness. As a 
proof that Bentley was not greatly gifted with taste, nor 
extraordinarily enriched with fancy, .may be mentioned, that 
he is known to have written only one copy of verses *, in 
which is a passage copied from Cowley, though (adds Dr. 
Johnson, in his Life of Cowley) with the inferiority of an 
imitator. Almost every critic of eminence has left behind 
him some lines of poesy, as a kind of testimony, that, if he 
was not qualified to rank among the first performers on the 
lyre, he knew, at least, when the instrument was in tune. 
It does not appear that Dr. Bentley's ears were well hung. 

In a controversy, where his superior knowledge of Greek 
and Roman writers could not fail to give him advantage, he 
gained an honourable and easy triumph. But he stained his 
laurels by his emendations on Milton. Richard Dawes, 
formerly Fellow of Emmanuel College, and afterwards 
Master of Newcastle School, wrote a learned critical work, 
entitled. Miscellanea Critica. He tells us, in his Preface, 
that he once meditated to put the Paradise Lost into 
Greek verse. He finished the first book; but, continues 
he, (and he was allowedly one of the best Greek scholars of 
bis age) cum jam egomet mea vineta aedere valeam^ solaedi* 
mis scat ere comperi; and, as a proof of his unfitntsss for the 
work, he produced the very passage which he had formerly 
printed as a. specim^. It is a pity that the learned Doctor 
bad not practised the same ingenuousness on his Emenda- 
tions. The futility of most of them has been shewn vrith 
ability, though with modesty, by Bbhop Pearce. 

* It mmy b« seen intire ia DodsIey*i Mucelianjf ; an4 if what may be 
tailed a good copy qf v^rteu 



M SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

Dr. Bentley once put forth proposals for publishing a new 
edition of the Greek Teataoieat. There was a world of 
flourishing, vaunting expressions, and a little cant, in these 
proposals. But it was to be Dr. Benilmf^s Gredc Testa* 
mentf to supersede aH other editions, and to be the great lu- 
minary, when the light of aD the MSS. should be extm- 
guished ! If we may draw any conclnsions about Dr. Bent- 
ley^s skill at emendations, from bis emendations of Mdtoo, 
k was, perhiq>8, fortunate for him, and no loss to the world, 
Aat ftis work never made its appearance. Dr. Ckmyers 
Middleton published some stinging remarks on Dr. Bent- 
ley's proposals, and the learned critic suspended his fatboura. 

It IS Dr. Bentley of whom the following story is record^ 
ed : — ^A young man having committed some offimee i^ainst 
the College-statutes, had a copy of Greek verses set him as 
ft pmishment by the Doctor. The yonng man finished his 
verses, and brought them for exammation. The Doctor 
had not proceeded far, before he observed a pass^e, which, 
he said, was bad Gh«ek. The young gend^man, bowing, 
replied, '^ Yet, Sir, I thought I had followed good autbo*- 
rity;'' and, taking a Pindar out of his pocke^ he pointerfto 
a similar expression in that poet. The Doctor was aati8« 
fied: but, continuing to read on, he soon found another 
passage, which he said was certainly bad G^reek. The 
young man took his Pindar out of his pocket again, and 
shewed another passage, which he had followed as Us au- 
thority. The Doctor was here a tittle nettled : but he pro^ 
ceeded to the end of the verses, when he observed another 
passage at the close, which he affirmed was not dassicaf. 
^ Yet Pindar," rejoined the young man, '' vi^s niy autho- 
rity even here ;" and he pointed out the place, which he 
had closed imitoted, '' Get along, 1%," exclwmed die 
Doctor, rising from his chair in a passion, '^ Pindar waa 
very bold, and you are very impudent* i^' 

* I mtu suppoM^ there is some coofiision of paooos Jmi% aad«fl^ 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 65 

MB. CRR18T0PHBK SU ART, fwmerllf FELtOW of PEM- 
BROKE HALL. 

In the following lines the thougbt| perhaps^ is not quite 
original: — ^the writer^ probably, had in his eye a fable of 
JEsop'a — ^but the turn is truly epigrauunatic ; and as tliey 
were not printed in Christopher Scnart's Poems^ no apology 
w31 be necessary for inserting them here. 

On a ma&gnanif dull PoeL By Christopher SmarL 

When the viper its venom Uu 8pit» it is said, 
That its tat heals the wound which its poison had made ; 
Thus it tares with the blockhead, who ventures to write ; 
His dullness an antidote proves to his spite. 

THE MSS. OP MR. WILLIAM COLE, IK THE BRITISH 

MUSEUM. 

These papers comprise no less than sixty volumes, all 
written or collected by the late Rev. Mr. Cole, of Milton, 
near Cambridge ; a gentleman, who, for half a century before 
he died, had been making local observations, and procuring 
materials for a topographical and archaeological Histoiy of 
Cambridgeshire. * 

Mr. Cole left this prodigious collection to the British Mu- 
seum ; but ordered in his will, that it should be preserved 
unopened till twenty years after his decease. That time be- 
ing elapsed, the books were, a few years since, opened, and 
are now become aocessible to the public. 

Cole's papers differ somewhat from Baker's : the latter, 
though they contain a few articles of the writer's own, are 
principally transcripts of ancient records; the former, while 
they abound with collections and copies from public ar- 
chives, contain likewise a great variety of original composi- 
tions. The authors, also, appear to have differed as much in 

MCIettlMtiuirserestoiittie greMest Gresk Seholar of bis as*; the^iSra* 
iM#sr> thtvefoRynoit h« sllowcd a sort of gei^al fa». 



56 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 

their taste and character, aa in the quality of their writiiq^s. 
Baker, though he may he supposed hy some to have been a 
mere plodding copyist, possessed the exploring spirit of the 
antiquary, with the liberality of a gendeman ; he had learn- 
ing, judgment, and good manners. Cole, whatever may 
have been his literary attainments— and it is not intended to 
underrate them — yet could stoop to pick up straws, or even 
to perpetuate scandal ; and with the perseverance of the an- 
tiquary united the minuteness of a parish-clerk^ 

Quin id erat carsBy qao pacto cnncta tenarem, 
Utpote res tenaes tenui lermone peractas. 

Hoft. 

A BROTHER ANTIQUARY'S REMARKS ON MR« COLE. 

The hint relative to Mr. Cole's propensity to scandal is 
not here made for the first time. A brother of the craft, 
Mr. Masters, who^ published a History of Bene' t Col. at 
Cambridge, in 1784, speaking of these MSS. proceeds 
til lis — ^' If, according to his whimsical will, Aey shou/d 
ever be laid before the public. But this, if we may judge 
from his notes on publications, presented to him by his best 
friends, they are utterly unfit *for; since characters formed 
from such strong passions and prejudices as he was perpe- 
tually actuated by, can never be drawn with any degree of 
exactness; and the misfortune is, that these, with all the 
little tales of scandal of the University, town, and country, 
for half a century past, are so blended with his other collec- 
tions, (however valuable in themsdves) they can scarce be 
separated : so that, probably, from this circumstance alone^ 
the labours of his whole life mil be suffered to sink into ob- 
livion, and nothing left to support his memory but that fool- 
ish monument ot bis vanity, ordered by will to be erected 
over his remains. And the attempt to keep these characteis 
£rom the public, till the subjects of them shall be no oaore. 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. 57 

Beems to be peculiarly cruel and oogeuerousi since it is pre- 
cluding them from vindicating themselves from such injari* 
ous. aspersions, as their friends, perhaps, however wiUing, 
may at that distance of time be incapable of removing. The 
above censure may, perhaps, b^- thought severe; but the 
editor, well acquainted with the fickleness of his disposi- 
tion for more than forty years, avers it to be well grounded ; 
and thinks it incumbent upon him thus to publish it to the 
world, to prevent any mischiefs that may arise hereafter fipom 
his unwarrantable prejudices/' 

But it may be remarked, perhaps, by readers, regardless 
of the vemomed bites, or the grave, malignant saws of jea- 
lous-pated authors, that brother-artists, brother«poets, bro- 
ther-antiquaries, and all brothers of the same craft, seldom 
overload the scale with compliments, or can indeed afford 
to give just and full measure to each other. 

Km It^tVt tff^fi flWTllly MAX OMlftf tfllttf 

Kai Ki^afAiVf xifafMt, HiSIOP. 

Priest bates the priest, each poet scomt hit brother. 
And aatiquarief * jostle one anoiber. D. 

However, contrary to Mr. Masters^s expectation, this 
vessel has got into port ; and we shall presently open the 
cargo. 

BISHOP HEWTON'S BEMABK BBLATIVE tO thi BNOU8H 

POETS. 

> 

The following remark is quoted more on account of its 
local reference, the reality of the fact, and its suitableness 
to our present purpose, than as exhibiting any thing wonder- 
ful, or even remarkable, beyond what we ordinarily meet 

*An«coommodatkMii| rather than a tnnslatkm. 



fie SUPPLEMENT TO THB 

vnHk in a» ii^devlal occuitence ; shgIi aa hm» been alreadj 
noliQed in the ciae of the Biabops sad Puritans wbo woe 
educated in the sasie college. 

Bishop Newton obBenFes,. in bia life of MUton, ^^ It k 
ranarkaUej that though the merki of both the UnWenttaet 
tfie perbeps equaHjF great, and though poetical exefcioeeare 
rather nore encouraged al Oxfocd, yet most of onr greatest 
poela hnYe beeu bred at Cambridge, as Speuaei^ Co^fAej, 
WalWr, Dryden, Prior, not to mcBtion aoj of the lesser 
ones, when there is a greater than all, Mflton!" The Bi* 
shop should^ in due order, have chrecled ns first lo Chancer : 
but, guided by the above remark, we vrill steer onr eouise 
amoog the Cambridge poets. 

DE. BICHAR080N. 

Dr. Burton, of Oxford, was once dihbg with Dr. Rich- 
ardson, a late Master of Ememmid, and ecBtor of Godwin 
de PrasuUbtu Anglia: the latter, when die cheese was 
brought on table, like a true Cambridge-man, b^^an to be 
full of the praises of Cottenham* cheese. '^Dr. BurtoD," 
said Richardson, '' jou know we are famous for our Cot* 
tenham cheeses ; and this, I tUnk, is as excellent a one as 
was ever set upon a table?'-— '^ I do not perc^ve,** said 
Burton, ** any thing extraordinary in this cheese. Doctor.^ 
— <' Do you not?'* continued Richardson; *^ I wish y^u 
would send me a better." — '^ I will engage so to do," said 
Bivton; <' and if I do not. Dr. Richardson, I wift eat it"* 

MR. BUBKITT. 



Mr. William Burkitt, author of a. Practical ExpoeitiaB of 
the New Testament, and other neUgions books, was a fiice- 

* CotteDham it a Tillage a liew milei from Cambridst» celebrated for its 
excellent chtese. 



HISTORY OF CAMBRIDGE. fiO 

tbus aa wril as a aeiio«ki man. He mat educatdl at CaaiH 
btidge, and afterwards became Minister of Dedbam, ia 
Essex. Groiog ma Suaday to cburcb, frtxn tb^ lective- 
botts^y (tbe minister's f esideace is so caUed> he net aa oti 
CaoAbiic^e friaad^ wbo was comiag to give hiaoi a call befoie 
serm